Philippine English

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Philippine English
Native to Philippines
Region Southeast Asia
Native speakers
~28,700 L1 speakers (2005 UNSD)
~40 million L2 speakers (Crystal 2003a)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None
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Philippine English (similar and related to American English) is any variety of English native to the Philippines, including those used by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos. English is taught in schools as one of the two official languages of the country, the other being Filipino (Tagalog). Due to the highly multilingual nature of the Philippines, code-switching such as Taglish (Tagalog-infused English) and Bislish (English infused with any of the Visayan languages) is prevalent across domains from casual settings to formal situations.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

History

Filipinos were first introduced to English when the British invaded Manila and Cavite in 1762, but this occupation had no lasting effect on English in the country. A national variety called Philippine English evolved eventually, as a result of the American colonization, and was arguably one of the fastest to develop in the postcolonial world. Its origins as an English language spoken by a large segment of the Philippine population can be traced to the American introduction of public education, taught in the English medium of instruction. This was marked by the arrival of the Thomasites in 1901, immediately during re-colonization after the Philippine Revolution in the late 19th century up to the early 1900. After a tumultuous period of colonial transition, Filipino leaders and elites, and the American colonial government alike begun discussing the formation of a Philippine national language. The retained high ethnolinguistic diversity of the new colony was due to low penetration of Spanish under Spain's rule. Spanish was limited to a medium of instruction for the landed elites and gentry. At the end of Spanish colonization, only 3-5% of the colonial population could speak Spanish.[8][9] The lingering effects of Spanish amongst the general population nevertheless had notable effects on the lexical development of many Philippine languages, and even Philippine English, in the form of hispanisms.[10] Amidst debates, Tagalog was declared the sole national lanuage until the late 20th century (relabelled as Pilpino in 1959, and as Filipino since 1973). With the successful establishment of American-style public education having English as a consequential medium, more than 20% of the Philippine population were reported to be able to understand and speak English just before the turn of mid-20th century.[9] This meteoric growth was sustained post-World War II, much further through Philippine mass media (e.g. newsprint, radio, television) where English also became the dominant language,[11] and by the ratification into the current Philippine Constitution in 1987, both Filipino and English were declared co-official languages.

Today a certain Philippine English, as formally called based on the World Englishes framework of renowned linguist Braj Kachru, is a recognized variety of English with its distinct lexical, phonological, and grammatical features (with considerable variations across socioeconomic groups and level of education being predictors of English proficiency in the Philippines). As English language became highly embedded in Philippine society, it was only a matter of time before the language was indigenized to the point that it became differentiated from English varieties found in the United States, United Kingdom, or elsewhere. This, along with the formal introduction of the World Englishes (WE) framework to English language scholars in the Philippines opened the floodgates to research on this new emerging English, which has since been branded as such as Philippine English.[12]

Philippine English in the services sector

The abundant supply of English speakers and competitive labor costs have enabled the Philippines to become a choice destination for foreign companies wishing to establish call centers and other outsourcing.[13][14][15] English proficiency sustains a major call center industry and in 2005, America Online had 1,000 people in what used to be the US Air Force's Clark Air Base in Angeles City answering ninety percent of their global e-mail inquiries. Citibank does its global ATM programming in the country, and Procter & Gamble has over 400 employees in Makati, a central Manila neighborhood, doing back office work for their Asian operations including finance, accounting, Human Resources and payments processing.

An influx of foreign students, principally from South Korea, has also led to growth in the number of English language learning centers,[16] especially in Metro Manila, Baguio City, Metro Cebu and Metro Bacolod.[17]

Orthography and grammar

Philippine laws and court decisions, with extremely rare exceptions, are written solely in English. English is also used in higher education, religious affairs, print and broadcast media, and business. Most educated Filipinos are bilinguals and speak English as one of their languages. For highly technical subjects such as nursing, medicine, computing and calculus, English is the preferred medium for textbooks, communication, etc. Very few would prefer highly technical books in either Filipino or the regional language.[18][19] Movies and TV shows in English are usually not dubbed in most cable channels[20] except a few such as Tagalized Movie Channel.[21]

Because English is part of the curricula from primary to secondary education, many Filipinos write and speak in fluent Philippine English, although there might be differences in pronunciation.[22] Most schools in the Philippines, however, are staffed by teachers who are speakers of Philippine English and hence notable differences from the American English from which it was derived are observable.

