Poly drug use

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Poly drug use
Classification and external resources
Specialty psychiatry
ICD-10 F19
[edit on Wikidata]
Caffeinated alcoholic beverage is widespread and legal.
Ayahuasca being prepared in the Napo region of Ecuador

Poly drug use refers to the use of two or more psychoactive drugs in combination to achieve a particular effect. In many cases one drug is used as a base or primary drug, with additional drugs to leaven or compensate for the side effects of the primary drug and make the experience more enjoyable with drug synergy effects, or to supplement for primary drug when supply is low.[1]

Combinations

Common combinations

Drug 1 Drug 2 Drug 3 Poly drug name[2] Intoxication name Comment
Any drug Nicotine Cooler A cigarette laced with a drug
Any depressant Any stimulant Over and under
Any pharmaceutical Any pharmaceutical Pharming
Alcohol Caffeine Caffeinated alcoholic drink
Alcohol Cannabis Herb and Al Cross fading
Alcohol Cocaine Snow-coning Metabolized into a cocaethylene
Amphetamine Cocaine Snow seals
Banisteriopsis caapi β-Carbolines containing plants (eg Peagnum harmala) Ayahuasca, changa
Caffeine Cannabis Hippie-speedballing
Caffeine Methamphetamine Biker's coffee
Cannabis Any drug Amp joint Marihuana cigarette laced with some form of narcotic
Cannabis Crack-cocaine Crack weed (less known: champagne, chronic, cocktail, dirty joint, fry daddy, gimmie, gremmies, juice joint, lace, oolies, p dog, primo, splitting, thirty eight, turbo, wollie, yeola) Cocoa puffs[3]
Cannabis Crack-cocaine PCP Jim Jones
Cannabis DXM Nicotine Candy blunt
Cannabis Heroin Atom bomb, stuff
Cannabis Heroin or opium A-bomb
Cannabis Opium Buddha
Cannabis PCP Killer weed (less known: clickums, donk, dust blunt, illies, illing, leak, love leaf, lovelies, parsley, zoom)
Cannabis Nicotine Joint, blunt, spliff Stoned A rolled marijuana cigarette usually made with rolling paper. A blunt is a cigar hollowed out and filled with marijuana. It is rolled with the tobacco-leaf "wrapper" from an inexpensive cigar. Blunts take their name from Phillies Blunt brand cigars.
Cocaine Heroin Snowball, murder one, whiz bang Snowballing
Cocaine Heroin LSD Frisco special[4]
Cocaine Heroin Nicotine flamethrower, primos Cigarette laced with cocaine and heroin
Cocaine Heroin or morphine Speedball, powerball Speedballing, powerballing Speedballing, powerballing is often used to describe intravenous use. The term can also be applied to use of pharmaceutical opioids, benzodiazepines or barbiturates along with stimulants.
Cocaine Ketamine CK1
Cocaine LSD Cracid (or outer limits)
Cocaine Morphine C & M
Codeine Glutethimide Pancakes and syrups Combination of glutethimide and codeine cough syrup
Codeine Promethazine Purple drank
Crack-cocaine Benzocaine Fire Crack cut with benzocaine
Crack-cocaine Heroin Chocolate rock, dragon rock, eightball, moonrock, smoking gun, tar
Crack-cocaine LSD Outerlimits
Crack-cocaine Methamphetamine Fire, twisters
Crack-cocaine PCP Nicotine Ozone PCP and crack cigarette
Crack-cocaine PCP Missile basing, P-funk, space basing,[5] spaceball, space cadet, space dust, tragic magic
Crack-cocaine Nicotine Coolie, crimmie, woolas A cigarette laced with crack
DMT MAOIs Pharmahuasca
DXM LSD LSDXM
DXM Psilocybin or psilocybin mushroom Cherry-bombing
GHB Methamphetamine Cherry meth
Hashish Belladonna Alamout Black Hash[6] Mixed
Hashish LSD Royal Temple Ball The hashish is mixed with LSD and rolled into a ball intended for oral use, because LSD cannot be smoked.
Hashish Opium Black hash
Heroin Morphine New Jack swing
LSD Nitrous oxide Gasid
LSD PCP Black acid
LSD Psilocybin or psilocybin mushroom God's flesh
MDMA 2C-B Nexus flip, honey flip[7] Nexus flipping, honey flipping
MDMA 2C-E Sparkle flip[8] Sparkle flipping
MDMA 2C-I Science flip Science flipping
MDMA 2C-T-7 Lucky flip Lucky flipping
MDMA Alcohol Tipsy flip Tipsy flipping
MDMA Cocaine Sugar flip[9] Sugar flipping
MDMA Cocaine LSD Candy-flip on a string Candy-flipping on a string
MDMA DMT Shaman flip, time flip Shaman flipping, time flipping
MDMA DXM Robo flip[10] Robo flipping
MDMA GHB Gamma flip[11] Gamma flipping
MDMA Ketamine Kitty flip[12] Kitty flipping
MDMA Ketamine GHB EKG. The "E" is for Ecstasy.
MDMA LSD Candy flip[13] Candy flipping
MDMA LSD Psilocybin or psilocybin mushroom Jedi flip, twilight flip[14][15] Jedi flipping, twilight flipping
MDMA MDEA Adam and Eve
MDMA Mescaline or psychoactive cactus Love flip[16] Love flipping
MDMA Methadone Chocolate flip Chocolate flipping
MDMA Methamphetamine Trailer flip Trailer flipping
MDMA Nitrous oxide Nox
MDMA Opiates Poppy flip Poppy flipping
MDMA PCP Elephant flip[17] Elephant flipping
MDMA Psilocybin or psilocybin mushroom Hippy flip, flower flip[18])[19] Hippy flipping, flower flipping
MDMA Psilocybin or psilocybin mushroom Cocaine Flower flip on a string, hippie flip on a string Flower flipping on a string, hippie flipping on a string
MDMA Sildenafil Sextasy (or hammerheading)[20]
PCP Nicotine Chipping

