Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Poisoning of Sergei Skripal)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal
Forensic tent at The Maltings, Salisbury (cropped).jpg
A forensics tent covers the bench where Sergei and Yulia Skripal fell unconscious.
Location Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
Date 4 March 2018
Target Sergei Viktorovich Skripal
Yulia Sergeyevna Skripal
Weapons Novichok or family nerve agent[a][b]
Victims 3 hospitalised[c]
Suspected perpetrators
Russian secret services

Sergei Skripal is a former Russian military officer and British spy who acted as a double agent for the UK's intelligence services during the 1990s and early 2000s, until his arrest in December 2004. On 4 March 2018, he and his daughter Yulia Skripal were poisoned in Salisbury, England, with a Novichok nerve agent, according to official UK sources[3][4] and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW).[5] After three weeks in a critical condition, Yulia regained consciousness and was able to speak.[6] Sergei was also in a critical condition until he regained consciousness one month after the attack.[7][8]

A police officer was also taken into intensive care after being contaminated when he went to Sergei Skripal's house. By 22 March he had recovered enough to leave the hospital.[9] An additional 48 people sought medical advice after the attack, but none required treatment.[10][d]

In the 1990s, Sergei Skripal was an officer for Russia's Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU) and worked as a double agent for the UK's Secret Intelligence Service from 1995 until his arrest in Moscow in December 2004. In August 2006, he was convicted of high treason and sentenced to 13 years in a penal colony by a Russian court.[12] He settled in the UK in 2010 following the Illegals Program spy swap.[13] Sergei holds dual Russian and British citizenship; Yulia is a Russian citizen, and was visiting her father from Moscow.[14]

Later in March, the British government accused Russia of attempted murder and announced a series of punitive measures against Russia, including the expulsion of diplomats. The UK's official assessment of the incident was supported by 28 other countries which responded similarly. Altogether, an unprecedented 153 Russian diplomats were expelled.[15] Russia denied the accusations and responded similarly to the expulsions and "accused Britain of the poisoning."[16]

Poisoning

  • At 14:40 on 3 March 2018 Yulia Skripal flew to Heathrow Airport from Russia.
  • At 9:15 on 4 March the car of Sergei Skripal was seen in the area of London Road, Churchill Way North and Wilton Road at Salisbury.
  • At 13:30 Sergei's car was seen on Devizes Road on the way towards the town center.
  • At 13:40 Sergei and Yulia arrived in the upper level car park at the Maltings, Salisbury and then went to the Bishops Mill Pub in the town center.
  • At 14:20 they dined at Zizzi Restaurant.
  • At 15:35 they left Zizzi Restaurant.[17]
  • At 16:15 an emergency services call reported that Sergei Skripal, a 66-year-old resident of Salisbury, and his 33-year-old daughter Yulia had been found unconscious on a public bench in the centre of Salisbury by a passing doctor and nurse.[18][19][20] An eyewitness saw Yulia foaming at the mouth with her eyes wide open but completely white.[21] According to a later British government statement they were "slipping in and out of consciousness on a public bench".[22]
  • At 17:10, they were taken separately to Salisbury District Hospital by an ambulance and an air ambulance.[23]

According to the UK government, the two were poisoned with a nerve agent.[2] The police declared a major incident as multiple agencies were involved.[24] Following the incident, health authorities checked 21 members of the emergency services and the public for possible symptoms;[25][26] two police officers were treated for possible minor symptoms, said to be itchy eyes and wheezing, while one, Detective Sergeant Nick Bailey, who had been sent to Sergei Skripal's house, had been in a serious condition.[27][28]

On 22 March 2018, Detective Sergeant Nick Bailey was discharged from the hospital. In a statement he said "normal life for me will probably never be the same" and also thanked the hospital staff.[9] As of 26 March 2018, Skripal and his daughter remained critically ill.[29][30] On 29 March 2018 it was announced that Yulia Skripal's condition was improving and she was no longer in a critical condition.[31] On 5 April 2018 doctors said that Sergei Skripal was no longer in critical condition and was responding well to treatment.[32] On 9 April 2018, Yulia Skripal was discharged from hospital and taken to a secure location.[33][34] On 18 May 2018, Sergey Skripal was discharged from the hospital too.[35] On 23 May 2018, Yulia Skripal posed for the media for the first time after the poisoning. She stated that she was lucky to be alive after the poisoning and thanked the staff of the Salisbury hospital. She described her treatment as slow, heavy and extremely painful and she had a scar on her neck, apparently from a tracheotomy. She expressed her hope that someday she would return to Russia. She thanked the Russian embassy for its offer of assistance but said she and her father were "not ready to take it".[36]

On 17 March 2018, The Sun reported that the Skripals' vet had contacted the police on 4 March regarding the Skripals' pet cat and two guinea pigs and said the "cat and the guinea pigs were removed from the house and taken away to be assessed."[37] On 5 April 2018, British authorities said that inside Sergey Skripal's house, which had been sealed by the police, two guinea pigs were found dead by vets, when they were allowed in, along with a cat in a distressed state.[38] The guinea pigs were reported to have died of thirst; the cat was taken for testing to the Porton Down chemical weapons facility, where all three bodies were incinerated.[39]

Investigation

The first public response to the poisoning came on 6 March. It was agreed under the National Counter Terrorism Policing Network that the Counter Terrorism Command based within the Metropolitan Police would take over the investigation from Wiltshire Police. Assistant Commissioner Mark Rowley, head of Counter Terrorism Policing, appealed for witnesses to the incident following a COBR meeting chaired by Home Secretary Amber Rudd.[40]

Samples of the nerve agent used in the attack tested positive at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory at Porton Down for a "very rare" nerve agent, according to the UK Home Secretary.[41]

Military experts in chemical warfare defence and decontamination, 180 in number, as well as 18 vehicles, were deployed on 9 March to assist the Metropolitan Police to remove vehicles and objects from the scene and look for any further traces of the nerve agent. The personnel were drawn mostly from the Army, including instructors from the Defence CBRN Centre and the 29 Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Search Group, as well as from the Royal Marines and Royal Air Force. The vehicles included TPz Fuchs operated by Falcon Squadron from the Royal Tank Regiment.[42] On 11 March, the UK government advised those present at either The Mill pub or the Zizzi restaurant in Salisbury on 4 and 5 March to wash or wipe their possessions, emphasising that the risk to the general public was low.[43][44]

Several days later, on 12 March, Prime Minister Theresa May said the agent had been identified as one of the Novichok family of agents, believed to have been developed in the 1980s by the Soviet Union.[45][46] According to the Russian ambassador to the UK, Alexander Yakovenko, the British authorities identified the agent as A-234,[2] derived from an earlier version known as A-232.[47]

By 14 March, the investigation was focused on Skripal's home and car, a bench where the two fell unconscious, a restaurant in which they dined and a pub where they had drinks.[48] A recovery vehicle was removed by the military from Gillingham in Dorset on 14 March, in connection with the poisoning.[49][50]