Philippine English traditionally follows American English spelling and grammar (with little to no similarity to British English) except when it comes to punctuation as well as date notations. For example, a comma almost never precedes the final item in an enumeration (much like the AP Stylebook and other style guides used in the English-speaking world). Except for some very fluent speakers (like news anchors), even in English-language media, dates are also often read with a cardinal instead of an ordinal number (e.g. "January one" instead of "January first") even if the written form is the same. This is mostly because educated Filipinos were taught to count English numbers cardinally, thus it carried over to their style of reading dates. In reading the day-month-year date notation used by some areas in the government (e.g. 1 January), it may be pronounced as "one January" or rearranged to the month-first reading "January one".

Tautologies like redundancy and pleonasm are common despite the emphasis on brevity and simplicity in making sentences; they are common to many speakers, especially among the older generations. The possible explanation is that the English language teachers who came to the Philippines were taught old-fashioned grammar, thus they spread that style to the students they served. Examples are "At this point in time" and ".. will be the one ..." (or "... will be the one who will ...") instead of "now" and "... will ..." respectively - e.g., "I will be the one who will go ...", rather than "I will go ...".[23]

Vocabulary

As a historical colony of the United States, the Philippine English lexicon shares most of its vocabulary from American English, but also has loanwords from native languages and Spanish, as well as some usages, coinages, and slang peculiar to the Philippines. Due to the influence of the Spanish languages, Philippine English also contains Spanish-derived terms, including Anglicizations, some resulting in false friends, such as "salvage". Philippine English also borrowed words from Philippine languages, especially native plant and animal names (e.g. "ampalaya", balimbing"), and cultural concepts with no exact English equivalents (e.g. kilig); some borrowings from Philippine languages have entered mainstream English, such as abaca and ylang-ylang.

Some terms are only used in some regions. Examples are bringhouse (bringing food home from fiestas), which is only used in the Visayas, and haggard (police on motorcycles), which is used only in Visayas and Mindanao.

