Pontefract (UK Parliament constituency)

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Pontefract
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
1295–1301
Number of members 2
1621–1974 (1974)
Number of members 2 until 1885; 1 from 1885 to 1974
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Replaced by Pontefract and Castleford

Pontefract was an English parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Pontefract in the West Riding of Yorkshire, which returned two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons briefly in the 13th century and again from 1621 until 1885, and one member from 1885 to 1974.

History

In the unreformed Parliaments (1295-1832)

Pontefract had representation in the Model Parliament of 1295, and in that which followed it in 1298, but gained a continuous franchise only from 1621. The constituency was a parliamentary borough, returning two members, consisting only of the town of Pontefract itself.

Until 1783, Pontefract was a burgage borough, where the right to vote was attached to the holders of about 325 specified properties in the borough. As in most burgage boroughs, the majority of the burgage tenements were concentrated in a small number of hands, giving their owners an effective stranglehold on the choice of representatives; but, since an individual could not vote more than once in person, however, many of the burgages he controlled, such a majority could only be exercised by conveying each of the properties to a reliable nominee at election time. In Pontefract the two chief landowners in the first half of the 18th century, George Morton Pitt and Lord Galway, owned between them a narrow majority of the burgages, but rather than putting in dummy voters to enforce their control they had preferred to reach an amicable settlement at each election with the remaining small burgage holders, who were mostly residents of the town. Consequently, the inhabitants generally had some voice in the choice of their MPs, as well as benefiting from the monetary outlay that the patrons expended to secure their goodwill.

However, in 1766 Pitt sold his burgages to John Walsh, who persuaded Galway to join him in abandoning canvassing and treating of the other voters, instead bringing in "faggot voters" to enforce their majority. At the next general election, in 1768, the indignant inhabitants put up their own candidates (Sir Rowland Winn and his brother), and a riot on polling day prevented the imported voters from reaching the polling booth. The election was declared void and Walsh's nominee duly returned at the by-election, but the townsmen refused to abandon their quest.

Defeated in 1774, when Charles James Fox stood as one of their candidates, they petitioned against the result, but the Commons upheld the burgage franchise. But in 1783, when they tried again, the Commons abandoned its usual practice of refusing to reconsider a decision on a constituency's franchise, and declared that the right to vote was properly vested in all the (male) resident householders; this remained the case for the final half-century of the unreformed Parliament.

By the time of the Great Reform Act in 1831, roughly 800 householders qualified to vote, and 699 did so in the contested election of 1830; the borough at this period had a total population of just under 5,000. Nevertheless, Pontefract still classed as a pocket borough, where the Earl of Harewood had the effective power to choose one of its two MPs.

After the Reform Act

A map of the Parliamentary Borough of Pontefract as it existed before the 1832 Reform Act (in green) and after (in red)

The Reform Act of 1832 extended the boundaries of the constituency, bringing in the neighbouring townships of Tanshelf, Monkhill, Knottingley, Ferrybridge and Carleton, as well as Pontefract Castle and Pontefract Park, which had previously been excluded. This doubled the population to just over 10,000, in 4,832 houses.

In 1872 Pontefract became the first British constituency to hold a parliamentary election by secret ballot, at a by-election held shortly after the Act ending the old practice of open voting had come into effect. There was considerable interest in the outcome, many observers believing that support for the parties might be drastically different once voters were able to make their choice in secret; but in the event the shares of the vote were much as they had been at the previous general election. Hugh Childers was re-elected on 15 August 1872 following his appointment as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. The Pontefract museum holds the original ballot box, sealed in wax with a liquorice stamp.[1]

The third Reform Act, which came into effect at the general election of 1885, reduced Pontefract's representation from two members to one, though the boundaries remained essentially unchanged. In 1918, Pontefract became a county constituency, with boundaries extended to cover a much wider area - Pontefract itself, the towns of Knottingley and Goole, and the Pontefract and Goole rural districts.

At the 1950 general election Pontefract regained its borough status, being redrawn as a wholly urban constituency consisting of Pontefract, Castleford and Featherstone. From February 1974, the constituency was renamed Pontefract and Castleford, although its composition remained unchanged.