Subsequently, there was speculation within the British media that the nerve agent had been planted in one of the personal items in Yulia Skripal's suitcase before she left Moscow for London,[51] and in US media that it had been planted in their car.[52][53]

Ahmet Üzümcü, Director-General of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), said on 20 March that it will take "another two to three weeks to finalise the analysis" of samples taken from the poisoning of Skripal.[54] On 22 March, the Court of Protection gave permission for new blood samples to be obtained from Yulia and Sergei Skripal for use by the OPCW.[55][56] By 28 March, the police investigation concluded that the Skripals were poisoned at Sergei's home, with the highest concentration being found on the handle of his front door.[57] On 12 April the OPCW confirmed the UK's analysis of the type of nerve agent and reported it was of a "high purity", stating that the "name and structure of the identified toxic chemical are contained in the full classified report of the Secretariat, available to States Parties."[58][59][60]

A declassified letter from the UK's national security adviser, Sir Mark Sedwill, to Nato Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg, stated Russian military intelligence hacked Yulia Skripal's email account since at least 2013 and tested methods for delivering nerve agents including on door handles.[61]

The Department for Environment confirmed the nerve agent was delivered "in a liquid form". They said eight sites require decontamination, which will take several months to complete and cost millions of pounds. The BBC reported experts said the nerve agent does not evaporate or disappear over time. Intense cleaning with caustic chemicals is required to get rid of it.[62][63]

On 22 April 2018, it was reported that British counter-terror police have identified a suspect in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal. The suspect is a former FSB officer (reportedly a 54-year-old former FSB captain)[64] who acted under several code names including "Gordon" and "Mihails Savickis". According to detectives, he led a team of six Russian assassins who organized the chemical weapons attack.[65][66] Sir Mark Sedwill, UK national security adviser, reported on 1 May 2018 however that UK intelligence and police agencies had failed to identify the individual or individuals who carried out the attack.[67]

On 3 May 2018, the head of the OPCW, Ahmet Üzümcü, informed the New York Times that he had been told that about 50-100g of the nerve agent was thought to have been used in the attack, which indicated it was likely created for use as a weapon and was enough to kill a large number of people.[68] The next day however the OPCW made a correcting statement that the "quantity should probably be characterised in milligrams", though "the OPCW would not be able to estimate or determine the amount of the nerve agent that was used".[69][70]

Response of the United Kingdom

Within days of the attack, political pressure began to mount on Theresa May's government to take action against the perpetrators, and most politicians appeared to believe that the Russian government was behind the attack.[71][72] The situation was additionally sensitive for Russia as Russian president Vladimir Putin was facing his fourth presidential election in mid-March, and Russia was to host the 2018 FIFA World Cup football competition in June.[72][73] When giving a response to an urgent question from Tom Tugendhat, the chairman of the Foreign Affairs Select Committee of the House of Commons, who suggested that Moscow was conducting "a form of soft war against the West", Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson on 6 March said the government would "respond appropriately and robustly" if the Russian state was found to have been involved in the poisoning.[74][75] UK Home Secretary Amber Rudd said on 8 March 2018 that the use of a nerve agent on UK soil was a "brazen and reckless act" of attempted murder "in the most cruel and public way".[76]

Prime Minister Theresa May, speaking in the House of Commons on 12 March, delivered a statement on the incident, saying:

It is now clear that Mr Skripal and his daughter were poisoned with a military-grade nerve agent of a type developed by Russia. This is part of a group of nerve agents known as 'Novichok'. Based on the positive identification of this chemical agent by world-leading experts at the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory at Porton Down; our knowledge that Russia has previously produced this agent and would still be capable of doing so; Russia's record of conducting state-sponsored assassinations; and our assessment that Russia views some defectors as legitimate targets for assassinations; the Government has concluded that it is highly likely that Russia was responsible for the act against Sergei and Yulia Skripal. Mr Speaker, there are therefore only two plausible explanations for what happened in Salisbury on the 4th of March. Either this was a direct act by the Russian State against our country. Or the Russian government lost control of this potentially catastrophically damaging nerve agent and allowed it to get into the hands of others.[45]

May also said that the UK government requested that Russia explain which of these two possibilities it was by the end of 13 March 2018.[45] She also said: "[T]he extra-judicial killing of terrorists and dissidents outside Russia were given legal sanction by the Russian Parliament in 2006. And of course Russia used radiological substances in its barbaric assault on Mr Litvinenko."  She said that the UK government would "consider in detail the response from the Russian State" and in the event that there was no credible response, the government would "conclude that this action amounts to an unlawful use of force by the Russian State against the United Kingdom" and measures would follow.[45] British media billed the statement as "Theresa May's ultimatum to Putin."[3][77]

On 13 March 2018, UK Home Secretary Amber Rudd ordered an inquiry by the police and security services into alleged Russian state involvement in 14 previous suspicious deaths of Russian exiles and businessmen in the UK.[78]

Prime Minister May unveiled a series of measures on 14 March 2018 in retaliation for the poisoning attack, after the Russian government refused to meet the UK's request for an account of the incident. One of the chief measures was the expulsion of 23 Russian diplomats which she presented as "actions to dismantle the Russian espionage network in the UK", as these diplomats had been identified by the UK as "undeclared intelligence agents".[79][80] The BBC reported other responses, including:[81][82]

  • Increasing checks on private flights, customs and freight
  • Freezing Russian state assets where there is evidence that they may be used to threaten the life or property of UK nationals or residents
  • Plans to consider new laws to increase defences against "hostile state activity"
  • Ministers and the British royal family boycotting the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
  • Suspending all high-level bilateral contacts between the UK and Russia
  • Retraction of the state invitation to Russian's foreign minister Sergei Lavrov[10]
  • A new £48-million chemical weapons defence centre[83]
  • Offering voluntary vaccinations against anthrax to British troops who are held at high readiness so that they are ready to deploy to areas where there is risk of this type of attack[84]

The Prime Minister said that some measures which the government planned could "not be shared publicly for reasons of national security".[79] Jeremy Corbyn cast doubt in his parliamentary response to May's statement concerning blaming the attack on Russia prior to the results of an independent investigation, which provoked criticism from some MPs, including members of his own party.[85][86] He supported the expulsion but argued that a crackdown on money laundering by UK financial firms on behalf of Russian oligarchs would be a more effective measure against "the Putin regime" than the Tory government's plans.[87] Corbyn pointed to the pre-Iraq War judgements about Iraq and weapons of mass destruction as reason to be suspicious.[88]

The United Nations Security Council called an urgent meeting on 14 March 2018 on the initiative of the UK to discuss the Salisbury incident.[89][22] According to the Russian mission's press secretary, the draft press statement introduced by Russia at the United Nations Security Council meeting was blocked by the UK.[90] The UK and the US blamed Russia for the incident during the meeting, with the UK accusing Russia of breaking its obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention.[91] Separately, the White House fully supported the UK in attributing the attack to Russia, as well as the punitive measures taken against Russia. The White House also accused Russia of undermining the security of countries worldwide.[92][93]