Words with meanings differing from standard English

Word/phrase Philippine English Standard English Notes
Advanced of a clock ahead of standard time state-of-the-art
Artist actor/actress
Birdie penis little bird Childish slang, popularized by the Parokya ni Edgar song "Don't Touch My Birdie".
Bold (adjective) implying or associated with pornography (as in bold film, and bold star); (noun) pornography (adjective) courageous; brave
Brownout blackout; power outage sudden drop in voltage
Cabaret strip club live entertainment in a restaurant or nightclub
Calling card business card name card
Certain (particle)emphasis marker suggesting ambiguity or anonymity.[24] known, but not specifically named
Comedy practical joke humorous act
Commute to travel by public transportation to travel between home and work
Course college or university degree program individual subject of a learning program
Crocodile corrupt politician genus of reptile Originally referred to Philippine Constabulary officers, after the brown color of their uniform.
Dialect languages of the Philippines other than Filipino regional variety of a language From an erroneous redefinition of the term coined by the Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino after declaring regional languages in the country as "dialects" to Filipino.[25] Considered inaccurate and derogatory, and "regional language" is considered the correct and proper usage in linguistic discourse.
Drive-in motel; motor inn type of outdoor cinema; type of drive-thru restaurant where food is served by a carhop
Duster simple sun dress cleaning tool
Entertain to help or assist (in a corporate context e.g. "How can I entertain you?" for "How can I help you) to amuse
Fiscal public prosecutor; solicitor; attorney general public official responsible for control of public revenue in some countries
Gimmick unplanned night out with friends trick; ploy
Go up get on a vehicle get on( the bus/jeep)
Junk shop scrap dealer store selling worthless items Scrap dealer is also used as well
Life imprisonment reclusion perpetua life sentence
Malicious implying sexually perverted behaviour having bad or evil intent
Maniac pervert someone suffering from manic behavior From "sex maniac"
Middle name maternal surname/last name or maiden name second given name From the adaptation of Filipino names using Spanish naming customs to the Western system of first name-middle name-last name.
Motel love hotel; no-tell motel; sex hotel motorist's hotel Also simply called or used in conjunction with "short-time"
Nightclub strip club public or private establishment open at night to offer entertainment, food, drink, music, and dancing
open switch on(the light) switch on(the light)/turn on
Rotunda roundabout; traffic circle circular building From Spanish rotonda, via the Philippine languages
Rugby contact cement; rubber cement ball sport Genericized trademark from the wood glue brand by Bostik.
Sala living room or courtroom large hall or reception hall Borrowed from Spanish via Philippine languages
Salvage (noun) summary execution involving a person being killed by a gang in some locations and the cadaver thrown onto a large space such as a river, roadside or vacant land; (verb) to kill a person in a similar fashion (noun) act of rescuing or retrieved False friend from Spanish "salvaje" ("wild", via the form "salbahe" in Philippine languages), after the manner the victims are killed.
Scandal amateur pornography controversy Originally referred to celebrity sex tapes.
Singer vocal artist, regardless of genre
Slang (adjective) indicative of a foreign or strong English accent (noun) extremely informal language
Subdivision gated community or named residential area with a distinct flavor parcel of land subdivided into lots
Tissue paper napkin or toilet paper absorbent paper
Toga graduation gown ancient Roman garment
Tomboy lesbian boyish girl
Tricycle auto rickshaw using a motorcycle and sidecar rig cycle with three wheels In the Visayas, also used on pedicabs.
Trolley makeshift handcar (UK) cart; (US) streetcar Also called skate in Bicol Region.
Village gated community small settlement

