Portal:Indigenous peoples in Canada

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The Indigenous peoples in Canada Portal
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A life-sized bronze statue of an Indigenous person and eagle above him; there is  a bear to his right and a wolf to his left, they are all looking upwards towards a blue and white sky
The Canadian Aboriginal veterans monument
in Confederation Park, Ottawa.
Noel Lloyd Pinay, 2001.
Photo by Padraic Ryan ca. 2007.

In Section thirty-five of the 1982 Canadian Constitution Act, Indigenous peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" are falling into disuse. Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are some of the earliest archaeological sites of human habitation in Canada. The Paleo-Indian Clovis, Plano cultures and Pre-Dorset pre-date American indigenous and Inuit cultures. Projectile point tools, spears, pottery, bangles, chisels and scrapers mark archaeological sites, thus distinguishing cultural periods, traditions and lithic reduction styles.

Hundreds of Indigenous nations evolved trade, spiritual and social hierarchies. The Métis culture of mixed blood originated in the mid-17th century when First Nation and native Inuit married European settlers. The Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during that early period. Various laws, treaties, and legislation have been enacted between European immigrants and First Nations across Canada. Indigenous Right to Self-Government provides opportunity to manage historical, cultural, political, health care and economic control aspects within first people's communities.

There are currently over 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands encompassing 1,172,790 2006 peoples spread across Canada with distinctive Indigenous cultures, languages, art, music and beliefs. National Aboriginal Day recognises the cultures and contributions of Indigenous peoples to the history of Canada. In all walks of life First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples have become prominent figures serving as role models in the Indigenous community and help to shape the Canadian cultural identity.

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Notable Aboriginal people of Canada
"A bust color portrait of a young Aboriginal women, in a red traditional shall with her dark hair tied back ""A colour photo of Robbie Robertson on a stage. He is wearing a purple shirt while playing a six string fender guitar.""A colour bust photo of Adam Ruebin Beach wearing a grey leather bomber jacket."
"A colour photo of Tagaq on stage singing. She is holding a microphone while wearing a red and black dress.""A colour photo of Paul Okalik standing in front of a chalkboard wearing a grey sweater""A colour picture of a smiling Kenojuak Ashevak in 1997 while at work in the print shop."
"A colour picture of Tony Whitford, Commissioner of the Northwest Territories during his swearing in ceremony. He is in a dark suit and white shirt with a tie and a flower in the buttonhole."" A colour photo of actor Tom Jackson wearing a blue sleeveless sweater, zipped to his chin, over a white long sleeved shirt.""A colour photo of Bryan John Trottier while skating with no helmet in a hockey rink in uniform. "

Over the course of centuries, many notable Aboriginal people of Canada have played a critical role in shaping the history of Canada, while others have made significant contributions in every aspect of Canadian culture. Combined with Canada's late economic development and vast size, the country's history has allowed Canadian Aboriginal peoples to have strong influences on the national culture, while preserving their own identity.

First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples have defied every barrier put-forth to break through with remarkable achievements. From words and language, to art and music, to law and government, to sports and war; Aboriginal customs and culture have had a strong influences on defining the "Canadian way of life".

Countless North American Indigenous words, inventions and games have become an everyday part of Canadian language and use. The canoe, snowshoes, the toboggan, lacrosse, tug of war, maple syrup and tobacco are just a few of the products, inventions and games early indigenous North Americans have added to the Canadian and world cultures. Some of the words include the barbecue, caribou, chipmunk, woodchuck, hammock, skunk, mahogany, hurricane and moose. Many North American and South American areas, towns, cities and rivers have names of Indigenous origin. A prime example of this is the word "Canada" it derived from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word meaning "village" or "settlement". The Saskatchewan province got its name from the Saskatchewan River, which in the Cree language is called "Kisiskatchewani Sipi", meaning "swift-flowing river." Canada's capital city Ottawa comes from the Algonquin language term "adawe" meaning "to trade." Modern youth groups such as the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts include programs based largely on Indigenous lore, arts and crafts, character building and outdoor camp craft and living.

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Sheila Watt-Cloutier during a lecture at York University

Sheila Watt-Cloutier, OC (born 2 December 1953) is a Canadian Inuit activist. She has been a political representative for Inuit at the regional, national and international levels, most recently as International Chair for Inuit Circumpolar Council (formerly the Inuit Circumpolar Conference).

Watt-Cloutier has worked on a range of social and environmental issues affecting Inuit, and has most recently focused on persistent organic pollutants and global warming. She has received numerous awards and honors for her work, and has been featured in a number of documentaries and profiled by journalists from all media.

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Nuxalk mask (UBC-2010).jpg
Nuxalk mask or "squXsEn" today located within the UBC Museum of Anthropology's collection in Vancouver, Canada. The Nuxalk Nation (Nuxalk: Nuxálk; Salish pronunciation: [nuxálk], with the 'x' like German ach), also referred to as the Bella Coola or Bellacoola, are an Indigenous First Nation in Canada, living in the area in and around Bella Coola, British Columbia. Their language is also called Nuxalk.
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The Iroquois Confederacy, or Six Nations, was originally made up of only five tribes: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca. The Tuscarora joined later, becoming the sixth nation.

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KI6 on stage.JPG
The KI6 - Imprisoned members of Kitchenuhmaykoosib Inninuwug First Nation, speaking at a protest at Queen's Park, Toronto, Ontario while on temporary parole. Chief Donny Morris, Jack McKay, Sam McKay, Darryl Sainnawap, Cecilia Begg and Bruce Sakakeep


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