Polar set
 See also polar set (potential theory).
In functional and convex analysis, related disciplines of mathematics, the polar set is a special convex set associated to any subset of a vector space lying in the dual space . The bipolar of a subset is the polar of , but lies in (not ).
Contents
Definitions
There are at least three competing definitions of the polar of a set, originating in projective geometry and convex analysis.^{[1]}^{[citation needed]} In each case, the definition describes a duality between certain subsets of a dual pair of (topological) vector spaces .
Geometric definition
The polar cone of a convex cone is the set
This definition gives a duality on points and hyperplanes, writing the latter as the intersection of two oppositelyoriented halfspaces. The polar hyperplane of a point is the locus ; the dual relationship for a hyperplane yields that hyperplane's polar point.^{[2]}^{[citation needed]}
Some authors (confusingly) call a dual cone the polar cone; we will not follow that convention in this article.^{[3]}
Functional analyticdefinition
The polar of a set is the set
This is an affine shift of the geometric definition; it has the useful characterization that the functionalanalytic polar of the unit ball (in ) is precisely the unit ball (in ).
Some authors include absolute values around the inner product; the two definitions coincide for circled sets.^{[1]}^{[3]}
Properties
 If then
 An immediate corollary is that ; equality necessarily holds only for finitelymany terms.
 For all : .
 .
 For a dual pair is closed in under the weak*topology on .^{[2]}
 The bipolar of a set is the closed convex hull of , that is the smallest closed and convex set containing both and .
 Similarly, the bidual cone of a cone is the closed conic hull of .^{[4]}
 For a closed convex cone in , the dual cone is the polar of ; that is,
 ^{[1]}
See also
References
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Aliprantis, C.D.; Border, K.C. (2007). Infinite Dimensional Analysis: A Hitchhiker's Guide (3 ed.). Springer. p. 215. doi:10.1007/3540295879. ISBN 9783540326960.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Zălinescu, C. (2002). Convex Analysis in General Vector Spaces. River Edge, NJ: World Scientific. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9812380671.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Rockafellar, T.R. (1970). Convex Analysis. Princeton University. pp. 121–8. ISBN 9780691015866.

^ Niculescu, C.P.; Persson, LarsErik. Convex Functions and Their Applications. CMS Books in Mathematics. Cham, Switzerland. pp. 94–5,134–5. ISBN 9783319783376. Unknown parameter
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