Words, expressions, or usages peculiar to Philippine English

Word/phrase English definition or equivalents understood in most English varieties Notes
American or Americano white or Caucasian person
Apartelle budget hotel based on an apartment See also condotel
Banana cue Skewered cooking bananas, sprinkled with sugar, grilled and served hot. [26]
Bed-space to rent a bedroom at a private home, where the rent for it is paid by a lodger or boarder"[27]
Boodle fight gathering where food (usually pansit, or steamed rice and sardines) is served on old newspapers or banana leaves spread over a table and eaten with bare hands by a group of people. Devised by PMA cadets, and does not represent authentic Philippine culture, but instead symbolizes fraternity and equality among PMA members by their sharing the same food without regard to rank. From West Point slang meaning "any party at which boodle (candy, cake, ice cream, etc.) is served."[28]
Cadette female cadet
Carnapping[29] carjacking; motor vehicle theft Blend of car and kidnapping
Chancing sexual advance with suggestive body contact Often associated with Silent Generation and baby boomer Filipinos.[27]
Civilian clothes casual clothes Usually in a context where one is not required to wear a uniform. From police terminology, referring to plainclothes officers.
Comfort room/C.R. public toilet
Computer shop Internet café From incorrect translation of kompyuteran.
Condotel budget hotel based on a condominium See also apartelle
Coupon bond bond paper
Cutex nail polish Genericized trademark.
Dine-in eat-in
Disco nightclub Also disco club, or simply club
Dirty ice cream Generic ice cream sold by street vendors
Dirty kitchen kitchen dedicated to household workers
Eat-all-you-can all-you-can-eat Common, but not necessarily peculiar to Philippine English
Estafa fraud
Extra service orgasm as part of erotic massage done by a masseur; happy ending
Filipino time/Pinoy time Habitual lateness of Filipinos Stereotypical, but often used humorously. See also Juan time
Government-owned and controlled corporation State-owned enterprise Often abbreviated to GOCC.
Green joke off-color humor; ribaldry Calque of Spanish chiste verde. See also green-minded below
Green-minded dirty-minded; having sexual thoughts
Grotto garden or roadside shrine simulating a cave and containing a statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary (mostly Our Lady of Lourdes), and sometimes paired with a water feature From the holy cave in Lourdes, France.
Hand-carry carry-on; hand luggage
High-blood Heavily angered
Hold-departure order criminal travel injunction
Holdupper [30] Hold-up robber; stick-up man
Hollow block Cement, concrete, or foundation block
Informal settler squatter Also in informal settler's area (slum or shanty town)
Jeepney purpose-built public transportation vehicles, originally made from used US military jeeps
Jogging pants sweatpants or track pants, often part of the physical education uniform of most schools in the Philippines
Juan time habit of being on time After Juan dela Cruz.
Kidnapable Person who is a likely target for kidnap for ransom for their wealth and social status Slang, often used tongue-in-cheek.
Kikay kit container where a woman's make-up and toiletries are kept
Load (noun) prepaid credits (verb) top up .
Macho dancer male stripper on a gay bar
McDo McD's Clipping of McDonald's
Minor subject elective; optional subject
Necrological service obituary or pre-burial event consisting of eulogies and songs, especially over a deceased celebrity or public figure. Used by funeral homes. Outside that context, first noted in writing in the Taglish elegy of Filipino poet V.I.S. de Veyra for English-language Filipino poet Ophelia Alcantara Dimalanta titled Requiem Para Kay Ophie (Dimalanta)---Makata, Kritiko ng Wika which mentions "necrological service" among other Philippine English words and phrases.[31] The phrase is also understood to mean "memorial service".
Number two mistress
Nosebleed To "have a nosebleed" is to have serious difficulty conversing in English with a fluent or native English speaker. It can also refer to anxiety brought on by a stressful event such as an examination, job interview or being afraid to be judged by others for not using proper grammar. Slang, often used to avoid conversing with English Speakers.
Officemate co-worker
Parlor hair/beauty salon
Pekpek short short shorts From Tagalog vulgar slang for vagina.
Pension house family-owned guest house
Pentel pen marker Genericized trademark
Person deprived of liberty[citation needed] prisoner shortened to PDL.
Pisonet internet café with coin-operated computers that can be used for 5 to 15 minutes after dropping a Philippine peso coin Genericized trademark
Polo dress shirt
Practicumer intern From practicum
Presidentiable presidential candidate
Recollection retreat
Red egg salted eggs with shells dyed magenta loan translated from Tagalog itlog na pula, refers to
Ref fridge
Remembrance souvenir
Revival cover
Rubber shoes sneakers, athletic shoes, trainers
Sando sleeveless shirt
Sari-sari store small, neighborhood convenience store or booth From Tagalog sari-sari ("mixed" or "sundry").
Scotch tape Transparent adhesive tape Genericized trademark, from the brand by 3M
Senatoriable Senate candidate
Sign pen A technical pen used for signing documents Genericized trademark by Pentel.
Sounds music played in a radio, audio or speaker
Stolen shot candid photography Slang
Top-down convertible
Transient [home] homestay
Unli unlimited E.g. in unli-text[32] or unli-rice.
Vetsin monosodium glutamate Genericized trademark from Tien Chun Ve-Tsin
Videoke karaoke Coined in the 1990s from video and karaoke
Washday day where an employee or student can wear casual clothes, as uniforms are usually laundered that day

Abbreviations

Abbreviations are often punctuated in Philippine English where they are usually not, and some abbreviations are unique to Philippine usage.