The UK, and subsequently NATO, requested Russia provide "full and complete disclosure" of the Novichok programme to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.[94][95][96] On 14 March 2018, the government stated it would supply a sample of the substance used to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons once UK legal obligations from the criminal investigation permitted.[97]

British foreign secretary Boris Johnson said on 16 March that it was "overwhelmingly likely" that the poisoning had been ordered directly by Russian president Putin, which marked the first time the British government accused Vladimir Putin of personally ordering the poisoning.[98] According to the UK Foreign Office, the UK attributed the attack to Russia based on Porton Down's determination that the chemical was Novichok, additional intelligence, and a lack of alternative explanations from Russia.[99] The Defence Science and Technology Laboratory announced that it was "completely confident" that the agent used was Novichok, but they still did not know the "precise source" of the agent.[100][101]

The UK had held an intelligence briefing with its allies in which it stated that the Novichok chemical used in the Salisbury poisoning was produced at a chemical facility in the town of Shikhany, Saratov Oblast, Russia.[102] An anonymous source told a British tabloid newspaper that allies were also informed about a message from Syria to Russia intercepted on 4 March containing the words "the package has been delivered".[103]

According to a government source, the UK refused to grant a visa to Yulia's cousin, Viktoria Skripal, to visit her, saying that it appears Russia is "trying to use Viktoria as a pawn".[8]

Response of Russia

Russian government

Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov rejected Britain's claim of Russia's involvement in Skripal's poisoning and accused the United Kingdom of spreading the "propaganda".[104][105] Lavrov said that Russia was "ready to cooperate" and demanded access to the samples of the nerve-agent which was used to poison Skripal. The request was rejected by the British government.[106]

Following Theresa May's 12 March statement in Parliament – in which she gave Vladimir Putin's administration until midnight of the following day to explain how a former spy was poisoned in Salisbury, otherwise she would conclude it was an "unlawful use of force" by the Russian state against the UK[107] – Russian foreign minister Sergey Lavrov, talking to the Russian press on 13 March, referred to the statement as "an ultimatum from London" and endorsed remarks made by the ministry's spokesperson the day prior, who called May's statement "a circus show in the British parliament";[108][109][110] he added that the procedure stipulated by the Chemical Weapons Convention should be followed whereunder Russia was entitled to have access to the substance in question and 10 days to respond.[108][111][112] He called allegations about Russia's complicity "balderdash".[113] The Russian foreign ministry spokesperson, speaking on a Russian state television channel on the evening of 13 March, said that no one had the right to present Russia with 24-hour ultimatums.[114][115][116]

Finally, the poisoning has been officially declared to be a fabrication and a "grotesque provocation rudely staged by the British and U.S. intelligence agencies" to undermine Russia.[117][118][119][120][121]

On 17 March, Russia announced that it was expelling 23 British diplomats and ordered the closure of the UK's consulate in St Petersburg and the British Council office in Moscow, stopping all British Council activities in Russia.[122]

Shortly after the OPCW investigation confirmed presence of military-grade agent, the Russian chemical facility in Shikhany from where it allegedly originated was "bulldozed flat". British media pointed out that under the Chemical Weapons Convention (to which Russia is a signatory as well) OPCW would be most likely mandated to inspect the lab and "the only plausible explanation of destroying this site would therefore seem to be an admission of guilt".[123]

Russian state media

For a few days following the poisoning, the story was discussed by web sites, radio stations and newspapers, but Russian state-run main national TV channels largely ignored the incident.[124][125]

On 6 March 2018 Andrey Lugovoy, alleged killer of Alexander Litvinenko and the deputy of the State Duma, in his interview with the Echo of Moscow said: "Something constantly happens to Russian citizens who either run away from Russian justice, or for some reason choose for themselves a way of life they call a change of their Motherland. So the more Britain accepts on its territory every good-for-nothing, every scum from all over the world, the more problems they will have."[126]

Eventually, on 7 March, anchor Kirill Kleimyonov of the state television station Channel One Russia's current affairs programme Vremya said that being "a traitor to the motherland" was one of the most hazardous professions and warned: "Don't choose England as a next country to live in. Whatever the reasons, whether you're a professional traitor to the motherland or you just hate your country in your spare time, I repeat, no matter, don't move to England. Something is not right there. Maybe it's the climate, but in recent years there have been too many strange incidents with a grave outcome. People get hanged, poisoned, they die in helicopter crashes and fall out of windows in industrial quantities."[127][128][129][124][130] Kleimyonov's commentary was accompanied by a report highlighting previous suspicious Russia-related deaths in the UK, namely those of financier Alexander Perepilichny, businessman Boris Berezovsky, ex-FSB officer Alexander Litvinenko and radiation expert Matthew Puncher.[127] Puncher discovered that Litvinenko was poisoned by polonium; he died in 2006, five months after a trip to Russia.[131]

The host of the Vesti Nedeli on Russian state television (Russia-1 channel of VGTRK), Dmitry Kiselyov, said on 11 March that the poisoning of Sergei Skripal, who was "completely wrung out and of little interest" as a source, was only advantageous to the British to "nourish their Russophobia" and organise the boycott of the FIFA World Cup scheduled for June 2018. Kiselyov referred to London as a "pernicious place for Russian exiles".[132][133][134][135]

The prominent Russian television hosts' warnings to Russians living in the UK were echoed by a similar direct warning from a senior member of the Russian Federation Council, Andrey Klimov, who said: "It's going to be very unsafe for you."[112]

Claims made by Russian media were fact-checked by UK media organisations.[136][137]

Chemical weapons experts and intelligence

Porton Down

On 3 April 2018 Gary Aitkenhead, the chief executive of the Government's Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) at Porton Down responsible for testing the substance involved in the case, said they had established the agent was Novichok or from that family but had been unable to verify the "precise source" of the nerve agent and that they had "provided the scientific info to Government who have then used a number of other sources to piece together the conclusions you have come to."[138][1] Aitkenhead refused to comment on whether the laboratory had developed or maintains stocks of Novichok.[1] He also dismissed speculations the substance could have come from Porton Down: "There is no way anything like that could have come from us or left the four walls of our facility."[1] Aitkenhead stated the creation of the nerve agent was "probably only within the capabilities of a state actor" and there was no known antidote.[138][101]

Former Russian scientists and intelligence officers

Vil Mirzayanov, a former Soviet Union scientist who worked at the research institute that developed the Novichok class of nerve agents and lives in the United States, believes that hundreds of people could have been affected by residual contamination in Salisbury. He said that Sergei and Yulia Skripal, if poisoned with a Novichok, would be left with debilitating health issues for the rest of their lives. He also criticised the response of Public Health England, saying that washing personal belongings was insufficient to remove traces of the chemical.[139][140]

