Pope John IX

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Pope John IX can also refer to Pope John IX of Alexandria.
Pope
John IX
John IX.jpg
Papacy began January 898
Papacy ended January 900
Predecessor Theodore II
Successor Benedict IV
Personal details
Birth name Unknown
Born Unknown
Tivoli, Papal States
Died January 900
Rome, Papal States
Other popes named John

Pope John IX (Latin: Ioannes IX; died January 900) was Pope from January 898 to his death in 900.[1]

Early life

Little is known about John IX before he became Pope. Born in Tivoli in an unknown year, he was ordained as a Benedictine priest by Pope Formosus. With the support of the powerful House of Spoleto he was elected Pontiff in early 898 following the sudden death of Pope Theodore II.[2]

As Pope

With a view to diminish the violence of faction in Rome, John held several synods in Rome and elsewhere in 898. They not only confirmed the judgment of Pope Theodore II in granting Christian burial to Pope Formosus, but also at a council held at Ravenna decreed that the records of the synod held by Pope Stephen VI which had condemned him should be burned. Re-ordinations were forbidden, and those of the clergy who had been degraded by Stephen were restored to the ranks from which he had deposed them. The custom of plundering the palaces of bishops or popes on their death was ordered to be put down both by the spiritual and temporal authorities.[2]

To keep their independence, which was threatened by the Germans, the Slavs of Moravia appealed to John to let them have a hierarchy of their own. Ignoring the complaints of the German hierarchy,[3] John sanctioned the consecration of a metropolitan and three bishops for the Church of the Moravians.[2]

Finding that it was advisable to cement the ties between the empire and the papacy, John IX gave unhesitating support to Lambert in preference to Arnulf during the Synod of Rome, and also induced the council to determine that henceforth the consecration of the Popes should take place only in the presence of the imperial legates. The sudden death of Lambert shattered the hopes which this alliance seemed to promise.

John IX died in the year 900 and was succeeded by Pope Benedict IV (900–903).

Sources

  1. ^ Platina, Bartolomeo (1479), The Lives of the Popes From The Time Of Our Saviour Jesus Christ to the Accession of Gregory VII, I, London: Griffith Farran & Co., pp. 240–241, retrieved 2013-04-25 
  2. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope John IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  3. ^ “Pope John IX”. New Catholic Dictionary. CatholicSaints.Info. 13 July 2013

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "John IX (pope)". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Literature

  • Gnocchi, Claudia (2000). "Giovanni IX, papa". In Caravale, Mario. Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI) (in Italian). 55. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana. 
  • Claudia Gnocchi: Giovanni IX. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Vol. 2  (Niccolò I, santo, Sisto IV), Rome, 2000, OCLC 313581688, pp. 52–52.
  • Rudolf Schieffer: Johannes IX in: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (Lexikon des Mittelalters, LexMA). Vol. 5, Artemis & Winkler, Munich/Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-7608-8905-0, Col. 540.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Theodore II
Pope
898–900
Succeeded by
Benedict IV
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