Portal:Albania

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Albania (/ælˈbniə, ɔːl-/ (About this sound listen) a(w)l-BAY-nee-ə; Albanian: Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Gheg Albanian: Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːsə]), is a country in Southeastern Europe. The country spans 28,748 square kilometres (11,100 square miles) and had a total population of 3 million people as of 2016. It is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic with the capital in Tirana, the country's most populous city and main economic and commercial centre. The country's other major cities include Durrës, Vlorë, Sarandë, Shkodër, Berat, Korçë, Gjirokastër and Fier.

Albania lies in the southwestern portion of the Balkan Peninsula bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south and southeast. Most of the country is mountainous, including the Albanian Alps in the north, the Korab Mountains in the east, the Ceraunian Mountains in the south and the Skanderbeg Mountains in the center. The country's coast touches the Adriatic Sea to the northwest and the Ionian Sea to the southwest including the Albanian Riviera. It is less than 72 km (45 mi) from Italy across the Strait of Otranto that connects the Adriatic to the Ionian.

Previously in classical antiquity, Albania has been populated by various Illyrian, Thracian and Greek tribes, as well as several Greek colonies established in the Illyrian coast. In the third century BC, the region was annexed by the Roman Empire and became an integral part of the Roman provinces of Dalmatia, Macedonia and Illyricum. The unified Principality of Arbër emerged in 1190, established by archon Progon in the Krujë, within the Byzantine Empire. In the late thirteenth century, Charles of Anjou conquered the Albanian territories from the Byzantines and established the medieval Kingdom of Albania, extending from Durrës along the coast to Butrint in the south. In the mid-fifteenth century, it was conquered by the Ottomans.

The modern nation state of Albania emerged in 1912 following the defeat of the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The modern Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939, which formed Greater Albania, before becoming a Nazi German protectorate in 1943. After the defeat of Nazi Germany, a Communist state titled the People's Socialist Republic of Albania was founded under the leadership of Enver Hoxha and the Party of Labour. The country experienced widespread social and political transformations in the communist era, as well as isolation from much of the international community. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1991, the Socialist Republic was dissolved and the fourth Republic of Albania was established.

Albania is a democratic and developing country with an upper-middle income economy. The tertiary sector dominates the country's economy followed by the secondary and primary sector. Following the end of communism in 1990, the country went through a process of transition from a centralized economy to a market-based economy. It also provides universal health care and free primary and secondary education to its citizens.

The country is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, WTO, COE, OSCE and OIC. It is also an official candidate for membership in the European Union. In addition it is one of the founding members of the Energy Community, including the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Union for the Mediterranean.

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Apollonia (Albanian: Apolonia; Greek: Ἀπολλωνία κατ᾿ Ἐπίδαμνον or Ἀπολλωνία πρὸς Ἐπίδαμνον, Apollonia kat' Epidamnon or Apollonia pros Epidamnon) was an ancient Greek city located on the right bank of the Aous river (modern-day Vjosë). Its ruins are situated in the Fier region, near the village of Pojani (Polina), in modern-day Albania. Apollonia was founded in 588 BCE by Greek colonists from Corfu and Corinth, on a site where native Illyrian tribes lived, and was perhaps the most important of the several classical towns known as Apollonia. Apollonia flourished in the Roman period and was home to a renowned school of philosophy, but began to decline in the 3rd century AD when its harbor started silting up as a result of an earthquake. It was abandoned by the end of Late Antiquity.

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Web resources

The following publications regularly include material relevant to Albania in the English language.

  • Albanian Connection
  • Albanian Daily News
  • Frosina Information Network
  • Library of Congress Country Study of Albania
  • Tourist information

History

  • Jacques, Edwin E. (1995). The Albanians. Mc Farland. ISBN 9780899509327. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
  • [1] A collection of works dealing with Albanian history and culture.
  • Antonia Young; John Hodgson; William B. Bland; Nigel Young (November 1997). Albania. Clio Press. ISBN 9781851092604. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 

Archaeology

  • New publications regarding Archaeology in Albania after 2000. [2] Ancient West & East, Volume 4, Issue 1 Volume 4 of Ancient West & East, No 1 Gocha Tsetskhladze Publisher BRILL, 2005 ISBN 9004141766, 9789004141766 Length 256 pages
  • A summary of Myzafer Korkuti work can be found here [3]
  • Gjerak Karaiskaj [4]

Medieval period

  • Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994), The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 978-0472082605 
  • Mihail-Dimitri, Sturdza (1983), Dictionnaire Historique et Généalogique des Grandes Familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople, chez l'auteur 

Ottoman period

  • Fleming, Katherine Elizabeth (1999). The Muslim Bonaparte: Diplomacy and Orientalism in Ali Pasha's Greece. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00194-4. 
  • Jelavich, Barbara (1989). History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, vol.1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521274586. 
  • Murzaku, Ines Angeli (2009). The Basilian Monks of Grottaferrata in Albania. Monastero Esarchico. ISBN 9788889345047. 
  • Ufford, Letitia Wheeler (2007). The Pasha: how Mehemet Ali defied the West, 1839-1841. McFarland. ISBN 9780786428939. 