Phonology

Philippine English is a rhotic accent mainly due to the influence of Philippine languages, which are the first language of most of its speakers. Another influence is the rhotic characteristic of General American English, which became the longstanding standard in the archipelago since Americans introduced the language in public education.[33][34][35] This is contrary to most Commonwealth English variants spoken in neighboring countries such as Malaysia or Singapore. The only exception to this rule is the word Marlboro, which is frequently read as Malboro. Therefore, /r/ phonemes are pronounced in all positions.[36] However, some children of Overseas Filipinos who are educated in Commonwealth countries (such as Australia, New Zealand or the United Kingdom) may speak in a non-rhotic accent unless taught otherwise. Native and well-educated speakers (also called acrolectal speakers[33]) may also feature flapping and vowel sounds resembling the California vowel shift due to the influence of Hollywood movies and call center culture mostly pegged towards the American market.[37]

For non-native speakers, Philippine English phonological features are heavily dependent on the speaker's mother tongue, although foreign languages such as Spanish also influenced many Filipinos on the way of pronouncing English words. This is why approximations are very common and so are hypercorrections. The most distinguishable feature is the lack of fricative consonants, particularly /f/, /v/ and /z/. Another feature is the general absence of the schwa /ə/, and therefore pronounced by its respective full equivalent vowel although the r-colored variant [ɚ] is increasingly popular in recent years.

Consonants

The following consonant changes apply for most non-native speakers of the language:[36]

  • The rhotic consonant /r/ may vary between a trill [r], a flap [ɾ] and an approximant [ɹ]. The English approximant [ɹ] is pronounced by many speakers in the final letters of the word or before consonants, while the standard dialect prefers to pronounce the approximant in all positions of /r/.
  • The fricatives /f/ and /v/ are approximated into the stop consonants [p] and [b], respectively.
  • Th-stopping: The dental fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ becomes into the alveolar stop consonants /t/ and /d/, respectively. This can be also observed from speakers of Hiberno-English dialects and a number of American English speakers.
  • Yod-coalescence: Like most Commonwealth English variants, the [dj], [tj] and [sj] clusters becomes into [dʒ], [tʃ] and [ʃ] respectively. This makes the words dew, tune and pharmaceutical are pronounced as /ˈ/, /ˈn/ and [pärmɐˈʃuːtikäl], respectively. For some cases, the use of yod-coalescence is another case of approximation for aspirated consonants which Philippine languages lack in general in words such as twelve.
  • The fricative [ʒ] may be devoiced into [ʃ] in words such as measure or affricated into [dʒ] in words such as beige.
  • The /z/ phoneme is devoiced into an /s/. This also includes intervocalic /s/ which is usually pronounced as a [z] in most other accents of English.
  • Older speakers tend to add an i or e sound to the cluster st- due to Spanish influence, so the words star and lipstick sounds like (i/e)star and lipistick respectively.
  • Like most non-native speakers of English elsewhere, the "dark l" ([ɫ]) is merged into the usual "light" /l/ equivalent.
  • The compound ⟨ll⟩ is pronounced as a palatal lateral approximant [ʎ] in between vowels (e.g. gorilla), especially to those who were exposed to Spanish orthography. This is negligible among younger well-educated speakers.
  • The letter "z" is usually pronounced (and sometimes spelled) as a "zey" /z/ like in Jamaican English. However, in standard Philippine English, it is pronounced as the American "zee".

Vowels

Vowels in Philippine English are pronounced according to the letter representing each, so that ⟨a, e, i, o, u⟩ are generally pronounced as [a, ɛ, i, o, u], respectively.[34][36] The schwa /ə/—although a phonological feature across numerous Philippine languages such as Kinaray-a, Meranao, or the Abagatan (Southern) dialect of Ilokano—is absent.[35][38]