Members of Parliament

1621-1640

Parliament First member Second member
Right to return members restored, 1621
1621 George Skillet Sir Edwin Sandys, jnr
1624 Sir John Jackson Sir Thomas Wentworth
1625 Sir John Jackson Richard Beaumont
1626 Sir John Jackson Sir Francis Foljambe, 1st Baronet
1628 Sir John Ramsden Sir John Jackson
1629–1640 No Parliaments summoned

1640-1885

Year First member First party Second member Second party
April 1640 John Ramsden Royalist Sir George Wentworth (1) Royalist
November 1640 Sir George Wentworth (1) Royalist Sir George Wentworth (2) Royalist
September 1642 Wentworth disabled to sit - seat vacant
January 1644 Wentworth disabled to sit - seat vacant
1645 Henry Arthington
1646 William White
1653 Pontefract was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament and the First and Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
January 1659 John Hewley John Lambert
May 1659 William White One seat vacant
1660 William Lowther Sir George Savile, Bt.
1661 Sir John Dawnay
1679 Sir Patience Ward
1685 Sir Thomas Yarburgh
1690 Henry Dawnay Sir John Bland, Bt.
1695 Sir William Lowther Robert Monckton
1698 Sir John Bland, Bt. John Bright
1701 William Lowther
1710 Robert Frank
1713 John Dawnay [2]
1716 [3] Sir William Lowther, 1st Baronet Hugh Bethell
1722 John Lowther
1729 Sir William Lowther, 2nd Baronet
1730 John Mordaunt
1734 John Monckton
1741 George Morton Pitt
1747 William Monckton
1749 John Monckton
1751 Robert Monckton
1754 William Monckton-Arundell Sambrooke Freeman
1761 William Gerard Hamilton
March 1768 Sir Rowland Winn
December 1768 Henry Strachey
1772 Henry Monckton-Arundell
March 1774 Robert Monckton
October 1774 Sir John Goodricke, Bt. Charles Mellish
1780 William Nedham Robert Monckton-Arundell
February 1783 Nathaniel Smith
April 1783 John Smyth Whig[4]
1784 William Sotheron
1796 Robert Monckton-Arundell
1802 Richard Benyon
1806 Robert Pemberton Milnes Tory[4]
1807 John Savile Tory[4]
October 1812 Henry Lascelles[5] Tory[4]
December 1812 John Savile Tory[4]
1818 Thomas Houldsworth Tory[4]
1826 Le Gendre Starkie Tory[4]
1830 Hon. Henry Stafford-Jerningham Whig[4] Sir Culling Eardley, Bt. Tory[4]
1831 John Savile Tory[4]
1832 John Gully Whig[4]
1835 John Savile Conservative[4]
1837 Richard Monckton Milnes Conservative[4] William Stanley-Massey-Stanley Whig[4][6][7]
1841 John Savile Conservative[4]
1847 Samuel Martin Whig[8][9][10]
1851 Hon. Beilby Lawley Whig[11]
1852 Benjamin Oliveira Whig[12]
1857 Whig[13][14] William Wood Whig
1859 Liberal William Overend Conservative
1860 Hugh Childers Liberal
1863 Samuel Waterhouse Conservative
1880 Sidney Woolf Liberal
1885 Representation reduced to one member

1885-1974

Election Member Party Notes
1885 reduced to one member
1885 Rowland Winn Conservative
February 1893 Sir Harold Reckitt Liberal
June 1893 Thomas Nussey Liberal
1910 Frederick Handel Booth Liberal
1918 Sir Joseph Compton-Rickett Coalition Liberal
1919 Walter Forrest Coalition Liberal
1922 Tom Smith Labour
1924 Christopher Brooke Unionist
1929 Tom Smith Labour
1931 Thomas E. Sotheron-Estcourt Conservative
1935 Adam Hills Labour
1941 by-election Percy Barstow Labour
1950 George Sylvester Labour Died October 1961
1962 by-election Joe Harper Labour
Feb 1974 constituency abolished: see Pontefract & Castleford