Modern period

  • Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (1999), Albania at War, 1939–1945, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 978-1-85065-531-2 
  • Jacques, Edwin E. (1995), The Albanians: an ethnic history from prehistoric times to the present, McFarland & Co., ISBN 9780899509327 
  • Jelavich, Charles; Jelavich, Barbara (1986). The establishment of the Balkan national states, 1804-1920. University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295964133. 
  • Pearson, Owen (2004). Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History. Volume I, Albania and King Zog: Independence, republic and monarchy 1908–1939. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1845110130. 
  • Pearson, Owen (2006). Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History. Volume II, Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism, 1940–1945. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1845111045. 
  • Pearson, Owen (2006), Albania in the Twentieth Century, A History. Volume III, Albania as dictatorship and democracy: From isolation to the Kosovo War, 1946–1998, I.B. Tauris, ISBN 978-1845111052 
  • Rakowska-Harmstone, Teresa (1984), Communism in Eastern Europe, Manchester University Press, ISBN 9780719017056 
  • Ramet, Pedro; Ramet, Sabrina (1990). Christianity under stress vol. 2: Catholicism and politics in communist societies. Duke University Press. ISBN 9780822310471. 
  • Roselli, Alessandro (2006), Library of international relations vol. 29: Italy and Albania: financial relations in the Fascist period, I.B. Tauris, ISBN 9781845112547 
  • Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie; Fischer, Bernd Jürgen (2002). Albanian identities: myth and history. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253341891. 
  • Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878–1912. Princeton University Press. 
  • Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1860645419. 
  • Vickers, Miranda; Pettifer, James (2000). Albania: from anarchy to a Balkan identity. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814788059. 
  • Vickers, Miranda; Pettifer, James (2007). The Albanian question: reshaping the Balkans. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1860649745. 

Society and culture

  • Elsie, Robert (2001). A dictionary of Albanian religion, mythology, and folk culture. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0814722145. 
  • Knowlton, Marylee (2005). Cultures of the World, vol. 23: Albania. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 978-0761418528. 
  • Pritchett Post, Susan E. (1998). Women in modern Albania: firsthand accounts of culture and conditions from over 200 interviews. McFarland. ISBN 9780786404681. 
  • Schwandner-Sievers, Stephanie; Fischer, Bernd Jürgen, eds. (2002). Albanian Identities: Myth and History. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0253215706. 
  • Young, Antonia (2000). Women who become men: Albanian sworn virgins. Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1859733400. 

Albanian language

  • A summary by Shaban Demiraj link [5] The Indo-European languages Routledge language family descriptions Authors Anna Giacalone Ramat, Paolo Ramat Editors Anna Giacalone Ramat, Paolo Ramat Edition illustrated Publisher Taylor & Francis, 1998 ISBN 041506449X, 9780415064491 Length 526 pages
  • Cimochowski, W. "Prejardhja e gjuhës shqipe," BUShT 1958:2.37-53. Supports Illyrian kinship of Albanian. (see Hamp 1963)
  • Cimochowski, Waclaw. Des recherches sur la toponomastique de l'Albanie. LP VIII, 1960.(short version at Hamp 1963)
  • Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997 ISBN 1884964982, 9781884964985 link here [6]
  • Eric P. Hamp The position of Albanian in Ancient Indo-European Dialects Publisher University of California Press link here [7]
  • Shaban Demiraj Gjuhesi ballkanike here the link [8]
  • Victor A. Friedman ([email protected]) Albanian Grammar Victor A. Friedman A version of this grammar was published in
  • Studies on Albanian and Other Balkan Language by Victor A. Friedman Peja: Dukagjini. 2004.the link here [9]
  • Online IE dictionary for Albanian words

Albania news

In the news
  • Albania best backpack country of 2009. [1]
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Selected biography

Marie Logoreci (23 September 1920 – 19 June 1988) was an Albanian singer and an actress in Albanian films and drama. She has appeared in several films such as Skanderbeg, Fëmijet e Saj, Toka Jonë, etc. Marie is also well known for her acting on television, such as her recurring appearances on Gjenerali i Ushtrise se Vdekur.

For her contribution, she has received the highest recognition medal from the Albanian government, the People's Artist of Albania decoration.

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  1. ^ http://travel.blog.nl/backpacken/2009/06/25/albanie-backpackerbestemming-van-2009-2
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