Portal:Agriculture and agronomy

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Agriculture and agronomy portal

Ploughing rice paddies with water buffalo, in Indonesia.

Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates, cultures, and technologies. However, all farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dryland farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising livestock. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture. The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials.

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Flock of sheep.jpg
Pictured left: A research flock of sheep at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station near Dubois, Idaho

Sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Although the name "sheep" applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep.

Sheep are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece, meat (lamb, hogget or mutton) and milk. A sheep's wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is usually harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, and are also occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.

Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, and has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, Australia, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, and the British Isles are most closely associated with sheep production.


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Boumalne du Dades, Oranges.jpg
Credit: Rosino

Oranges in Boumalne du Dades, Dadès Gorges, Morocco

Sustainable agriculture

Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of ecology, the study of relationships between organisms and their environment. It has been defined as "an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will last over the long term:

Sustainable agriculture in the United States was addressed by the 1990 farm bill.[2] More recently, as consumer and retail demand for sustainable products has risen, organizations such as Food Alliance and Protected Harvest have started to provide measurement standards and certification programs for what constitutes a sustainably grown crop.[3]

  1. ^ Gold, M. (July 2009). What is Sustainable Agriculture?. United States Department of Agriculture, Alternative Farming Systems Information Center.
  2. ^ Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (FACTA), Public Law 101-624, Title XVI, Subtitle A, Section 1603
  3. ^ Organic and non-GMO Report. New certification programs aim to encourage sustainable farming.

Categories: Sustainable agriculture, Sustainability

Did you know...

...the American Tree Farm System (ATFS) is the largest and oldest sustainable woodland system in America, is internationally recognized, and meets strict third-party certification standards?
Other "Did you know" facts... Read more...

Agriculture and agronomy news

From the Wikinews Agriculture portal
  • September 14: Scientists claim decrease in hotness of Bhut Jolokia
  • July 28: Scientists analyse effects of global warming, atmospheric ozone on crops
  • September 25: 2012 Report on Gender Equality and Development looks at women's issues in India
  • June 15: Gubernatorial candidate Tom Tancredo comments on North Colorado proposal
More news on Wikinews

Agriculture and agronomy journals

Pen & Earth
  • Agronomy Journal - the American Society of Agronomy
  • Agronomy for Sustainable Development Journal
  • Crop Science Journal
  • Journal of Organic Systems

See also:

  • FAO Documents
  • Organic Eprints- Organic Agriculture

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