Elections

Elections in the 1840s

General Election 1841: Pontefract (2 seats)[15][4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative John Savile 464 40.3
Conservative Richard Monckton Milnes 433 37.7
Whig John Gully 253 22.0
Majority 180 15.7
Turnout 632 88.8
Registered electors 712
Conservative hold Swing
Conservative gain from Whig Swing
General Election 1847: Pontefract (2 seats)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Samuel Martin 415 36.9 +14.9
Conservative Richard Monckton Milnes 365 32.4 −5.3
Conservative Thomas Henry Preston[16] 346 30.7 −9.6
Majority 50 4.4 N/A
Turnout 563 (est) 82.2 (est) −6.6
Registered electors 685
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +14.9
Conservative hold Swing −6.4

Elections in the 1850s

Martin resigned after being appointed a judge of the Court of the Exchequer, causing a by-election.

By-election, 13 February 1851: Pontefract[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Beilby Lawley 427 78.8 +41.9
Conservative John Savile 115 21.2 −41.9
Majority 312 57.6 +53.2
Turnout 542 80.3 −1.9
Registered electors 675
Whig hold Swing +41.9
General Election 1852: Pontefract (2 seats)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Richard Monckton Milnes 433 39.9 +7.5
Whig Benjamin Oliveira 338 31.2 −5.7
Conservative William David Lewis[17] 313 28.9 −1.8
Turnout 542 (est) 79.2 (est) −3.0
Registered electors 684
Majority 95 8.8 N/A
Conservative hold Swing +5.2
Majority 25 2.3 −2.1
Whig hold Swing −5.7
General Election 1857: Pontefract (2 seats)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Whig Richard Monckton Milnes 439 38.8 −1.1
Whig William Wood 374 33.0 N/A
Whig Benjamin Oliveira 319 28.2 −0.7
Majority 65 5.7 +3.4
Turnout 566 (est) 80.3 (est) +1.1
Registered electors 705
Whig hold Swing N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing N/A
General Election 1859: Pontefract (2 seats)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Richard Monckton Milnes 497 45.2 +6.4
Conservative William Overend 306 27.8 N/A
Liberal Hugh Childers 296 26.9 N/A
Turnout 550 (est) 78.4 (est) −1.9
Registered electors 701
Majority 191 17.4 +11.7
Liberal hold Swing N/A
Majority 10 0.9 N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A

Elections in the 1860s

Overend resigned, causing a by-election.

By-election, 31 January 1860: Pontefract[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers 320 55.5 −16.6
Conservative Samuel Waterhouse 257 44.5 +16.7
Majority 63 10.9 −6.5
Turnout 577 83.7 +5.3
Registered electors 689
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing −16.7

Milnes was elevated to the peerage, becoming Lord Houghton and causing a by-election.

By-election, 3 August 1863: Pontefract[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Samuel Waterhouse Unopposed
Conservative gain from Liberal

Childers was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, causing a by-election.

By-election, 20 April 1864: Pontefract[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers Unopposed
Liberal hold
General Election 1865: Pontefract (2 seats)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers 359 36.7 +9.8
Conservative Samuel Waterhouse 330 33.8 +6.0
Liberal William McArthur 288 29.5 −15.7
Turnout 654 (est) 93.5 (est) +15.1
Registered electors 699
Majority 29 3.0 −14.4
Liberal hold Swing +3.4
Majority 42 4.3 +4.4
Conservative hold Swing +3.0
General Election 1868: Pontefract (2 seats)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers 913 36.6 −0.1
Conservative Samuel Waterhouse 900 36.1 +2.3
Liberal Charles Milnes Gaskell 680 27.3 −2.2
Turnout 1,697 (est) 88.8 (est) −4.7
Registered electors 1,910
Majority 13 0.5 −2.5
Liberal hold Swing −0.6
Majority 220 8.8 +4.5
Conservative hold Swing +2.3

Childers was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty, causing a by-election.

By-election, 21 December 1868: Pontefract[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers Unopposed
Liberal hold

Elections in the 1870s

Childers was appointed Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, causing a by-election.