Two other Russian scientists who now live in Russia and have been involved in Soviet-era chemical weapons development, Vladimir Uglev and Leonid Rink, were quoted as saying that Novichok agents had been developed in the 1970s–1980s within the programme that was officially titled FOLIANT and the term Novichok referred to a whole system of chemical weapons use; they, as well as Mirzayanov, who published Novichok's formula in 2008, also noted that Novichok-type agents might be synthesised in other countries.[141][142][143][144] In 1995, Leonid Rink received a one-year suspended sentence for selling Novichok agents to unnamed buyers, soon after the fatal poisoning of Russian banker Ivan Kivilidi by Novichok.[145][146][147][148]

A former KGB and FSB officer, Boris Karpichkov, who operated in Latvia in the 1990s and fled to the UK in 1998,[149] told ITV's Good Morning Britain that on 12 February 2018, three weeks before the Salisbury attack and exactly on his birthday, he received a message over the burner phone from "a very reliable source" in the FSB telling Karpichkov that "something bad [wa]s going to happen with [him] and seven other people, including Mr. Skripal", whom he then knew nothing about.[150] Karpichkov said he disregarded the message at the time, thinking it was not serious, as he had previously received such messages.[150] According to Karpichkov, the FSB′s list includes the names of Oleg Gordievsky and William Browder.[149][151][152]

Response from other countries and organisations

US government

Following Theresa May's statement in Parliament, the US Secretary of State Rex Tillerson released a statement on 12 March that fully supported the stance of the UK government on the poisoning attack, including "its assessment that Russia was likely responsible for the nerve agent attack that took place in Salisbury".[153] The following day, US President Donald Trump said that Russia was likely responsible.[154]

United States Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley at the Security Council briefing on 14 March 2018 stated: "The United States believes that Russia is responsible for the attack on two people in the United Kingdom using a military-grade nerve agent".[155]

Following the United States National Security Council′s recommendation,[156] President Trump, on 26 March, ordered the expulsion of sixty Russian diplomats (referred to by the White House as "Russian intelligence officers"[157]) and the closure of the Russian consulate in Seattle.[158][159] The action was cast as being "in response to Russia's use of a military-grade chemical weapon on the soil of the United Kingdom, the latest in its ongoing pattern of destabilising activities around the world."[157]

European Union and member states

European Commission Vice-President Frans Timmermans argued for "unequivocal, unwavering and very strong" European solidarity with the United Kingdom when speaking to lawmakers in Strasburg on 13 March.[160] Federica Mogherini, the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, expressed shock and offered the bloc's support.[161] Guy Verhofstadt, the European Parliament's Brexit negotiator, proclaimed solidarity with the British people.[162]

During a meeting in the Foreign Affairs Council on 19 March, all foreign ministers of the European Union declared in a joint statement that the "European Union expresses its unqualified solidarity with the UK and its support, including for the UK's efforts to bring those responsible for this crime to justice." In addition, the statement also pointed out that "The European Union takes extremely seriously the UK Government's assessment that it is highly likely that the Russian Federation is responsible."[163]

Norbert Röttgen, a former federal minister in Angela Merkel's government and current chairman of Germany's parliamentary foreign affairs committee, said the incident demonstrated the need for Britain to review its open-door policy towards Russian capital of dubious origin.[164]

Sixteen EU countries expelled 33 Russian diplomats on 26 March.[165][166]

Other non-EU countries

Albania, Australia, Canada, Macedonia, Moldova, Norway and Ukraine expelled a total of 26 Russian diplomats who were believed to have been intelligence officers.[167] The New Zealand Government also issued a statement supporting the actions, noting that it would have expelled any Russian intelligence agents who had been detected in the country.[168]

NATO

NATO issued an official response to the attack on 14 March. The alliance expressed its deep concern over the first offensive use of a nerve agent on its territory since its foundation and said that the attack was in breach of international treaties. It called on Russia to fully disclose its research of the Novichok agent to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons.[169]

Jens Stoltenberg, NATO Secretary General, announced on 27 March that NATO would be expelling seven Russian diplomats from the Russian mission to NATO in Brussels. In addition, 3 unfilled positions at the mission have been denied accreditation from NATO. Russia blamed the US for the NATO response.[170]

Joint responses

The leaders of France, Germany, the United States and the United Kingdom released a joint statement on 15 March which supported the UK's stance on the incident, stating that it was "highly likely that Russia was responsible" and calling on Russia to provide complete disclosure to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons concerning its Novichok nerve agent program.[171][172] On 19 March, the European Union also issued a statement strongly condemning the attack and stating it "takes extremely seriously the UK Government's assessment that it is highly likely that the Russian Federation is responsible."[163]

Expulsion of diplomats

Expelled Russian diplomats

By the end of March 2018 a number of countries and other organisations expelled Russian diplomats in a show of solidarity with the UK. According to the BBC it was "the largest collective expulsion of Russian intelligence officers in history".[173][170][174]

The UK expelled 23 Russian diplomats on 14 March 2018. Three days later, Russia expelled an equal number of British diplomats and ordered closure of the UK consulate in St Petersberg and closure of the British Council in Russia.[122] Nine countries expelled Russian diplomats on 26 March: along with 6 other EU nations, the USA, Canada, Ukraine and Albania. The following day, several nations inside and outside of the EU, and NATO responded similarly. By 30 March, Russia expelled an equal number of diplomats of most nations who had expelled Russian diplomats. By that time, Belgium, Montenegro, Hungary and Georgia had also expelled one or more Russian diplomats. Additionally on 30 March, Russia reduced the size of the total UK mission′s personnel in Russia to match that of the Russian mission to the UK.

Bulgaria, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia and the European Union itself have not expelled any Russian diplomats but have recalled their ambassadors from Russia for consultations.[175][176][177][178][179][180] Furthermore, Iceland has decided to diplomatically boycott the 2018 FIFA World Cup held in Russia.[181]

Country or
organisation
Diplomats expelled Date announced Notes Response by Russia Date announced
 Albania 2 26 March 2 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Australia 2 27 March 2 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Belgium 1 27 March 1 diplomat expelled (the economic attaché).[183] 4 April
 Canada 4[184] 26 March 4 diplomats expelled. 3 pending applications declined. 4 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Croatia 1 26 March 1 diplomat based in Zagreb declared PNG.[185] 30 March
 Czech Republic 3 26 March 3 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Denmark 2 26 March 2 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Estonia 1 26 March 1 diplomat expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Finland 1 26 March 1 diplomat expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 France 4 26 March 4 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Germany 4 26 March 4 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Georgia 1[186] 30 March
 Hungary 1 26 March 1 diplomat expelled by Russia.[187] 4 April
 Ireland 1 27 March 1 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Italy 2 26 March 2 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Latvia 1 26 March 1 diplomat expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Lithuania 3 26 March 3 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Macedonia 1 26 March 1 diplomat expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Moldova 3 27 March 3 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Montenegro 1[188] 28 March
 NATO 7[170] 27 March 7 expelled and 3 pending applications declined. Maximum delegation reduced by 10.
 Netherlands 2 26 March 2 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Norway 1 26 March 1 diplomat expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Poland 4 26 March 4 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Romania 1 26 March 1 diplomat expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Spain 2 26 March 2 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Sweden 1 26 March 1 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 Ukraine 13 26 March 13 diplomats expelled by Russia.[182] 30 March
 United Kingdom 23 14 March 23 UK diplomats expelled by Russia.
British consulate in St Petersburg closed. British Council closure.
17 March
UK diplomatic mission to Russia reduced in size to match Russian mission to UK. Requires the UK to recall a further 27 officials. 30 March
 United States 60 26 March Russian consulate in Seattle closed. 48 Russian diplomats expelled from Washington D.C. and 12 expelled from New York. 60 US diplomats expelled by Russia.
US consulate in St Petersburg closed.
30 March

