Pope Zachary

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Pope Zacharias redirects here. It can also refer to Pope Zacharias of Alexandria.
Pope Saint
Zachary
Pope Zachary.jpg
Papacy began 3 December or 5 December 741
Papacy ended 15 March 752
Predecessor Gregory III
Successor Pope-elect Stephen
Personal details
Birth name Zacharias son of Polichronius
Born 679
Santa Severina, Calabria, Byzantine Empire
Died 15 March 752(752-03-15)
Rome, Byzantine Empire

Pope Zachary (Latin: Zacharias; 679 – 15 March 752)[1] reigned from 3 December[1] or 5 December 741[2] to his death in 752. A Greek from Santa Severina,[3] Calabria, he was the last pope of the Byzantine Papacy. Most probably he was a deacon of the Roman Church and as such signed the decrees of the Roman council of 732 and was on intimate terms with Gregory III, whom he succeeded on 5 December 741.[2]

Life

Zachary was a wise and subtle diplomat. His predecessor's alliance with the Lombard Duke of Spoleto put papal cities at risk when the Dukes of Spoleto and Benevento rebelled. Zachary turned to King Liutprand the Lombard directly. Out of respect for Zachary the king restored to the church of Rome all the territory seized by the Lombards and sent back the captives without ransom.[4] The contemporary history (Liber pontificalis) dwells chiefly on Zachary's great personal influence with Liutprand, and with his successor Ratchis. His tact in dealing with these princes in a variety of emergencies contributed to save the Exarchate of Ravenna from the Lombard attacks.[2]

A correspondence of considerable extent and of great interest between Zachary and Saint Boniface, the apostle of Germany, survives, and shows how great was the influence of this pope on events in France and Germany. He encouraged the deposition of the last Merovingian king of the Franks, Childeric III, and it was with his sanction that Boniface crowned Pepin the Short as King of the Franks at Soissons in 752. Zachary is stated to have remonstrated with the Byzantine emperor Constantine V Copronymus on the part he had taken in the iconoclastic controversy.[2]

In the effort to Christianize Rome, Zachary built the original church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva over an ancient temple to Minerva near the Pantheon. He also restored the Lateran Palace, moving the relic of the head of Saint George to the church of San Giorgio al Velabro. Also in Rome, some Venetian merchants bought many slaves in the city to sell to the Muslims of Africa; however, Zachary forbade such traffic and then paid the merchants their price, giving the slaves their freedom.[4][5]

Pope Zachary died on 15 March[1] 752 and was buried in St. Peter's Basilica. His successor was Stephen, who died soon before his consecration and is not considered a valid pope. He was then succeeded by another Stephen who became Stephen II.

The letters and decrees of Zachary are published in Jacques Paul Migne, Patrolog. lat. lxxxix. p. 917–960.

References

  1. ^ a b c Miranda, Salvador. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church". Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d Kirsch, Johann Peter (1912). "Pope St. Zachary". The Catholic Encyclopedia. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "Itineraries". Le Puzelle. Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Butler, Alban (1866). "Zachary, Pope and Confessor". The Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints. III. Dublin: James Duffy. 
  5. ^ Stefan K. Stantchev (3 Jul 2014). Spiritual Rationality: Papal Embargo as Cultural Practice. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780191009235. 

Sources

  • Baronius, Cesare (1867). Augustinus Theiner, ed. Annales ecclesiastici denuo excusi et ad nostra usque tempora perducti ab Augustino Theiner... (in Latin). Tomus Duodecimus. Barri-Ducis. pp. 466–562. 
  • Davis, Raymond (1992). The Lives of the Eighth-century Popes (Liber Pontificalis): The Ancient Biographies of Nine Popes from AD 715 to AD 817. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-0-85323-018-2. 
  • Delogu, Paolo (2000). "Zaccaria, santo", Enciclopedia dei papi Treccani. (in Italian)
  • Duchesne, Louis, Le Liber Pontificalis: texte, introduction et commentaire par L. Duchesne Tome I (Paris: E. Thorin 1886), pp. 426-439. (in Latin)
  • Hallenbeck, Jan T. (1982). Pavia and Rome: The Lombard Monarchy and the Papacy in the Eighth Century. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. pp. 39–55. 
  • Noble, Thomas F. X. (1984). The Republic of St. Peter: The Birth of the Papal State, 680-825. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 49–60. ISBN 0-8122-1239-8. 

See also

External links

Acknowledgments

  • Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Zachary". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "St. Zacharias". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory III
Pope
3 December or 5 December 741 – 15 March 752
Succeeded by
Stephen II
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