By-election, 17 Aug 1872: Pontefract (1 seat)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers 658 53.2 −13.0
Conservative John Horace Savile 578 46.8 +13.0
Majority 80 6.5 +3.5
Turnout 1,236 63.7 −29.8
Registered electors 1,941
Liberal hold Swing −13.0
General Election 1874: Pontefract (2 seats)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers 934 37.3 +0.6
Conservative Samuel Waterhouse 861 34.4 +0.6
Conservative John Horace Savile 709 28.3 −1.2
Turnout 1,719 (est) 84.3 (est)
Registered electors 2,038
Majority 73 2.9 −0.1
Liberal hold Swing +0.5
Majority 152 6.1 +1.8
Conservative hold Swing +0.0

Elections in the 1880s

General Election 1880: Pontefract (2 seats)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers 1,154 31.1 +12.4
Liberal Sidney Woolf 1,029 27.7 +9.0
Conservative Edward Green 904 24.3 −10.1
Conservative John Shaw[18] 627 16.9 −11.4
Majority 125 3.4 +0.5
Turnout 1,857 (est) 76.5 (est) −7.8
Registered electors 2,429
Liberal hold Swing +11.9
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +9.6

Childers was appointed Secretary of State for War, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 8 May 1880: Pontefract (1 seat)[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Hugh Childers Unopposed
Liberal hold
Hugh Childers
General Election 1885: Pontefract [19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Rowland Winn 1,111 50.8 +9.6
Liberal Hugh Childers 1,075 49.2 −9.6
Majority 36 1.6 N/A
Turnout 2,186 88.7 +12.7 (est)
Registered electors 2,465
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +9.6
General Election 1886: Pontefract [20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Rowland Winn 1,156 55.0 +4.2
Liberal Charles James Fleming 947 45.0 -4.2
Majority 209 10.0 +8.4
Turnout 2,103 85.3 -3.4
Registered electors 2,465
Conservative hold Swing +4.2

Elections in the 1890s

General Election 1892: Pontefract [21]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Rowland Winn 1,132 50.9 −4.1
Liberal Henry Smithson Lee Wilson[22] 1,092 49.1 +4.1
Majority 40 1.8 −8.2
Turnout 2,224 88.3 +3.0
Registered electors 2,518
Conservative hold Swing −4.1

Winn succeeded to the peerage, becoming Lord St Oswald.

Harold Reckitt
Pontefract by-election, February 1893[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Harold Reckitt 1,228 51.3 +2.2
Conservative John Reginald Shaw 1,165 48.7 -2.2
Majority 63 2.6 N/A
Turnout 2,393 92.9 +4.6
Registered electors 2,575
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +2.2

The by-election was declared void on petition, requiring a by-election.

Thomas Nussey
Pontefract by-election, June 1893[24]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Nussey 1,191 50.7 +1.6
Conservative Elliott Lees[25] 1,159 49.3 −1.6
Majority 32 1.4 N/A
Turnout 2,350 91.3 +3.0
Registered electors 2,575
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +1.6
General Election 1895: Pontefract [26]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Nussey 1,245 51.2 +2.1
Conservative James Hope 1,188 48.8 −2.1
Majority 57 2.4 N/A
Turnout 2,433 89.4 +1.1
Registered electors 2,721
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing +2.1

Elections in the 1900s

General Election 1900: Pontefract [27]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Nussey 1,385 52.2 +1.0
Conservative Frederick Ripley 1,269 47.8 -1.0
Majority 116 4.4 +2.0
Turnout 2,654 88.3 −1.1
Registered electors 3,004
Liberal hold Swing +1.0
General Election 1906: Pontefract [28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Nussey 1,837 64.1 +11.9
Conservative Charles Yate 1,030 35.9 -11.9
Majority 807 28.2 +23.8
Turnout 2,867 87.2 -1.1
Registered electors 3,288
Liberal hold Swing +11.9

Elections in the 1910s

General Election January 1910: Pontefract [29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Thomas Nussey 1,924 55.9 -8.2
Conservative John Reginald Shaw 1,515 44.1 +8.2
Majority 409 11.8 -16.4
Turnout 3,439 93.9 +6.7
Registered electors 3,661
Liberal hold Swing -8.2
General Election December 1910: Pontefract [30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Frederick Handel Booth 1,679 50.8 −5.1
Conservative John Reginald Shaw 1,627 49.2 +5.1
Majority 52 1.6 −10.2
Turnout 3,306 90.3 -3.6
Registered electors 3,661
Liberal hold Swing −5.1