See also

Notes

  1. ^ According to chief executive UK government defence laboratories[1]
  2. ^ The Russian ambassador to the UK suggested British authorities told him it was the A-234 variant[2]
  3. ^ The Skripals and Detective Sergeant Nick Bailey of Wiltshire Police.
  4. ^ Stephen Davies of Salisbury NHS Foundation Trust wrote an open letter to The Times, published on 16 March 2018, clarifying that contrary to reports, no members of the public were affected: "Sir, Further to your report ("Poison exposure leaves almost 40 needing treatment", Mar 14), may I clarify that no patients have experienced symptoms of nerve agent poisoning in Salisbury and there have only ever been three patients with significant poisoning. Several people have attended the emergency department concerned that they may have been exposed. None has had symptoms of poisoning and none has needed treatment. Any blood tests performed have shown no abnormality. No member of the public has been contaminated by the agent involved."[11]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Kelso, Paul (4 April 2018). "Porton Down experts unable to identify 'precise source' of novichok that poisoned spy". Sky News. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  2. ^ a b c "Russian spy: What are Novichok agents and what do they do?". BBC News. 19 March 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2018. 
  3. ^ a b Asthana, Anushka; Roth, Andrew; Harding, Luke; MacAskill, Ewen (12 March 2018). "May issues ultimatum to Moscow over Salisbury poisoning". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  4. ^ Dodd, Vikram; Harding, Luke; MacAskill, Ewen (8 March 2018). "Sergei Skripal: former Russian spy poisoned with nerve agent, say police". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 March 2018. 
  5. ^ "Salisbury attack: Chemical weapons watchdog confirms UK findings on nerve agent". Deutsche Welle. 12 April 2018. Retrieved 10 June 2018. 
  6. ^ "Russian spy: Yulia Skripal 'conscious and talking'". BBC News. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018 ; "Russian spy poisoning: Yulia Skripal 'getting stronger daily'". BBC News. 5 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018 
  7. ^ Smout, Alistair. "Poisoned Russian agent Sergei Skripal recovering rapidly, hospital..." 
  8. ^ a b "Ex-spy 'improving rapidly' after poisoning". 6 April 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk. 
  9. ^ a b "Policeman discharged after ex-spy attack". BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2018. 
  10. ^ a b "Russian spy: What we know so far". BBC News. 5 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018. 
  11. ^ Simpson, John; Haynes, Deboarh (16 March 2018). Hamilton, Fiona, ed. "Russia: Salisbury poison fears allayed by doctor". Retrieved 29 March 2018. 
  12. ^ "Russian jailed for spying for MI6". London Evening Standard. London. 9 August 2006. p. 4. 
  13. ^ "The great spy swap: huge exchange of agents underway after 'deep cover' ring exposed". The Guardian. London. 9 July 2010. p. 3. 
  14. ^ Janjevic, Darko (6 April 2018). "The curious case of Yulia Skripal's recorded phone call". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  15. ^ Chughtai, Petkova. "Skripal case diplomatic expulsions in numbers". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 8 April 2018. 
  16. ^ "Russia claims it could have been in interests of Britain to poison Sergei Skripal". The Independent. 2 April 2018. Retrieved 3 April 2018. 
  17. ^ "Ongoing investigation into incident in Salisbury on 4 March". Metropolitan Police. Retrieved 6 June 2018. 
  18. ^ "Russian spy: What we know so far". BBC News. 8 March 2018. 
  19. ^ "Alleged former Russian spy critically ill after exposure to unknown substance in Salisbury". The Daily Telegraph. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018. 
  20. ^ Kingsley, Patrick; Pérez-Peña, Richard (6 March 2018). "In Poisoning of Sergei Skripal, Russian Ex-Spy, U.K. Sees Cold War Echoes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  21. ^ "Russian spy: What we know so far". BBC. 18 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2018. 
  22. ^ a b "Moscow 'Highly Likely' Behind Salisbury Chemical Attack, Prime Minister of United Kingdom Says in Letter to Security Council – Russian Federation Calls Statement Irresponsible, Threatening". United Nations. 14 March 2018. SC/13247. Retrieved 9 April 2018. 
  23. ^ "How Salisbury case went from local drama to international incident". The Guardian. 10 March 2018. Retrieved 20 March 2018. 
  24. ^ "Critically ill man 'former Russian spy'". BBC News. 5 March 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018. 
  25. ^ "Up to 21 people treated after nerve agent attack on Russian spy Sergei Skripal". ITV News. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018. 
  26. ^ Casciani, Dominic (9 March 2018). World at One. BBC Radio 4. Event occurs at 21m47s. Retrieved 9 March 2018. There was some erroneous reporting that there were 21 other people being treated, that is not true, there has only been these three casualties and they are all still in hospital 
  27. ^ Robert Mendick (9 March 2018). "Russian spy may have been poisoned at home, police believe, as military deployed to Salisbury". The Daily Telegraph. 
  28. ^ "Russian spy 'attacked with nerve agent'". BBC News. 7 March 2018. 
  29. ^ "More than 130 people could have been exposed to novichok, PM says". The Guardian. 26 March 2018. 
  30. ^ "A poisoned Russian spy and his daughter may never recover their full mental functions, a British judge said". Newsweek. 23 March 2018. 
  31. ^ "Ex-spy's daughter 'improving rapidly'". BBC News. 29 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018. 
  32. ^ "Russian spy poisoning: Sergei Skripal 'improving rapidly'". BBC News. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  33. ^ "Russian spy: Daughter discharged from hospital". BBC News. 10 April 2018. Retrieved 10 April 2018. 
  34. ^ "No-one speaks for me – Yulia Skripal". BBC News. 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018. 
  35. ^ "Ex-spy Sergei Skripal discharged after poisoning". BBC News. Retrieved 18 May 2018. 
  36. ^ "Russian spy poisoning: Yulia Skripal hopes to return to Russia". BBC. 23 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018. 
  37. ^ "Russian spy Sergei Skripal's pet cat and guinea pigs taken for tests". 17 March 2018. 
  38. ^ "Sergei Skripal's cat and guinea pigs are dead, UK says". CNN. 6 April 2018. 
  39. ^ "Russian spy's cat had to be put down and guinea pigs died of thirst after cops sealed them in house". Mirror. 5 April 2018. 
  40. ^ "'More known' about substance in spy case". BBC News. 7 March 2018. 
  41. ^ Rob Merrick (8 March 2018). "Russian spy: Poisoned Sergei Skripal's wife and son were murdered, alleges Conservative MP". Independent. Retrieved 8 March 2018. 
  42. ^ "Military deployed after spy poisoning". BBC News. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 9 March 2018. 
  43. ^ "Public health advice for those who were in The Mill pub or Zizzi restaurant in Salisbury on Sunday 4th or Monday 5th March 2018" (PDF). 