  • The following are the various approximations of the schwa:
    • Words that end in -le that succeeds a consonant (such as Google) are generally pronounced with an [ɛl], except for words that end -ple, -fle or -ble (apple, waffle and humble), which are pronounced with an [ol].
    • The /ɪ/ in words such as knowledge or college, it is pronounced as a diphthong /eɪ/, making it rhyme with age.
    • The rhotic vowels /ər/ and /ɜːr/ may be pronounced as an [ɛr] (commander), [ir] (circle) or an [or] (doctor), usually by non-native speakers outside urban areas or the elderly.
  • The ⟨a⟩ pronunciations /æ, ʌ, ɑ/ are pronounced as central vowels [ä] and [ɐ]. In the standard dialect, the open front [a] may be pronounced as an allophone of /æ/.
  • The /ɪ/ phoneme may be merged or replaced by the longer /i/ for some speakers. The words peel and pill might sound the same.
  • The /ɒ/ may be pronounced as an [o] (color) or an [ɐ] (not).
  • The u sound from the digraph qu may be dropped before e and i in some words such as conquest and liquidity.

Other features

  • Non-standard emphasis or stress is common. For example, the words ceremony and Arabic are pronounced on the second syllable as another result of Spanish influence. The words mentioned above are pronounced as [sɛˈɾɛmoni] and [aˈɾabik] respectively.

Non-native pronunciation

Many Filipinos often have a non-standard pronunciation, and many fall under different lectal variations (i.e. basilectal, mesolectal, acrolectal).[33] Some Philippine languages (e.g. Ibanag, Itawis, Surigaonon, Tausug) feature certain unique phonemes such as [dʒ], [f], [v], and [z], which are also present in English. However, Filipinos' first languages have generally different phonological repertoires (if not more simplified compared to English), and this leads to mis- or distinct pronunciations particularly among basilectal and to some extent mesolectal speakers.

Some examples of non-native pronunciation include:

  • Awry = [ˈari]
  • Filipino = [piliˈpino]
  • Victor = [bikˈtor]
  • Family = [ˈpɐmili] or [ˈpamili]
  • Varnish = [ˈbarniʃ]
  • Fun = [ˈpɐn] or [ˈpan]
  • Vehicle = [ˈbɛhikɛl] or [ˈbɛhikol]
  • Lover = [ˈlɐbɛr]
  • Find = [ˈpajnd]
  • Official = [oˈpisʲɐl] or [oˈpiʃɐl]
  • Very = [ˈbɛri] or [ˈbejri]
  • Guidon = [ɡiˈdon]
  • Hamburger = [ˈhɐmburɡɛr]
  • High-tech = [ˈhajtɛk]
  • Hubcap = [ˈhabkab]
  • Margarine = [mɐrɡɐˈrin]
  • Seattle = [ˈsʲatɛl]
  • Shako = [sʲaˈko] or [ʃaˈko]
  • Daniel/Danielle = [ˈdejnjɛl] or [ˈdanjɛl]
  • February = [(f/p)ebˈwari] or [(f/p)ebˈrari]
  • Janice = [dʒaˈnis]
  • January = [dʒanˈwari]
  • Rachel/Rachelle = [ˈrejʃɛl]
  • Stephen, Stephen- in Stephens, Stephenson = [(i/ɛ)ˈstifɛn] or [(i/ɛ)ˈstipɛn]
    (the ph digraph has an eff sound rather than a vee, even in standard Philippine English)
  • Special (some speakers) = [(i/ɛ)ˈspejʃal] or [ˈspejʃal] rhymes with spatial
  • Twenty- (one, two, etc.) (many speakers) = [ˈtwejnti]
  • -ator in senator, predator = [ˈejtor] (by analogy with -ate)