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

Compton-Rickett
Pontefract General Election, 1918[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Liberal Joseph Compton-Rickett 8,561 62.9 +12.1
Labour Isaac Burns 5,047 37.1 N/A
Majority 3514 25.8 +24.2
Turnout 13,608 45.6 −44.7
Liberal hold Swing N/A
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.
Walter Forrest
Pontefract by-election, 1919
Party Candidate Votes % ±
C Liberal Walter Forrest 9,920 54.0
Labour Isaac Burns 8,445 46.0
Majority 1,475 8.0
Turnout 18,365 61.5
Liberal hold Swing
C indicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Elections in the 1920s

General Election 1922: Pontefract [32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Tom Smith 9,111 38.9
Unionist Joshua Scholefield 8,495 36.1
National Liberal Walter Forrest 5,879 25.0
Majority 626 2.8
Turnout 73.9
Labour gain from National Liberal Swing
Mary Grant
General Election 1923: Pontefract [33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Tom Smith 11,134 45.3 +6.4
Unionist Albert Braithwaite 8,872 36.1 +0.0
Liberal Mary Pollock Grant 4,567 18.6 -6.4
Majority 2,262 9.2 +6.4
Turnout 73.5 -0.4
Labour hold Swing +3.2
General Election 1924: Pontefract[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Unionist Christopher Brooke 13,745 51.3
Labour Tom Smith 13,044 48.7
Majority 701 2.6
Turnout 76.2
Unionist gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1929: Pontefract[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Tom Smith 17,335 47.8 -0.9
Unionist Christopher Brooke 10,040 27.7 -23.6
Liberal Harold Powis 8,892 24.5 n/a
Majority 7,185 20.1 22.7
Turnout 80.1 +3.9
Labour gain from Unionist Swing +11.3

Elections in the 1930s

General Election 1931: Pontefract
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Thomas Sotheron-Estcourt 20,941 55.38
Labour Tom Smith 16,870 44.62
Majority 4,071 10.77
Turnout 80.89
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General Election 1935: Pontefract
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Adam Hills 19,783 53.41
Liberal National Victor Seely 17,257 46.59
Majority 2,526 6.82
Turnout 75.75
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1940s

Pontefract by-election, 1941
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Percy Barstow unopposed n/a n/a
Labour hold Swing n/a
General Election 1945: Pontefract
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Percy Barstow 24,690 60.61 n/a
Conservative K Hargreaves 16,048 39.39 n/a
Majority 8,642 21.21 n/a
Turnout 75.09 n/a
Labour hold Swing n/a

Elections in the 1950s

General Election 1950: Pontefract [36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour George Sylvester 35,432 75.61
National Liberal and Conservative Maurice Grant 11,431 24.39
Majority 24,001 51.22
Turnout 87.30
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1951: Pontefract [37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour George Sylvester 35,280 76.16
Conservative and National Liberal Mervyn Pike 11,043 23.84
Majority 24,237 52.32
Turnout 86.01
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1955: Pontefract [38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour George Sylvester 32,646 76.22
Conservative and National Liberal Alan Geoffrey Blake 10,183 23.78
Majority 22,463 52.45
Turnout 79.49
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1959: Pontefract
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour George Sylvester 35,194 76.38
Conservative and National Liberal Edward Bowman 10,884 23.62
Majority 24,310 52.76
Turnout 84.27
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s

Pontefract by-election, 1962[39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Joseph Harper 26,461 77.28 +0.90
Conservative Paul Dean 6,633 19.37 -4.25
Independent Russell Ernest Eckley 1,146 3.35 n/a
Majority 19,828 57.91 +5.15
Turnout 63.26
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1964: Pontefract
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Joseph Harper 32,357 76.16
Conservative John Flett Whitfield 10,128 23.84
Majority 22,229 52.32
Turnout 77.56
Labour hold Swing
General Election 1966: Pontefract
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Joseph Harper 32,328 78.36
Conservative Anthony F Wigram 8,927 21.64
Majority 23,401 56.72
Turnout 75.63
Labour hold Swing

