Injury

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Injury
Xraymachine.JPG
The knee of a person is examined with the help of radiography after an injury.
Specialty Emergency medicine, Traumatology 

Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.[1] This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes.[1] Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.

In 2013, 4.8 million people died from injuries, up from 4.3 million in 1990.[2] More than 30% of these deaths were transport-related injuries.[2] In 2013, 367,000 children under the age of five died from injuries, down from 766,000 in 1990.[2] Injuries are the cause of 9% of all deaths, and are the sixth-leading cause of death in the world.[3][4]

Classification

Deaths from injuries per million persons in 2012
  203-358
  359-428
  429-483
  484-559
  560-637
  638-716
  717-817
  818-939
  940-1,140
  1,141-2,961
Deaths from intentional injuries per million persons in 2012
  14-65
  66-89
  90-114
  115-137
  138-171
  172-193
  194-226
  227-291
  292-379
  380-2,730

The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). Under this system, injuries are classified by:

  • mechanism of injury;
  • objects/substances producing injury;
  • place of occurrence;
  • activity when injured;
  • the role of human intent;

and additional modules. These codes allow the identification of distributions of injuries in specific populations and case identification for more detailed research on causes and preventive efforts.[5][6]

The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). Under this system injuries are classified by

  • nature,
  • part of body affected,
  • source and secondary source, and
  • event or exposure.

The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since.[7]

The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries.[8]

By cause

By modality

By location

By activity

Injury severity score

The injury severity score (ISS) is a medical score to assess trauma severity.[10][11] It correlates with mortality, morbidity, and hospitalization time after trauma. It is used to define the term major trauma (polytrauma), recognized when the ISS is greater than 15.[11] The AIS Committee of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine designed and updates the scale.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Wounds and Injuries: MedlinePlus". Nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-20. 
  2. ^ a b c GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604Freely accessible. PMID 25530442. 
  3. ^ "The top 10 causes of death". Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  4. ^ Stein DM, Santucci RA (July 2015). "An update on urotrauma". Current Opinion in Urology. 25 (4): 323–30. doi:10.1097/MOU.0000000000000184. PMID 26049876. 
  5. ^ "International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  6. ^ Robertson, LS (2015) Injury Epidemiology: Fourth Edition. Free online at www.nanlee.net
  7. ^ "Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  8. ^ Rae, K; Orchard, J (May 2007). "The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) version 10". Clin J Sport Med. 17 (3): 201–04. doi:10.1097/jsm.0b013e318059b536. PMID 17513912. 
  9. ^ "Trauma". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 
  10. ^ Baker SP, O'Neill B, Haddon W, Long WB (1974). "The Injury Severity Score: a method for describing patients with multiple injuries and evaluating emergency care". The Journal of Trauma. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 14 (3): 187–96. doi:10.1097/00005373-197403000-00001. PMID 4814394. 
  11. ^ a b Copes, W.S.; H.R. Champion; W.J. Sacco; M.M. Lawnick; S.L. Keast; L.W. Bain (1988). "The Injury Severity Score revisited". The Journal of Trauma. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 28 (1): 69–77. doi:10.1097/00005373-198801000-00010. PMID 3123707. 

External links

Classification
D


  • International Trauma Conferences (registered trauma charity providing trauma education for medical professionals worldwide)
  • Trauma.org (trauma resources for medical professionals)
  • Emergency Medicine Research and Perspectives (emergency medicine procedure videos)
  • American Trauma Society
  • Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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