  44. ^ "Salisbury diners told to wash possessions". BBC News. 11 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  45. ^ a b c d "PM Commons statement on Salisbury incident: 12 March 2018". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  46. ^ "Russian spy: Highly likely Moscow behind attack, says Theresa May". BBC News. 12 March 2018. Retrieved 12 March 2018. 
  47. ^ "Explainer: What is known, and not known, about poisoning of ex-spy in Britain". Reuters. 5 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  48. ^ Morris, Steven (14 March 2018). "Police home in on five key locations in Skripal attempted murder case". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  49. ^ "Police cordon off road in Gillingham following poisoning in Salisbury". ITV News. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  50. ^ Trim, Liam (14 March 2018). "Local reveals van in new spy poison cordon area has been there for days". somersetlive. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  51. ^ Mendick,Robert; Sawer, Patrick; Ward , Victoria (15 March 2018). "Suitcase spy poisoning plot: nerve agent 'was planted in luggage of Sergei Skripal's daughter'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 June 2018. 
  52. ^ Association, Press (18 March 2018). "Sergei Skripal possibly poisoned through car's air vents, say US media". the Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2018. 
  53. ^ News, A. B. C. (18 March 2018). "Russian ex-spy's poisoning in UK believed from nerve agent in car vents: Sources". ABC News. Retrieved 29 March 2018. 
  54. ^ "Two to three weeks to analyze samples from Salisbury attack: OPCW". Agence France-Presse. 20 March 2018.
  55. ^ Justice Williams, High Court Judgement, Royal Courts of Justice, 22 March 2018. judiciary.gov.uk.
  56. ^ Morris, Steven (22 March 2018). "Judge gives permission for blood samples to be taken from the Skripals". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 March 2018. 
  57. ^ "Spy poisoning: Highest amount of nerve agent was on door". BBC News. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018. 
  58. ^ "Inspectors back UK in spy poisoning row". BBC News. 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018 ; "Watchdog confirms UK findings on nerve agent used on Russian ex-spy". AFP.com. Retrieved 12 April 2018. 
  59. ^ "OPCW Issues Report on Technical Assistance Requested by the United Kingdom". www.opcw.org. Retrieved 12 April 2018. 
  60. ^ "Summary of the Report on Activities Carried Out in Support of a Request for Technical Assistance by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Technical Assistance Visit TAV/02/18)" (PDF). 12 April 2018. Retrieved 12 April 2018. 
  61. ^ Rayner, Gordon; Maidment, Jack (13 April 2018). "Russia hacked Yulia Skripal's emails for five years and tested Novichok on door handles, bombshell intelligence dossier reveals". The Telegraph. Retrieved 13 April 2018. 
  62. ^ "Skripal nerve agent 'was in liquid form'". BBC News. 17 April 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018. 
  63. ^ "Salisbury toxic hotspots clean-up begins". BBC News. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  64. ^ Former high-ranking KGB spook 'is Russian assassin suspected in Salisbury poisoning attack'. Dailyrecord.co.uk (22 April 2018). Retrieved on 18 May 2018.
  65. ^ Is this the Salisbury poisonings hitman? Former KGB captain codenamed 'Gordon' is Russian assassin suspect. Mirror.co.uk (22 April 2018). Retrieved on 18 May 2018
  66. ^ British media: Skripal was poisoned by former SFB officer "Gordon" (Russian), by RFE/RL
  67. ^ MacAskill, Ewan (1 May 2018). "No suspects yet in Skripal nerve agent attack, MPs told". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 May 2018. 
  68. ^ Slawson, Nicola (3 May 2018). "Skripals poisoned by novichok dose of up to 100g, watchdog says". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 May 2018. 
  69. ^ Wintour, Patrick (4 May 2018). "Chemical weapons watchdog amends claim over Salisbury novichok". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 May 2018. 
  70. ^ "OPCW Spokesperson's Statement on Amount of Nerve Agent Used in Salisbury". OPCW. 4 May 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2018. 
  71. ^ Russian spy: May under pressure to take firm action BBC, 12 March 2018.
  72. ^ a b Neil Buckley, David Bond, Henry Foy. The unanswered questions over the attack on a Russian double agent Financial Times, 9 March 2018 (print edition of 10 March 2018)
  73. ^ Russia spy attack: Theresa May has tried to back Vladimir Putin into a corner – the Kremlin will kick back The Independent, 12 March 2018.
  74. ^ Boris Johnson: UK will respond robustly if Russia poisoned spy The Guardian, 6 March 2018.
  75. ^ Government Policy on Russia House of Commons Hansard, 6 March 2018.
  76. ^ "Russian spy: Salisbury attack was 'brazen and reckless'". BBC News. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  77. ^ Rayner, Gordon (12 March 2018). "Theresa May's ultimatum to Vladimir Putin: Russian leader given 24 hours to answer for nerve agent attack on spy". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  78. ^ Amber Rudd orders inquiry into Russia-linked deaths in UK: Home secretary responds to calls to examine alleged Russian involvement in up to 14 deaths The Guardian, 13 March 2018.
  79. ^ a b Russian spy incident: Theresa May moves to dismantle Russian spy 'network' expelling 23 diplomats: Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson will announce new investment in chemical weapons facilities in the wake of the Salisbury attack The Independent, 15 March 2018.
  80. ^ Stewart, Heather; Walker, Peter; Borger, Julian (14 March 2018). "Russia threatens retaliation after Britain expels 23 diplomats". The Guardian. 
  81. ^ "UK to expel 23 Russian diplomats". BBC News. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  82. ^ "How is the UK retaliating against Russia?". BBC News. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  83. ^ "UK to build new chemical defence centre". BBC News. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. UK Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson ... said the UK leads the world in research into chemical, biological and radiological warfare but said this expertise needed to be developed further to confront potential hostile activity by states and individuals. 
  84. ^ "Defence secretary tells Russia: Shut up". BBC News. 15 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  85. ^ Russian spy poisoning: Furious MPs condemn Jeremy Corbyn's response to statement on Sailsbury attack: Labour leader accused of 'policy of appeasement' after refusing to directly blame Russia for poisoning former spy The Independent, 14 March 2018.
  86. ^ Russian spy: Jeremy Corbyn aide queries proof of Russian guilt BBC, 14 March 2018.
  87. ^ "Jeremy Corbyn defies critics and calls for calm over Russia". The Guardian. 15 March 2018. 
  88. ^ "Jeremy Corbyn points to Iraq WMDs mistake as he casts doubt on Russian culpability for nerve agent attack", The Independent, 15 March 2018.
  89. ^ UK calls for urgent U.N. Security Council meeting over nerve attack Reuters, 14 March 2018.
