Pontianak Sultanate

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Pontianak Sultanate
Kesultanan Pontianak
Part of the Dutch East Indies (from 1779)
1771–1950
Flag
Flag
Emblem
Emblem
Capital Pontianak
Languages Malay language
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Islamic Absolute Monarchy
History
 •  Established 23 October 1771
 •  Coronation 1 September 1778
 •  Disestablished 17 August 1950
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mempawah Kingdom
Indonesia

The Pontianak Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Pontianak) was an Islamic Malay state that existed on the western coast of the island of Borneo from the late 18th century until its disestablishment in 1950. The Sultanate was located at the mouth of the Kapuas river in what is today the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, and the Sultan's residential palace was situated in what later grew to become the modern-day Indonesian city of Pontianak.

History

The Pontianak Sultanate was founded in 1771 by explorers from Hadhramaut led by al-Sayyid Syarif Abdurrahman al-Kadrie, descendant of Imam Ali ar-Ridha. He had two political marriages in Kalimantan, first with the daughter of Panembahan Mempawah and then with the daughter of the Sultan of Banjar.

After the explorers arrived in Pontianak, they established the Kadariah Palace and received endorsement as the Sultan of Pontianak by the Dutch East India Company in 1779.[1]

The Pontianak Sultanate had friendly relations with the Lanfang Republic.

Pontianak Sultan Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie was executed by the Japanese in the Pontianak incident along with all the other Malay Sultans of Kalimantan. Two of his sons were also beheaded by the Japanese.

The last Sultan was Syarif Hamid Alkadrie, who was deposed by the Indonesians; he had earlier been interned by the occupying Japanese forces.

List of Sultans of Pontianak[2]

Sultan of Pontianak
Coat of arms of Pontianak Sultanate.gif
Royal Coat of arms
Details
First monarch Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie
Last monarch Syarif Hamid Alkadrie
Formation 23 October 1771
Abolition 17 August 1950
Residence Kadriyah Palace
Appointer Hereditary
Sultan Reign
1 Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie 1771–1808
2 Syarif Kasim Alkadrie 1808–1819
3 Syarif Osman Alkadrie 1819–1855
4 Syarif Hamid Alkadrie 1855–1872
5 Syarif Yusuf Alkadrie 1872–1895
6 Syarif Muhammad Alkadrie 1895–1944
7 Syarif Hamid Alkadrie 1945–1950

References

  1. ^ (id) http://ahmadiftahsidik.page.tl/Menengok-Sisa-Kejayaan-Keraton-Kadriah.htm?PHPSESSID=baaa75b3e0216e11602533722f474e82
  2. ^ (id) http://melayuonline.com/history/?a=bU5WL29QTS9VenVwRnRCb20%3D%3D&lang=Indonesia

Further reading

  • Henri Chambert-Loir (June 1994). "Some aspects of Islamic justice in the Sultanate of Pontianak c. 1880". Indonesia and the Malay World. 22 (63): 129–143. doi:10.1080/03062849408729814. 
  • Mary Somers Heidhues (1998). "The first two Sultans of Pontianak". Archipel. 56: 273–294. doi:10.3406/arch.1998.3491. 

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