Election in the 1970s

General Election 1970: Pontefract
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Joseph Harper 31,774 74.83
Conservative Ian Deslandes 10,687 25.17
Majority 21,087 49.66
Turnout 70.61
Labour hold Swing

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Dawnay had also been elected for Aldborough, but a petition against the result there had not been resolved by the time the Parliament was dissolved. Not being required to choose which constituency he would represent while there was an outstanding petition against one of the elections, he sat for both boroughs throughout the Parliament
  3. ^ At the general election of 1715, Dawnay and Frank were declared re-elected, but on petition the result was overturned and their opponents, Bethell and Lowther, seated in their place
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Stooks Smith, Henry (1845). The Parliaments of England, from 1st George I., to the Present Time. Vol II: Oxfordshire to Wales Inclusive. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. pp. 160–162. Retrieved 27 November 2018 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Lascelles was also elected for Yorkshire, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Pontefract
  6. ^ Churton, Edward (1838). The Assembled Commons or Parliamentary Biographer: 1838. p. 213. Retrieved 27 November 2018 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Mosse, Richard Bartholomew (1838). The Parliamentary Guide: a concise history of the Members of both Houses, etc. p. 219. Retrieved 27 November 2018 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Ollivier, John (2007). "Alphabetical List of the House of Commons". Ollivier's parliamentary and political director. p. 26. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  9. ^ "Yorkshire Gazette". 31 July 1847. p. 5. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  10. ^ "Close of the Poll: Pontefract". Bell's Weekly Messenger. 31 July 1847. p. 3. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  11. ^ The Gardeners' Chronicle, Volume 1. 1841. p. 402. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  12. ^ "The General Elections". The Globe. 8 July 1852. p. 4. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  13. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Houghton, Richard Monckton Milnes, 1st Baron". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  14. ^ Swift, Roger (2017). Charles Pelham Villiers: Aristocratic Victorian Radical (eBook). Abingdon: Routledge. p. 179. ISBN 978-1-315-26797-5. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885 (e-book)|format= requires |url= (help) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 978-1-349-02349-3.
  16. ^ "The Polling". Bell's Weekly Messenger. 2 August 1847. p. 3. Retrieved 27 November 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  17. ^ "The Elections". Leeds Intelligencer. 10 July 1852. p. 8. Retrieved 30 June 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  18. ^ "Mr John Shaw". Sheffield Daily Telegraph. 10 March 1880. p. 3. Retrieved 9 December 2017 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  19. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  20. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  21. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  22. ^ "The General Election". Worcester Journal. 9 Jul 1892. p. 6. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  23. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  24. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  25. ^ "The Pontefract by-election ended in the return of the Gladstonian". The Spectator. 1 July 1983. p. 11. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  26. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  27. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  28. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  29. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  30. ^ British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918 (Craig)
  31. ^ F W S Craig, British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949; Political Reference Publications, Glasgow, 1949 p520
  32. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  33. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  34. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  35. ^ British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  36. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1950.
  37. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1951.
  38. ^ The Times' Guide to the House of Commons. 1955.
  39. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120205100601/http://by-elections.co.uk/62.html
  • Robert Beatson, "A Chronological Register of Both Houses of Parliament" (London: Longman, Hurst, Res & Orme, 1807) [2]
  • John Brooke, The House of Commons 1754-1790: Introductory Survey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968, reprinted from Volume I of Namier & Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons 1754-1790, London: HMSO, 1964)
  • "Cobbett's Parliamentary history of England, from the Norman Conquest in 1066 to the year 1803" (London: Thomas Hansard, 1808) [3]
  • Craig, F. W. S. (1989) [1977]. British parliamentary election results 1832-1885 (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-26-4.
  • Craig, F. W. S. (1983) [1969]. British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3rd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  • J Holladay Philbin, "Parliamentary Representation 1832 - England and Wales" (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965)
  • Frederic A Youngs, jr, "Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England, Vol II" (London: Royal Historical Society, 1991)
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 2)

External links

  • Pontefract elections
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