See also

References

  1. ^ . Ethnologue https://www.ethnologue.com/country/ph/status. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ Bautista, Ma. Lourdes (2004). "Tagalog-English code-switching as a mode of discourse" (PDF). Asia-Pacific Education Review. 5 (2): 225–233. doi:10.1007/BF03024960.
  3. ^ Bautista, Ma. Lourdes (1998). "Tagalog-English code-switching and the lexicon of Philippine English". Asian Englishes. 1 (1): 51–67. doi:10.1080/13488678.1998.10800994.
  4. ^ Erwin-Billones, Clark (2012). Code-switching in Filipino newspapers: Expansion of language, culture and identity (PDF) (Master's). Colorado State University. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  5. ^ Dayag, Danilo (2002). "Code-switching in Philippine print ads: A syntactic-pragmatic description". Philippine Journal of Linguistics. 33 (1): 34–52.
  6. ^ Bernardo, Andrew (2005). "Bilingual code-switching as a resource for learning and teaching: Alternative reflections on the language and education issue in the Philippines". In Dayag, Danilo; Quakenbush, J. Stephen (eds.). Linguistics and Language Education in the Philippines and Beyond: A Festschrift in Honor of Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista. Linguistic Society of the Philippines. pp. 151–169.
  7. ^ Cook, Erin (26 March 2018). "How the Philippine media's use of code switching stands apart in Asia". Retrieved 31 December 2018.
  8. ^ Gonzalez, Andrew (1998). "The language planning situation in the Philippines". Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 19 (5): 487–525. doi:10.1080/01434639808666365.
  9. ^ a b Llamzon, Teodoro (1968). "On Tagalog as a dominant language". Philippine Studies. 16 (4): 729–749.
  10. ^ Sibayan, Bonifacio (2000). "Resulting patterns of sociolinguistic, socioeconomic, and cultural practice and behavior after more than four hundred years of language policy and practice in the Philippines". In Bautista, Ma. Lourdes; Llamzon, Teodoro; Sibayan, Bonifacio (eds.). Parangal cang Brother Andrew: Festschrift for Andrew Gonazlez on his sixtieth birthday. Manila: Linguistic Society of the Philippines. pp. 247–261.
  11. ^ Dayag, Danilo (2008). "English-language media in the Philippines". In Bautista, Ma. Lourdes; Bolton, Kingsley (eds.). Philippine English: Linguistic and Literary Perspectives. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. pp. 49–66.
  12. ^ Kachru, Braj; Kachru, Yamuna; Nelson, Cecil (2009). The Handbook of World Englishes : Volume 48 of Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics. John Wiley & Sons. p. 240. ISBN 978-1-4051-8831-9.
  13. ^ Carl Marc Ramota (2004). "Economic Woes Drive Bright Graduates to Call Centers". Bulatlat. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  14. ^ Diana G Mendoza (October 1, 2010). "Philippines: Call Centre Boom Breeds New Culture – and Risky Behaviour". Global Geopolitics & Political Economy. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  15. ^ Carlos H. Conde (August 13, 2007). "English getting lost in translation in Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  16. ^ Jonathan M. Hicap (September 13, 2009). "Koreans Flock to the Philippines to Learn English". Korea Times. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  17. ^ "Korean students to study English in Bacolod schools". Manila Bulletin. May 3, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017.
  18. ^ Author David Crystal remarks that English is used in technical contexts for intelligibility, and Taglish and Bislish are used in social contexts for identity, noting that similar situations exist in other countries (e.g., as with Singlish). See Crystal, David (2003). English as a Global Language (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 189. ISBN 0-521-53032-6.
  19. ^ Espinosa, Doray (1997). "English in the Philippines". Global Issues in Language Education. Language Institute of Japan (26): 9. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  20. ^ Rowthorn, Chris; Bloom, Greg (2006). Philippines. Lonely Planet Country Guide (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-74104-289-4. cinemas.
  21. ^ "Tagalized Movie Channel on SKY". philstar.com. The Philippine Star. 23 November 2014.
  22. ^ Isabel Pefianco Martin (April 12, 2008). "Fearing English in the Philippines". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