Dangerous interactions

A useful chart from TripSit.me which can be used to identify dangerous drug combinations quickly and easily.
Tranquillizers, sleeping pills, opiates and alcohol. Opioid-related deaths often involve alcohol.

Risks

Close-up photo of a metal spoon filled with a viscous, clear purple fluid
A spoonful of promethazine/​codeine syrup showing the characteristic purple color that gave rise to the name purple drank.

Poly drug use often carries with it more risk than use of a single drug, due to an increase in side effects, and drug synergy. The potentiating effect of one drug on another is sometimes considerable and here the licit drugs and medicines – such as alcohol, nicotine and antidepressants – have to be considered in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substances. The risk level will depend on the dosage level of both substances. If the drugs taken are illegal, they have a chance of being mixed (also known as "cutting") with other substances which dealers are reported to do to increase the perceived quantity when selling to others to increase their returns. This is particularly common with powdered drugs such as cocaine or MDMA which can be mixed with relative ease by adding another white powdery substance to the drug. This cumulative effect can lead to further unintended harm to health dependent on what is being covertly added. Concerns also exist about a number of pharmacological pairings: alcohol and cocaine increase cardiovascular toxicity; alcohol or depressant drugs, when taken with opioids, lead to an increased risk of overdose; and opioids or cocaine taken with ecstasy or amphetamines also result in additional acute toxicity.[21] Benzodiazepines are notorious for causing death when mixed with other CNS depressants such as opioids, alcohol, or barbiturates.[22][23][24]

Scheduling

Within the general concept of multiple drug use, several specific meanings of the term must be considered. At one extreme is planned use, where the effects of more than one drug are taken for a desired effect. Another type is when other drugs are used to counteract the negative side effects of a different drug (e.g. depressants are used to counteract anxiety and restlessness from taking stimulants). On the other hand, the use of several substances in an intensive and chaotic way, simultaneously or consecutively, in many cases each drug substituting for another according to availability.[21]

Research

The phenomenon is the subject of established academic literature.[25]

A study among treatment admissions found that it is more common for younger people to report polydrug drug use.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/html.cfm/index34913EN.html
  2. ^ Copping, Jasper (8 November 2009). "Drug slang: what police must learn A to B". 
  3. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=cocoa+puffs
  4. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Frisco%20Special
  5. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=space-basing
  6. ^ https://erowid.org/psychoactives/slang/
  7. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Nexus%20flip
  8. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=sparkle+flip
  9. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=sugar+flip
  10. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Robo+Flipping
  11. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Gamma-flipping
  12. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=kitty+flipping
  13. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=candy%20flip
  14. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=jedi+flipping
  15. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=twilight+flip
  16. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=love%20flip
  17. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Elephant%20Flipping
  18. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Flower+Flipping
  19. ^ http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=hippy%20flipping
  20. ^ https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=sextacy
  21. ^ a b EMCDDA Annual Report 2006 ch. 8
  22. ^ Serfaty M, Masterton G (1993). "Fatal poisonings attributed to benzodiazepines in Britain during the 1980s". Br J Psychiatry. 163: 386–93. doi:10.1192/bjp.163.3.386. PMID 8104653. 
  23. ^ Buckley NA, Dawson AH, Whyte IM, O'Connell DL (1995). "[Relative toxicity of benzodiazepines in overdose.]". BMJ. 310 (6974): 219–21. doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6974.219. PMC 2548618Freely accessible. PMID 7866122. 
  24. ^ Drummer OH; Ranson DL (December 1996). "Sudden death and benzodiazepines". Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 17 (4): 336–42. doi:10.1097/00000433-199612000-00012. PMID 8947361. 
  25. ^ Scholey AB, Parrott AC, Buchanan T, Heffernan TM, Ling J, Rodgers J (June 2004). "Increased intensity of Ecstasy and polydrug usage in the more experienced recreational Ecstasy/MDMA users: a WWW study". Addict Behav. 29 (4): 743–52. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.022. PMID 15135556. 
  26. ^ "Polydrug Use Among Treatment Admissions: 1998." OAS Home: Alcohol, Tobacco & Drug Abuse and Mental Health Data from SAMHSA, Office of Applied Studies. Web. 29 Sept. 2011. [1]
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