Polish School of Mathematics
The Polish School of Mathematics was the mathematics community that flourished in Poland in the 20th century, particularly during the Interbellum between World Wars I and II.
Contents
Overview
The Polish School of Mathematics subsumed:
 the Lwów School of Mathematics  mostly focused on functional analysis;
 the Warsaw School of Mathematics  mostly focused on set theory, mathematical logic and topology; and
 the Kraków School of Mathematics  mostly focused on differential equation, analytic function, differential geometry.
Nomenclature
Poland's mathematicians provided a name to Polish notation and Polish space.
Background
It has been debated what stimulated the exceptional efflorescence of mathematics in Poland after World War I. Important preparatory work had been done by the Polish "Positivists" following the disastrous January 1863 Uprising. The Positivists extolled science and technology, and popularized slogans of "organic work" and "building from the foundations." In the 20th century, mathematics was a field of endeavor that could be successfully pursued even with the limited resources that Poland commanded in the interbellum period.
Historical Influences
Over the centuries, Polish mathematicians have influenced the course of history. Copernicus used mathematics to buttress his revolutionary heliocentric theory. Four hundred years later, Marian Rejewski — subsequently assisted by fellow mathematiciancryptologists Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski — in December 1932 first broke the German Enigma machine cipher, thus laying the foundations for British World War II reading of Enigma ciphers ("Ultra"). After the war, Stanisław Ulam showed Edward Teller how to construct a practicable hydrogen bomb.
See also
References
This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

 Kazimierz Kuratowski, A Half Century of Polish Mathematics: Remembrances and Reflections, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1980, ISBN 0080230466.