Portal:Acadia

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Acadia

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Acadia (French: Acadie) was a colony of New France in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine to the Kennebec River. During much of the 17th and early 18th centuries, Norridgewock on the Kennebec River and Castine at the end of the Penobscot River were the southernmost settlements of Acadia. The actual specification by the French government for the territory refers to lands bordering the Atlantic coast, roughly between the 40th and 46th parallels. Later, the territory was divided into the British colonies that became Canadian provinces and American states. The population of Acadia included members of the Wabanaki Confederacy and descendants of emigrants from France (i.e., Acadians). The two communities intermarried, which resulted in a significant portion of the population of Acadia being Métis.

The first capital of Acadia, established in 1605, was Port-Royal. A British force from Virginia attacked and burned down the town in 1613, but it was later rebuilt nearby, where it remained the longest serving capital of French Acadia until the British Siege of Port Royal in 1710. Over seventy-four years there were six colonial wars, in which English and later British interests tried to capture Acadia starting with King William's War in 1689. During these wars, along with some French troops from Quebec, some Acadians, the Wabanaki Confederacy, and French priests continuously raided New England settlements along the border in Maine. While Acadia was officially conquered in 1710 during Queen Anne's War, present-day New Brunswick and much of Maine remained contested territory. Present-day Prince Edward Island (Île Saint-Jean) and Cape Breton (Île Royale) as agreed under Article XIII of the Treaty of Utrecht remained under French control. By militarily defeating the Wabanaki Confederacy and the French priests, present-day Maine fell during Father Rale's War. During King George's War, France and New France made significant attempts to regain mainland Nova Scotia. After Father Le Loutre's War, present-day New Brunswick fell to the British. Finally, during the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War), both Île Royale and Île Saint-Jean fell to the British in 1758.

Today, the term Acadia is used to refer to regions of North America that are historically associated with the lands, descendants, or culture of the former French region. It particularly refers to regions of The Maritimes with French roots, language, and culture, primarily in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Magdalen Islands and Prince Edward Island, as well as in Maine. It can also be used to refer to the Acadian diaspora in southern Louisiana, a region also referred to as Acadiana. In the abstract, Acadia refers to the existence of a French culture in any of these regions.

People living in Acadia, and sometimes former residents and their descendants, are called Acadians, also later known as Cajuns, the English (mis)pronunciation of 'Cadiens, after resettlement in Louisiana.

Acadie etoile.png More about... Acadia and the Acadian people

Selected article

National Acadian Day is the national holiday of Acadians and is observed each year on August 15, feast day of the Assumption of Mary. The date was chosen at the National Convention of Acadians held at Memramcook in 1881.

The choice of the date was the subject of debate at the convention between those wishing for Acadians to celebrate on June 24, Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day (the national day of French Canadians since 1834), and others wishing the celebration to occur on August 15 in order to stress the distinct identity of Acadians.

On June 19, 2003, the Parliament of Canada enacted the National Acadian Day Act, whereby August 15 was recognized as the national holiday of Acadians throughout Canada. Read more...

Selected biography

Noel Doiron (1684 - December 13, 1758) was a leader of the Acadians, renown for the decisions he made during the Deportation of the Acadians. Doiron was deported on a vessel named the Duke William (1758). The sinking of the Duke William was one of the worst marine disasters in Canadian history. The captain of the Duke William, William Nichols, described Noel Doiron as the "head prisoner" on board the ship and as the "father" to all the Acadians on Ile St. Jean (present-day Prince Edward Island).

Second only to Evangeline, the most well known Acadian story of the Victorian era was that of Noel Doiron (1684-1758). For his "noble resignation" and self-sacrifice aboard the Duke William, Doiron was celebrated in popular print throughout the 19th century in England and America. Doiron also is the namesake of the village Noel, Nova Scotia and the surrounding communities of Noel Shore, East Noel (also known as Densmore Mills), Noel Road and North Noel Road. Read more ...

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Did you know?

  • The area that became known as Acadia was inhabited for thousands of years by Aboriginal tribes, predominantly the Mi'kmaq people.
  • August 15 is National Acadian Day. Choosing this day was one of the highlights of the first National Acadian Convention in Memramcook, New Brunswick in 1881.
  • Both the Acadian motto and the insignia were adopted in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island in 1884, during the second Acadian Convention
  • The Latin song Ave Maris Stella was chosen as the Acadian national anthem in 1884 as well as the The Acadian flag

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