Portal:Indigenous peoples in Canada

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The Indigenous peoples in Canada Portal
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Introduction

A life-sized bronze statue of an Indigenous person and eagle above him; there is  a bear to his right and a wolf to his left, they are all looking upwards towards a blue and white sky
The Canadian Aboriginal veterans monument
in Confederation Park, Ottawa.
Noel Lloyd Pinay, 2001.
Photo by Padraic Ryan ca. 2007.

In Section thirty-five of the 1982 Canadian Constitution Act, Indigenous peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" are falling into disuse. Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are some of the earliest archaeological sites of human habitation in Canada. The Paleo-Indian Clovis, Plano cultures and Pre-Dorset pre-date American indigenous and Inuit cultures. Projectile point tools, spears, pottery, bangles, chisels and scrapers mark archaeological sites, thus distinguishing cultural periods, traditions and lithic reduction styles.

Hundreds of Indigenous nations evolved trade, spiritual and social hierarchies. The Métis culture of mixed blood originated in the mid-17th century when First Nation and native Inuit married European settlers. The Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during that early period. Various laws, treaties, and legislation have been enacted between European immigrants and First Nations across Canada. Indigenous Right to Self-Government provides opportunity to manage historical, cultural, political, health care and economic control aspects within first people's communities.

There are currently over 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands encompassing 1,172,790 2006 peoples spread across Canada with distinctive Indigenous cultures, languages, art, music and beliefs. National Aboriginal Day recognises the cultures and contributions of Indigenous peoples to the history of Canada. In all walks of life First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples have become prominent figures serving as role models in the Indigenous community and help to shape the Canadian cultural identity.

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Notable Aboriginal people of Canada
"A bust color portrait of a young Aboriginal women, in a red traditional shall with her dark hair tied back ""A colour photo of Robbie Robertson on a stage. He is wearing a purple shirt while playing a six string fender guitar.""A colour bust photo of Adam Ruebin Beach wearing a grey leather bomber jacket."
"A colour photo of Tagaq on stage singing. She is holding a microphone while wearing a red and black dress.""A colour photo of Paul Okalik standing in front of a chalkboard wearing a grey sweater""A colour picture of a smiling Kenojuak Ashevak in 1997 while at work in the print shop."
"A colour picture of Tony Whitford, Commissioner of the Northwest Territories during his swearing in ceremony. He is in a dark suit and white shirt with a tie and a flower in the buttonhole."" A colour photo of actor Tom Jackson wearing a blue sleeveless sweater, zipped to his chin, over a white long sleeved shirt.""A colour photo of Bryan John Trottier while skating with no helmet in a hockey rink in uniform. "

Over the course of centuries, many notable Aboriginal people of Canada have played a critical role in shaping the history of Canada, while others have made significant contributions in every aspect of Canadian culture. Combined with Canada's late economic development and vast size, the country's history has allowed Canadian Aboriginal peoples to have strong influences on the national culture, while preserving their own identity.

First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples have defied every barrier put-forth to break through with remarkable achievements. From words and language, to art and music, to law and government, to sports and war; Aboriginal customs and culture have had a strong influences on defining the "Canadian way of life".

Countless North American Indigenous words, inventions and games have become an everyday part of Canadian language and use. The canoe, snowshoes, the toboggan, lacrosse, tug of war, maple syrup and tobacco are just a few of the products, inventions and games early indigenous North Americans have added to the Canadian and world cultures. Some of the words include the barbecue, caribou, chipmunk, woodchuck, hammock, skunk, mahogany, hurricane and moose. Many North American and South American areas, towns, cities and rivers have names of Indigenous origin. A prime example of this is the word "Canada" it derived from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word meaning "village" or "settlement". The Saskatchewan province got its name from the Saskatchewan River, which in the Cree language is called "Kisiskatchewani Sipi", meaning "swift-flowing river." Canada's capital city Ottawa comes from the Algonquin language term "adawe" meaning "to trade." Modern youth groups such as the Boy Scouts and the Girl Scouts include programs based largely on Indigenous lore, arts and crafts, character building and outdoor camp craft and living.

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Louis David Riel
Louis Riel.jpg
A founder of the province of Manitoba and a leader of the Métis during the Red River Rebellion of 1869 and North-West Rebellion of 1885.

Louis David Riel (/ˈli rˈɛl/; 22 October 1844 – 16 November 1885) was a Canadian politician, a founder of the province of Manitoba, and leader of the Métis people of the Canadian prairies. He led two resistance movements against the Canadian government and its first post-Confederation Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald. Riel sought to preserve Métis rights and culture as their homelands in the Northwest came progressively under the Canadian sphere of influence. He is regarded by many as a Canadian folk hero today. The first resistance was the Red River Rebellion of 1869–1870. The provisional government established by Riel ultimately negotiated the terms under which the modern province of Manitoba entered the Canadian Confederation. Despite this, he is frequently referred to as the "Father of Manitoba". While a fugitive, he was elected three times to the Canadian House of Commons, although he never assumed his seat. During these years, he was frustrated by having to remain in exile despite his growing belief that he was a divinely chosen leader and prophet, a belief which would later resurface and influence his actions.

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First Nations CEF soldiers A041366.jpg
Elders with soldiers in the uniform of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. ca. 1916..... More than 7,000 Canadian First Nations, Inuit and Métis served with British forces during First World War and Second World War. When Canada declared war on Germany on September 10, 1939, the Aboriginal community quickly responded to volunteer. Four years later, in May 1943, the government declared that, as British subjects, all able Indian men of military age could be called up for training and service in Canada or overseas.
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Between 1996 and 2006, the aboriginal population of Canada grew by 45 percent, compared with 8 percent for the non-aboriginal population.

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