  90. ^ UK blocks Russia-initiated UNSC statement on Skripal incident TASS, 15 March 2018.
  91. ^ US blames Russia for Skripal attack, in ‘absolute solidarity’ with UK, Financial Times, 14 March 2018.
  92. ^ Russian spy: White House backs UK decision to expel diplomats BBC, 15 March 2018.
  93. ^ Statement by the Press Secretary on the United Kingdom's Decision to Expel Russian Diplomats The White House, 14 March 2018.
  94. ^ "Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 87th Executive Council session: statement on the Salisbury incident". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  95. ^ NATO. "Statement by the North Atlantic Council on the use of a nerve agent in Salisbury". NATO. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  96. ^ "NATO calls on Russia to give full details on nerve agent program". Reuters. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  97. ^ Wilson, Peter (14 March 2018). "Update on the use of Nerve Agent in Salisbury, United Kingdom" (PDF). Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Retrieved 16 March 2018. 
  98. ^ Putin personally ordered attack on spy, says UK The Independent, 17 March 2018.
  99. ^ Waugh, Paul (4 April 2018). "Johnson Under Fire As Foreign Office Deletes Russia Tweet". HuffPost. Retrieved 4 April 2018. The Foreign Secretary was making clear that Porton Down were sure it was a Novichok – a point they have reinforced. He goes on in the same interview to make clear why based on that information, additional intelligence and the lack of alternative explanation from the Russians, we have reached the conclusion we have. 
  100. ^ "Labour says it deserves 'credit' for questioning if Russia was to blame for Salisbury nerve agent". The Independent. 4 April 2018.
  101. ^ a b Taylor, Adam (4 April 2018). "Britain's Boris Johnson accused of misleading public over Skripal poisoning evidence". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  102. ^ "Agent used in Salisbury made at Russia's Shikhany military research base: Times". Reuters. 6 April 2018. 
  103. ^ John Simpson, Crime Correspondent; Deborah Haynes, Defence (9 April 2018). "Russian message intercepted after Skripal attack" – via www.thetimes.co.uk. 
  104. ^ "Russia says London spreading propaganda over spy poisoning". CNBC. 11 March 2018.
  105. ^ "Russia Says London Spreading Propaganda Over Spy Poisoning". The Moscow Times. 9 March 2018.
  106. ^ "Russia Says "Not Guilty" Of Ex-Spy Poisoning As UK Deadline Looms". NDTV. 13 March 2018.
  107. ^ "Russian spy poisoning: Theresa May issues ultimatum to Moscow". The Guardian. 13 March 2018.
  108. ^ a b "Лавров ответил на  ультиматум Мэй  ссылкой на   конвенцию о  химоружии". NEWSru.com (in Russian). Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  109. ^ "В МИД РФ заявление Мэй о причастности России к отравлению Скрипаля сочли "сказками" и "цирковым шоу"". NEWSru.com (in Russian). Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  110. ^ "Russia: Theresa May's comments on Salisbury spy a 'circus show'". Sky News. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  111. ^ "Russia Rejects Britain’s Ultimatum, Wants Access To Nerve Agent". Channels TV. 13 March 2018.
  112. ^ a b Roth, Andrew (13 March 2018). "Russia demands nerve agent samples in standoff with UK over poisoned spy". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  113. ^ "Лавров о деле Скрипаля: Британия не соблюдает международные нормы". BBC Русская служба (in Russian). 13 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  114. ^ "Захарова: никто не может выдвигать России 24-часовые ультиматумы". ТАСС (in Russian). Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  115. ^ "No one can deliver any 24-hour ultimatums to Russia – Foreign Ministry spokeswoman". TASS (in Russian). Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  116. ^ 60 минут. Эфир от 13.03.2018 (19:00). Отравление Скрипаля: дойдет ли до разрыва дипотношений с Великобританией (in Russian), retrieved 15 March 2018 
  117. ^ UK rejects joint probe with Russia into spy poisoning The Washington Post, 4 April 2018.
  118. ^ Нарышкин назвал «дело Скрипаля» гротескной провокацией Британии и США Izvestia, 4 April 2018.
  119. ^ "UK may have staged Skripal poisoning to rally people against Russia, Moscow believes". 
  120. ^ "Russia claims Britain 'STAGED poisoning of Skripal to turn people against Putin'". 1 April 2018. 
  121. ^ "Moscow confronts London with 14 questions on 'fabricated' Skripal case". 
  122. ^ a b "Russia expels 23 British diplomats in retaliation as diplomatic spat over Sergei Skripal poisoning intensifies", The Independent, 17 March 2018.
  123. ^ Bretton-Gordon, Hamish de (14 May 2018). "Why Novichok could be Russia's most terrifying weapon in a war with the West". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  124. ^ a b "Russian State TV Host Warns 'Traitors' After Skripal Poisoning". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  125. ^ "Russian state TV anchor warns 'traitors'". BBC News. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  126. ^ Knight, Amy. "Vladimir Putin's Re-Election Strategy: Nukes and Assassins". Daily Beast. Retrieved 8 March 2018. 
  127. ^ a b "Глава МИД Великобритании Борис Джонсон предположил, что за отравлением Сергея Скрипаля стоит Москва.", Channel One Russia (in Russian), 7 March 2018 
  128. ^ Bennetts, Marc (9 March 2018). "Russian state TV warns 'traitors' not to settle in England". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  129. ^ "Russian state TV anchor says it is 'rare that traitors live to old age'". The Independent. 8 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  130. ^ Elgot, Jessica (6 March 2018). "Boris Johnson: UK will respond robustly if Russia poisoned spy". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  131. ^ "All the times Russia allegedly carried out assassinations on British soil". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  132. ^ Вести недели с Дмитрием Киселевым от 11.03.18 (the relevant footage begins at 1:27:20), Vesti Nedeli, 11 March 2018.
  133. ^ Britain Poisoned Double Agent Skripal to 'Nourish Russophobia' — Russian State Media The Moscow Times, 12 March 2018.
  134. ^ Russian state TV accuses Britain of poisoning spy in special operation Reuters, 12 March 2018.
  135. ^ Russia Wants Samples Of The Nerve Agent Believed To Have Poisoned A Former Russian Spy And His Daughter Buzzfeed.com, 12 March 2018.
  136. ^ Kuzmenkova, Olga (22 April 2018). "Reality Check: Russian TV's claims about Salisbury attack". BBC News. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  137. ^ "Long read: Does the UK's case against Russia stack up?". Channel 4 News. Retrieved 23 April 2018. 
  138. ^ a b Aitkenhead, Gary (3 April 2018). Salisbury: 'Precise source' of nerve agent not known. Sky News (full video interview [3mins 49sec]). Twitter. Retrieved 4 April 2018. [1m:24s] we have been able to establish it is Novichok or from that family ... [3m:26s] it is a military grade nerve agent which requires extremely sophisticated methods in order to create something that is probably only within the capabilities of a state actor 
