Portal:1930s

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The 1930s Portal

The 1930s or The Thirties was a decade that began on January 1, 1930 and ended on December 31, 1939. This period is most known for the Great Depression, a worldwide economic slump that began with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 just two months earlier. The downturn caused widespread poverty, especially in the United States, an economic superpower, and Germany, who had to deal with the reparations regarding World War I. The Dust Bowl (which gives the nickname the Dirty Thirties) further emphasised the scarcity of wealth. Herbert Hoover worsened the situation during his failed attempt to balance the budget by raising taxes. Franklin D. Roosevelt has been elected as a response in 1933, where he imposed the New Deal. The founding of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the funding of numerous projects (e.g. the Hoover Dam) helped restore prosperity in the US. On December 5, 1933, the Twenty-first Amendment was ratified, which repealed the Eighteenth Amendment, the only instance in the history of the U.S. constitution where an amendment was repealed. Meanwhile, Germany elected Adolf Hitler, who imposed the Nuremberg Laws, a series of laws which discriminated Jews and other ethnic minorities. Despite attempts from the League of Nations, calls for worldwide peace were officially abandoned when World War II began on September 1, 1939. WWII helped end the Great Depression when governments spent money for the war effort.

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Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain (1869–1940) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his appeasement foreign policy, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany. When Adolf Hitler continued his aggression, Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War. His premiership was dominated by the question of policy towards the increasingly aggressive Germany, and his actions at Munich were widely popular among Britons. Chamberlain resigned the premiership on 10 May 1940, after the failed Allied incursion into Norway as he believed a government supported by all parties was essential, and the Labour and Liberal parties would not join a government headed by him. He was succeeded by Winston Churchill but remained very well regarded in Parliament, especially among Conservatives. Chamberlain's reputation remains controversial among historians, with the initial high regard for him being entirely eroded by books such as Guilty Men, published in his lifetime, which blamed Chamberlain and his associates for the Munich accord and for allegedly failing to prepare the country for war.

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