  23. ^ Examples: . "So if they see policemen about to conduct a security survey, they should ask me first because I will be the one who will know about it. They will have to talk to me,", "Security survey for Lapu banks suggested". Philippine daily Inquirer, citing Cebu Daily News. March 17, 2008. Archived from the original on September 6, 2011. Retrieved 2008-09-03 Cite journal requires |journal= (help); . "If I will be the one who will talk and explain, that will be self-serving,", Anselmo Roque (January 18, 2007). "Ecija school faculty bares university exec's mess". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 5, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-03; . "Whoever wins on the issue of secret balloting will be the one who will win the speakership,", Norman Bordadora (July 22, 2007). "Arroyo can deliver SONA sans Speaker—Salonga". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on August 9, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
  24. ^ Jeannette Andrade (August 28, 2007). "Hazing eyed in death of graduating UP student". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-09-03. Doris Dumlao (August 17, 2008). "Mutual funds for P1,000 a month". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-09-03. Michael Lim Ubac (April 24, 2008). "Suspected smugglers, Customs, LTO officials charged". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2008-09-03.
  25. ^ Andrew Gonzalez (1998). "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 19 (5, 6): 487–525. doi:10.1080/01434639808666365. Retrieved 2007-03-24.
  26. ^ Overseas Pinoy Cooking.Net website accessed on 6 November 2010
  27. ^ a b Roger B. Rueda. "Philippine English (I)". The News Today :: Online Iloilo News and Panay News. Retrieved March 17, 2011. [unreliable source?]
  28. ^ "Glossary of Army Slang". American Speech. Duke University Press. 16 (3): 163–169. October 1941. doi:10.2307/486883. ISSN 0003-1283. JSTOR 486883.
  29. ^ "Philippine English". MSN Encarta Dictionary, http://encarta.msn.com/. Retrieved March 13, 2011. External link in |publisher= (help)
  30. ^ Borlongan, Ariane Macalinga (2007). "Innovations in Standard Philippine English". Current Research on English and Applied Linguistics.
  31. ^ V.I.S. de Veyra's poem "Requiem Para Kay Ophie"
  32. ^ "Unli Call & Text 25 - Smart Communications". smart.com.ph.
  33. ^ a b c Tayao, Ma. Lourdes (2004). "The evolving study of Philippine English phonology". Asian Englishes. 23 (1): 77–90. doi:10.1111/j.1467-971X.2004.00336.x.
  34. ^ a b Llamzon, T. A. (1997). "The phonology of Philippine English". In Bautista, Ma. Lourdes (ed.). English is an Asian Language: The Philippine Context. The Macquarie Library Pty. Ltd. pp. 41–48.
  35. ^ a b Bautista, Ma. Lourdes; Gonzalez, Andrew (2009). "Southeast Asian Englishes". In Kachru, Braj; Kachru, Yamuna; Nelson, Cecil (eds.). English is an Asian Language: The Philippine Context. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 130–144.
  36. ^ a b c Tayao, Ma. Lourdes (2008). "A lectal description of the phonological features of Philippine English". In Bautista, Ma. Lourdes; Bolton, Kingsley (eds.). Philippine English: Linguistic and Literary. Hong Kong University Press. pp. 157–174.
  37. ^ Lee, Don (2015-02-01). "The Philippines has become the call-center capital of the world". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
  38. ^ Tayao, Ma. Lourdes (2008). "Philippine English: Phonology". In Mesthrie, R. (ed.). Varieties of English 4: Africa, South and Southeast Asia. Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 292–306.

Further reading

  • Acar, A. "Models, Norms and Goals for English as an International Language Pedagogy and Task Based Language Teaching and Learning.", The Asian EFL Journal, Volume 8. Issue 3, Article 9, (2006).
  • Manarpaac, Danilo. "When I was a child I spoke as a child": Reflecting on the Limits of a Nationalist Language Policy. In: Christian Mair. The politics of English as a world language: new horizons in postcolonial cultural studies. Rodopi; 2003 [cited 18 February 2011]. ISBN 978-90-420-0876-2. p. 479–492.
  • Lerner, Ted. Hey, Joe, a slice of the city - an American in Manila. Book of Dreams: Verlag, Germany. 1999.

External links

  • The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines, by Andrew Gonzalez, FSC, with sections on Philippine English
  • Philippine English, by Tom McArthur.
  • English proficiency in Cebu
  • American or Philippine English? (video)
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