  139. ^ Deardon, Lizzie; Sharman, Jon (13 March 2018). "Russian spy attack: Hundreds in Salisbury could be poisoned in years to come with 'no cure', says nerve agent developer". Independent. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  140. ^ Писня, Наталка (16 March 2018). "Вил Мирзаянов: разработка "Новичка" в России никогда не прекращалась". BBC. Retrieved 23 March 2018. 
  141. ^ Что такое "Новичок"? Версии трех разработчиков BBC, 20 March 2018.
  142. ^ "Soviet-era scientists contradict Moscow's claims Russia never made Novichok nerve agent". The Independent. 20 March 2018. 
  143. ^ Russian Scientist Says Other Countries May Have Novichok Samples. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 17 March 2018.
  144. ^ Soviet-era scientist says he helped create poison in UK spy attack row Reuters, 20 March 2018.
  145. ^ "«Новичок» уже убивал". 
  146. ^ Foundation, Thomson Reuters. "Secret trial shows risks of nerve agent theft in post-Soviet chaos – experts". trust.org. 
  147. ^ Quand un banquier russe était tué au Novitchok dans le Moscou des années 1990, Le Figaro, 21 March 2018.(in French)
  148. ^ В 1995 году ядом, похожим на "Новичок", отравили банкира Ивана Кивелиди, BBC, 14 March 2018.(in Russian)
  149. ^ a b Бывший двойной агент ФCБ в Латвии: меня тоже атаковали неизвестным веществом Delfi, 15 March 2018.
  150. ^ a b Former KGB agent says he was warned of Skripal poisoning Good Morning Britain, 12 March 2018.
  151. ^ Russian spy claims he is on hit-list of EIGHT targets he says Vladimir Putin wants dead Mirror, 10 March 2018.
  152. ^ Kitty Donaldson, Henry Meyer, and Irina Reznik. Finding Your Name on Russia’s Hit List: The nerve-gas poisoning of a former KGB agent in the U.K. has Moscow’s foes spooked. Bloomberg, 29 March 2018.
  153. ^ "Attributing Responsibility for the Nerve Agent Attack in the U.K." U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  154. ^ CNN, Judith Vonberg,. "Trump: Russia likely poisoned ex-spy, 'based on all the evidence'". CNN. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  155. ^ Haley, Nikki (14 March 2018). "Remarks at an Emergency UN Security Council Briefing on Chemical Weapons Use by Russia in the United Kingdom". United States Mission to the United Nations. Department of State. 
  156. ^ CNN, Michelle Kosinski,. "Trump's National Security Council recommends expelling Russian diplomats". CNN. Retrieved 24 March 2018. 
  157. ^ a b Statement from the Press Secretary on the Expulsion of Russian Intelligence Officers The White House, 26 March 2018.
  158. ^ Rucker, Philip; Nakashima, Ellen (26 March 2018). "Trump administration expels 60 Russian officers, shuts Seattle consulate in response to attack on former spy in Britain". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  159. ^ США высылают из страны 60 российских дипломатов TASS, 26 March 2018.
  160. ^ "The Latest: Trump, May agree on consequences for poison use". Associated Press. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  161. ^ "Despite Brexit, Britain wins EU support on nerve agent attack". Reuters. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  162. ^ "UK's effort to rally allies over Sergei Skripal poisoning may fall short". The Guardian. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 13 March 2018. 
  163. ^ a b "Statement by the Foreign Affairs Council on the Salisbury attack" (Press release). Council of the European Union. 19 March 2018. Retrieved 19 March 2018. 
  164. ^ Wintour, Patrick (13 March 2018). "UK's effort to rally allies over Sergei Skripal poisoning may fall short". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2018. 
  165. ^ "Spy poisoning: Russian diplomats expelled across US and Europe". BBC News. 26 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  166. ^ Borger, Julian; Wintour, Patrick; Stewart, Heather (26 March 2018). "US and EU expel scores of Russian diplomats over Skripal attack". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 March 2018. 
  167. ^ Dewan, Angela (27 March 2018). "These are all the countries that are expelling Russian diplomats". CNN. Retrieved 27 March 2018. 
  168. ^ "PM Jacinda Ardern: Why NZ is not expelling Russia diplomats". The New Zealand Herald. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018. 
  169. ^ "Statement by the North Atlantic Council on the use of a nerve agent in Salisbury". nato.int. 14 March 2018. Retrieved 23 March 2018. 
  170. ^ a b c "Nato slashes Russia staff after poisoning". BBC News. 27 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018. 
  171. ^ Walker, Peter; Roth, Andrew (15 March 2018). "UK, US, Germany and France unite to condemn spy attack". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  172. ^ "Salisbury attack: Joint statement from the leaders of France, Germany, the United States and the United Kingdom". Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 15 March 2018. 
  173. ^ "Russia faces wave of diplomatic expulsions". BBC News. 26 March 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2018. 
  174. ^ "Montenegro to expel Russian diplomat over UK nerve gas attack". Reuters. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018. 
  175. ^ Bulgaria Recalls Ambassador From Russia to Discuss Nerve Agent Attack. Reuters via US News. 27 March 2018.
  176. ^ Slovakia to Call Ambassador to Russia Back Home for Consultation. TASR.sk. 28 March 2018.
  177. ^ Luxembourg recalls ambassador from Russia over Salisbury attack. Reuters. 28 March 2018.
  178. ^ Diacono, Tim. Malta Has Just Recalled Its Ambassador To Russia. Lovin Malta. Retrieved on 18 May 2018.
  179. ^ State of play over Russian envoy expulsions. Finance.yahoo.com (28 March 2018). Retrieved on 2018-05-18.
  180. ^ Slovenia recalling its ambassador to Russia for consultations. Tass. 29 March 2018.
  181. ^ Iceland to diplomatically boycott 2018 World Cup in Russia. Rt.com. 26 March 2018.
  182. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Spy poisoning: Russia expels more UK diplomats". BBC. 31 March 2018. 
  183. ^ "Deze diplomaat wijst Rusland uit" (in Dutch). VTM. 4 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  184. ^ "Canada expels Russian diplomats in solidarity with United Kingdom". www.canada.ca. 26 March 2018. 
  185. ^ Nepoželjna šefica ureda ministrice, kćer počasnog konzula Moskve Večernji list, 30 March 2018.
  186. ^ "Georgia expels one Russian diplomat over UK nerve agent attack". Reuters. 30 March 2018. 
  187. ^ "Russia says expels one Hungarian diplomat over Skripal case". Reuters. 4 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  188. ^ "Slovakia recalls ambassador from Moscow, Montenegro to expel Russian diplomat". RT. 28 March 2018. 

External links

  • "Russian spy: What we know so far", BBC, 19 March 2018
  • "Amanda Erickson: The long, terrifying history of Russian dissidents being poisoned abroad", The Washington Post, 7 March 2018
  • "Joel Gunter: Sergei Skripal and the 14 deaths under scrutiny", bbc.com, 7 March 2018
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Poisoning_of_Sergei_and_Yulia_Skripal&oldid=846558246"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisoning_of_Sergei_Skripal
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA