Petro Grigorenko

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Petro Grigorenko
Григоренко, Петро Григорович.jpg
Native name Петро Григорович Григоренко (Пётр Григорьевич Григоренко)
Born Petro Hryhorovych Hryhorenko (Pyotr Grigoryevich Grigorenko)
16 October [O.S. 3 October] 1907
the village of Borisovka, Taurida Governorate,  Russian Empire
Died 21 February 1987(1987-02-21) (aged 79)
New York City, USA
Burial place St. Andrew Memorial Church in South Bound Brook, New Jersey
Nationality Ukrainian
Citizenship  Russian Empire (1907–1922) →  Soviet Union (1922–1977),  United States (1977–1987)
Alma mater the Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute, the Military Engineering-Technical University, the Kuybyshev Military Engineering Academy, the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia
Occupation commanding officer, military scientist, cyberneticist
Employer the Frunze Military Academy
Known for human rights activism with participation in the Moscow Helsinki Group, the Ukrainian Helsinki Group, the Working Commission to Investigate the Use of Psychiatry for Political Purposes, struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union
Political party the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Movement dissident movement in the Soviet Union
Spouse(s) Zinaida Mikhailovna Grigorenko
Children five sons: Anatoly, Andrew, Georgi, Oleg, Viktor
Military career
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Service/branch Red Army flag.svg Red Army / Soviet Army
Years of service 1939–1945
Rank Major General
Unit infantry division
Battles/wars battles of Khalkhin Gol and the Second World War
Awards
USSR

Order of Lenin Order of the Red Banner Order of the Red Banner Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class Medal for Battle Merit Order of the Red Star Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945" Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy" Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR" Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"

Ukraine
Order For Courage, 1st class
Website www.grigorenko.org

Petro Grigorenko or Petro Hryhorovych Hryhorenko or Pyotr Grigoryevich Grigorenko (Ukrainian: Петро́ Григо́рович Григоре́нко, Russian: Пётр Григо́рьевич Григоре́нко, 16 October [O.S. 3 October] 1907 – 21 February 1987) was a high-ranking Soviet Army commander of Ukrainian descent, who in his fifties became a dissident and a writer, one of the founders of the human rights movement in the Soviet Union.[1]

For 16 years, he was a professor of cybernetics at the Frunze Military Academy[2] and chairman of its cybernetic section[3][4] before joining the ranks of the early dissidents. In the mid-1970s Grigorenko helped to found the Moscow Helsinki Group and the Ukrainian Helsinki Group, before leaving the USSR for medical treatment in the United States. The Soviet government barred his return, and he never again returned to the Soviet Union.[5][6] In the words of Joseph Alsop, Grigorenko publicly denounced the "totalitarianism that hides behind the mask of so-called Soviet democracy."[7]

Early life

Petro Grigorenko was born in Borisovka village[8]:46 in Taurida Governorate, Russian Empire (in present-day Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine).

In 1939, he graduated with honors from the Kuybyshev Military Engineering Academy and the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia.[9] He took part in the battles of Khalkhin Gol, against the Japanese on the Manchurian border in 1939, and in the Second World War.[10] He commanded troops in initial battles following 22 June 1941.[11] During the war, he also commanded an infantry division in the Baltic for three years.[12]

He went on a military career and reached high ranks during World War II. After the war, being a decorated veteran, he left active career and taught at the Frunze Military Academy, reaching the rank of a Major General.

In 1949, Grigorenko defended his Ph.D. thesis on the theme "Features of the organization and conduct of combined offensive battle in the mountains."[13]

In 1960, he completed work on his doctoral thesis.[14] Over 70 of his scientific works on military science were published.[15]

Dissident activities

Soviet dissidents in the upper row are Naum Meiman, Sofiya Kallistratova, Petro Grigorenko, his wife Zinaida Grigorenko, Tatyana Velikanova's mother, the Priest Father Sergei Zheludkov and Andrei Sakharov; in the lower row are Genrikh Altunyan and Alexander Podrabinek. Photo taken on 16 October 1977[16]

In 1961, Petro Grigorenko started to openly criticize what he considered the excesses of the Khrushchev regime.[17]:151 He maintained that the special privileges of the political elite did not comply with the principles laid down by Lenin.[17]:151 Grigorenko formed a dissident group — The Group for the Struggle to Revive Leninism.[17]:151 Soviet psychiatrists sitting as legally constituted commissions to inquire into his sanity diagnosed him at least three times — in April 1964, August 1969, and November 1969.[18]:11 When arrested, Grigorenko was sent to Moscow's Lubyanka prison, and from there for psychiatric examination to the Serbsky Institute[17] where the first commission, which included Snezhnevsky and Lunts, diagnosed him as suffering from the mental disease in the form of a paranoid delusional development of his personality, accompanied by early signs of cerebral arteriosclerosis.[18]:11 Lunts, reporting later on this diagnosis, mentioned that the symptoms of paranoid development were "an overestimation of his own personality reaching messianic proportions" and "reformist ideas."[18]:11 Grigorenko was not responsible for his actions and was thereby forcibly committed to a special psychiatric hospital.[17]:151 While there, the government deprived him of his pension despite the fact that, by law, a mentally sick military officer was entitled to a pension.[17]:152 After six months, Grigorenko was found to be in remission and was released for outpatient follow-up.[17]:152 He required that his pension be restored.[17]:152 Although he began to draw pension again, it was severely reduced.[17]:152

He became much more active in his dissidence, stirred other people to protest some of the State's actions and received several warnings from the KGB.[17]:152 In 1968, after Grigorenko protested the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, he was expelled from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, arrested and ultimately committed to a mental hospital[19] until 26 June 1974 after 5 years of detention.[20] As Grigorenko had followers in Moscow, he was lured to the far-away Tashkent.[17]:151 While there, he was again arrested and examined by a psychiatric team.[18]:12 None of the manifestations or symptoms cited by the Lunts commission were found there by the second examination conducted under the chairmanship of Fyodor Detengof.[18]:12 The diagnosis and evaluation made by the commission was that "Grigorenko's [criminal] activity had a purposeful character, it was related to concrete events and facts... It did not reveal any signs of illness or delusions."[18]:11 The psychiatrists reported that he was not mentally sick, but responsible for his actions.[17]:152 He had firm convictions which were shared by many of his colleagues and were not delusional.[17]:152 Having evaluated the records of his preceding hospitalization, they concluded that he had not been sick at that time either.[17]:152 The KGB brought Grigorenko back to Moscow and, three months later, arranged a second examination at the Serbsky Institute.[17]:152 Once again, these psychiatrists found that he had "a paranoid development of the personality" manifested by reformist ideas.[17]:152 The commission, which included Lunts and was chaired by Morozov, recommended that he be recommitted to a special psychiatric hospital for the socially dangerous.[18]:12 Eventually, after almost four years, he was transferred to a regular mental hospital.[17]:152 On 17 January 1971 Grigorenko was asked whether he had changed his convictions and replied that "Convictions are not like gloves, one cannot easily change them".[21]

In 1971, Dr. Semyon Gluzman wrote an in-absentia psychiatric report on Grigorenko.[9][22][23] Gluzman came to the conclusion that Grigorenko was mentally sane and had been taken to mental hospitals for political reasons.[22] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Gluzman was forced to serve seven years in labor camp for defending Grigorenko against the charge of insanity.[23][24] Amnesty International declared Grigorenko a prisoner of conscience.[25]

Grigorenko became the key defender of Crimean Tatars deported to Soviet Central Asia.[26] He advised the Tatar activists not to confine their protests to the USSR, but to appeal also to international organizations including the United Nations.[27]

Grigorenko was one of the first who questioned the official Soviet version of World War II history. He pointed out that just prior to the German attack on June 22, 1941, vast Soviet troops were concentrated in the area west of Białystok, deep in occupied Poland, getting ready for a surprise offensive, which made them vulnerable to be encircled in case of surprise German attack. His ideas were later advanced by Viktor Suvorov.

After publishing Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov's book Stalin and the Soviet Communist Party: A Study in the Technology of Power, Grigorenko made and distributed its copies by photographing and typewriting.[28]:596 In 1976, Grigorenko helped found the Moscow Helsinki Group and the Ukrainian Helsinki Group.[4]

In the United States

On 20 December 1977, Grigorenko was allowed to go abroad for medical treatment.[29] His health was ruined during forcible confinement in KGB-run mental hospitals.[30] On 30 November 1977, Grigorenko arrived in the United States[31] and was stripped of his Soviet citizenship.[32] In Grigorenko's words, Leonid Brezhnev signed the decree of depriving Grigorenko of Soviet citizenship on the ground that he was undermining the prestige of the Soviet Union.[33] The 1970s marked a peak in the use of external exile as a punitive measure by the Soviet Union (as opposed to the internal type, which was highest between the mid-1930s and early 1950s); often the pattern was that a trip abroad for work or medical treatment was transformed into permanent exile.[34] In the same year, Grigorenko became a U.S. citizen.[35]

Monument at Petro Grigorenko's grave. Cemetery of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of St. Andrew in South Bound Brook, New Jersey

Being in USA since 1977, Grigorenko took an active part in the activities of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group foreign affiliate.[36] On 23 July 1978, Grigorenko made a statement condemning the trials of Soviet dissidents Anatoly Shcharansky, Aleksandr Ginzburg and Viktoras Petkus.[37]

In 1979 in New York, Grigorenko was examined by the team of psychologists and psychiatrists including Alan A. Stone, the then President of American Psychiatric Association.[38] The team could find no evidence of mental disease in Grigorenko and his history consistent with mental disease in the past.[38] Their findings were drawn up and publicized by Walter Reich.[39][40][41][42][43] Grigorenko's case confirmed accusations, Stone wrote, that psychiatry in the Soviet Union was at times a tool of political repression.[44]

Petro Grigorenko described his life and views, and his assessment by Soviet psychiatrists and periods of incarceration in prison hospitals in his 1981 memoirs V Podpolye Mozhno Vstretit Tolko Krys… (In the Underground One Can Meet Only Rats…).[28] In 1982, the book was translated into English by Thomas P. Whitney under the title Memoirs[45] and reviewed by Alexander J. Motyl,[46] Raymond L. Garthoff,[47] John C. Campbell,[48] Adam Ulam,[49] Raisa Orlova and Lev Kopelev.[50]

In 1983, he said he considered the American political-economic system to be "the best that mankind has found to date."[51] In 1983, a stroke he suffered left him partially paralyzed.[52] Grigorenko died on 21 February 1987 in New York City.[4]

In 1991, a commission, composed of psychiatrists from all over the Soviet Union and led by Modest Kabanov, then director of the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Institute in St Petersburg, spent six months reviewing Grigorenko's patient files. They drew up 29 thick volumes of legal proceedings,[1] and in October 1991 reversed the official Soviet diagnosis of Grigorenko's psychiatric condition.[22]:73 In 1992, an official post-mortem forensic psychiatric commission of experts met in Ukraine. They removed the stigma of being a mental patient and confirmed that there were no grounds for the debilitating treatment he underwent in high security psychiatric hospitals for many years.[53]:23 The 1992 psychiatric examination of Grigorenko was described by the Nezavisimiy Psikhiatricheskiy Zhurnal in its numbers 1–4 of 1992.[54][55]

Family

Petro Grigorenko was married to Zinaida Mikhailovna Grigorenko[56] and they had five sons: Anatoly, Georgi, Oleg, Viktor and Andrew.[12] Two of them died as children.[29]

In 1975, Andrew, an electrical engineer,[57] was declared to have inherited his father's insanity. He was expelled from the USSR to the USA, two years before Petro and Zinaida Grigorenko themselves travelled to the United States.[58] Andrew was repeatedly told that since his father was mentally ill, then he was also mad. If he did not stop speaking out in defense of human rights and his father, they told him, he would also be sent to the psikhushka.[15]

Name spelling versions

The different Latin spellings of Grigorenko's name exist due to the lack of uniform transliteration rules for the Ukrainian names in the middle of 20th century, when he became internationally known. The correct modern transliteration would be Petro Hryhorenko. However, according to the American identification documents of the late general the official spelling of his name was established as Petro Grigorenko. The same spelling is engraved on his gravestone at the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of St. Andrew in South Bound Brook, New Jersey, USA. The same spelling is also retained by his surviving American descendants: son Andrew and granddaughters Tatiana and Olga.

Honours and awards

Commemorative coin issued by the National Bank of Ukraine in Grigorenko's honor
Soviet Union
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order of Lenin
Order of Red Banner ribbon bar.png Order of the Red Banner, twice
Order redstar rib.png Order of the Red Star
Order gpw1 rib.png Order of the Patriotic War, 1st class
CombatRibbon.png Medal for Battle Merit
OrderStGeorge4cl rib.png Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
20 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Twenty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
30 years of victory rib.png Jubilee Medal "Thirty Years of Victory in the Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
30 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "30 Years of the Soviet Army and Navy"
40 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "40 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
50 years saf rib.png Jubilee Medal "50 Years of the Armed Forces of the USSR"
Ukraine
Order for Bravery 1st Class of Ukraine.gif Order For Courage, 1st class

Books, interviews, letters

  • Grigorenko, Piotr; Janin, Michel (November 1969). "La foi suffit" [Enough faith]. Esprit (in French). 386 (11): 685–691. JSTOR 24261436. 
  • Nekritsch, Alexander; Grigorenko, Pjotr (1969). Genickschuß : Die Rote Armee am 22. Juni 1941 [Shot in the neck: the Red Army on 22 June 1941] (in German). Wien, Frankfurt am Main, Zürich: Europa Verlag. ASIN B002PNH7C4. 
  • Grigorenko, Pjotr (1969). Der sowjetische Zusammenbruch 1941 [The Soviet collapse in 1941] (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Possev-Verlag. 
  • Grigorenko, Pjotr (1970). Aufzeichnungen aus Gefängnis und Irrenhaus [Notes from prison and madhouse] (in German). Bern: Kuratorium Geistige Freiheit. 
  • Grigorenko, Pyotr (Autumn 1970). "Diary". Survey: 181–187. 
  • Grigorenko, Pyotr [Пётр Григоренко] (1970). "О специальных психиатрических больницах (дурдомах)" [On special psychiatric hospitals ("madhouses")]. In Gorbanevskaya, Natalia [Наталья Горбаневская]. Полдень: Дело о демонстрации 25 августа 1968 года на Красной площади [Noon: The case on the demonstration of 25 August 1968 at the Red Square] (in Russian). Frankfurt-on-Main: Посев [Seeding]. pp. 461–473. 
  • Григоренко, Пётр (1970). Сокрытие исторической правды — преступление перед народом: письмо в редакцию журнала "Вопросы истории КПСС" [The concealment of the historical truth is a crime before people: a letter to the editorial staff of the journal The Issues related to the History of the CPSU] (in Russian). Издательство союза борьбы за освобождение народов России.  (publicly available unabridged Russian text)
  • Григоренко, Пётр (1973). Мысли сумасшедшего: Избранные письма и выступления Петра Григорьевича Григоренко [Thoughts of a madman: collected letters and appearances by Pyotr Grigoryevich Grigorenko] (in Russian). Амстердам: Фонд имени Герцена.  (publicly available unabridged Russian text)
  • Grigorenko, Petr (1976). The Grigorenko papers: writings by General P.G. Grigorenko and documents on his case. Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 0-89158-603-2. 
  • Григоренко, Пётр (1977). Сборник статей [The collection of articles] (in Russian). Нью-Йорк: Издательство "Хроника".  (publicly available unabridged Russian text)
  • Григоренко, Пётр (1978). Наши будни или рассказ о том, как фабрикуются уголовные дела на советских граждан, выступающих в защиту прав человека [Our weekdays or a story about how criminal cases are fabricated on Soviet citizens who advocate human rights] (in Russian). Сучаснисть. 
  • Alexeyeva, Lyudmila; Grigorenko, Pyotr; Amalrik, Andrei; Kaminskaya, Dina; Simes, Konstantin; Williams, Nikolai; Litvinov, Pavel; Litvinova, Maya; Sadomskaya, Natalya; Chalidze, Valery; Shragin, Boris; Stain, Yuri (2013) [1978]. "В защиту Анатолия Марченко" [In defense of Anatoly Marchenko]. Kontinent (in Russian). 152. 
  • Григоренко, Пётр (2012) [1978]. "По поводу "раскаяния" Гелия Снегирева" [As regards Heliy Snegirev's "repentance"]. Kontinent (in Russian) (151). 
  • "Интервью с Петром Григорьевичем Григоренко" [Interview with Pyotr Grigoryevich Grigorenko]. Kontinent (in Russian) (152). 2013 [1978]. 
  • "Gen. Grigorenko condemns trials (a statement by Gen. Petro Grigorenko condemning the trials of Soviet dissidents Anatoly Shcharansky, Aleksandr Ginzburg and Viktoras Petkus)" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LXXXV (165). 23 July 1978. p. 2. 
  • Grigorenko, Petro; Nahaylo, Bohdan (January 1979). "My friend Mykola Rudenko". Index on Censorship. 8 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1080/03064227908532879. 
  • Grigorenko, Pjotr (1980). "Kann das Kaninchen sich retten? Anmerkungen zur KSZE-Konferenz in Madrid" [Can the rabbit save itself? Comments on the CSCE Conference in Madrid]. Die Politische Meinung (in German). 25 (192): 55–62. 
  • Григоренко, Пётр (2013) [1980]. "К вопросу о государственной независимости и взаимоотношениях между народами СССР" [Towards state independence and mutual relations between peoples of the USSR]. Kontinent (in Russian) (152). 
  • "Cambio 16, Spanish magazine, interviews Gen. Petro Grigorenko" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LXXXVII (18). 28 September 1980. p. 2. 
  • Григоренко, Пётр (1981). В подполье можно встретить только крыс… [In underground one can meet only rats…] (in Russian). Нью-Йорк: Детинец.  (publicly available unabridged Russian text)
  • Grigorenko, Petr (1982). Memoirs (translated by Thomas P. Whitney). New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-01570-X. 
  • Aksenov, Vasily; Etkind, Efim; Grigorenko, Pyotr; Grigorenko, Zinaida; Kopelev, Lev; Litvinov, Pavel; Litvinov, Maya; Mihajlov, Mihajlo; Proffer, Carl; Proffer, Ellendea; Synyavsky, Andrey; Shraginet, Boris; et al. (4 February 1982). "Help the Poles". The New York Review of Books. 
  • Grigorenko, Petro (January 1982). "Diplomatic delusions: a leading Soviet dissident unmasks the hypocrisy of Helsinki". Reason: 39–41. 
  • "Письма П.Г. Григоренко из Черняховской специальной психиатрической больницы" [Letters by P.G. Grigorenko from the Chernyakhovsk special psychiatric hospital]. Новый журнал (in Russian) (260). 2010. 

Further reading

  • Каждый выбирает для себя. Памяти выдающегося правозащитника генерала П.Г. Григоренко / Составление: Андрей Григоренко и Игорь Рейф [Everyone chooses for oneself. In commemoration of outstanding human rights activist P.G. Grigorenko / Compiled by Andrew Grigorenko and Igor Reyf] (in Russian). Moscow: Политическая энциклопедия. 2014. ISBN 978-5-8243-1848-7. 
  • "General in der Zwangsjacke : Die Aufzeichnungen des sowjetischen Regimegegners Pjotr Grigorenko" [General in the straitjacket: Memoirs by the Soviet regime opponent Pyotr Grigorenko]. Die Zeit (in German). 10 April 1970. 
  • "Gestorben. Pjotr Grigorjewitsch Grigorenko" [Died. Pyotr Grigorevich Grigorenko]. Der Spiegel (in German) (10). 2 March 1987. 
  • "Mal pro – mal kontra Stalin : Der "Fall Grigorenko" – "Umschlag" in der Historie" [Sometimes for – sometimes against Stalin: The "patient Grigorenko" – "envelope" in history]. Die Zeit (in German). 13 March 1970. 
  • "Namen der Woche" [Names of the week]. Die Zeit (in German). 5 July 1974. 
  • "Ohne Furcht und Tadel" [Without fear and reproach]. Die Zeit (in German). 17 March 1978. 
  • Amalrik, Andrei (June 1978). "The Grigorenko papers: writings by General P. G. Grigorenko and documents on his case". Slavic Review. 37 (2): 316–317. doi:10.2307/2497633. JSTOR 2497633. 
  • De Boer, S. P.; Driessen, Evert; Verhaar, Hendrik (1982). "Grigorenko, Petr Grigor'evič". Biographical dictionary of dissidents in the Soviet Union: 1956–1975. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 178–180. ISBN 9024725380. 
  • Fireside, Harvey (June 1978). "The Grigorenko papers: writings by General P. G. Grigorenko and documents on his case". The American Historical Review. 83 (3): 775–776. doi:10.2307/1861963. JSTOR 1861963. 
  • Rich, Vera (9 November 1991). "Soviet Union: Grigorenko "of sound mind"". The Lancet. 338 (8776): 1159–1222. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(91)92050-C. 
  • Sjöstrand, Lars (January–February 2014). "Petro Grigorenko. Sovjetisk general, människorättskämpe och mentalpatient" [Petro Grigorenko. Soviet general, human rights activist and mental patient]. Läkartidningen (in Swedish). 111 (5): 162–165. PMID 24624772. 
  • Рейф, Игорь (2009). "Каждый прозревает в одиночку. Комментарий к самиздатовской рукописи. Памяти П.Г. Григоренко" [Anyone begins to see the light alone. The commentary to the samizdat manuscript. In commemoration of P.G. Grigorenko]. Вестник Европы (in Russian) (26–27). 

Video

  • "De l'armée du Tsar à l'Armée rouge, interview de Piotr Grigorenko par Bernard Pivot pour l'émission Apostrophes" [On the Czar's army in the Red Army, interview by Pyotr Grigorenko to Bernard Pivot for broadcasting Apostrophes] (in French). 25 April 1980. 
  • "Генерал Петр Григоренко" [General Pyotr Grigorenko] (in Russian). ATR. 2012. 

References

  1. ^ a b Rich, Vera (16 November 1991). "Soviet Union admits to abuses of psychiatry". New Scientist. 132 (1795): 13. PMID 16041887. 
  2. ^ Dornberg, John (1972). The new tsars: Russia under Stalin's heirs. Doubleday. p. 61. ISBN 0385052731. 
  3. ^ Hertzen, Gustav von (2011). The spirit of the game: navigational AIDS for the next century. Eetos kustannus. p. 160. ISBN 1461117704. 
  4. ^ a b c "Turning the pages back…" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LIX (41). 13 October 1991. pp. 6, 11. 
  5. ^ "Petro Grigorenko, 79 human rights activist". Ocala Star-Banner. 23 February 1987. 
  6. ^ "Grigorenko, rights activist, dies at 79". The Free Lance-Star. 23 February 1987. 
  7. ^ Chomsky, Noam (21 August 1969). "A reply to Joseph Alsop". The New York Review of Books. 
  8. ^ Abuse of psychiatry for political repression in the Soviet Union: hearing, ninety-second congress, second session. Vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1975. p. 46. 
  9. ^ a b Gluzman, Semyon [Семён Глузман] (2010). Расширенная судебно-психиатрическая заочная экспертиза по делу Григоренко Петра Григорьевича, 1907 г.р., украинца, жителя г. Москвы (восстановлено на основании копии Самиздата) [A comprehensive in absentia psychiatric opinion on the case of Grigorenko Pyotr Grigoryevich, b. 1907, an Ukrainian, Moscow resident (restored on the basis of a Samizdat copy)]. Новости медицины и фармации [Medicine and Pharmacy News] (in Russian) (329). Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  10. ^ Reddaway, Peter (1972). Uncensored Russia: protest and dissent in the Soviet Union. New York: American Heritage Press. p. 127. ISBN 0070513546. 
  11. ^ Weeks, Albert (2002). Stalin's other war: Soviet grand strategy, 1939–1941. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 95. ISBN 0742521915. 
  12. ^ a b Barron, James (23 February 1987). "Petro Grigorenko dies in exile in US". The New York Times. 
  13. ^ Казнимые сумасшествием: Сборник документальных материалов о психиатрических преследованиях инакомыслящих в СССР / Редакторы: А. Артемова, Л. Рар, М. Славинский (PDF) (in Russian). Франкфурт-на-Майне: Посев. 1971. p. 118. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 February 2010. 
  14. ^ "Григоренко Пётр Григорьевич (1907-1987)" (in Russian). The Sakharov Center. Retrieved 20 July 2011.  (The biography of Grigorenko on the website of the Andrei Sakharov Museum and Public Center)
  15. ^ a b Толстой, Иван; Гаврилов, Андрей (14 December 2014). "Генерал Григоренко" [General Grigorenko] (in Russian). Radio Liberty. 
  16. ^ Подрабинек, Александр (2014). Диссиденты [Dissidents] (in Russian). Moscow: АСТ. ISBN 978-5-17-082401-4. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Bursten, Ben (2001). Psychiatry on trial: fact and fantasy in the courtroom. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1078-7. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Stone, Alan (1985). Law, Psychiatry, and Morality: Essays and Analysis. American Psychiatric Pub. ISBN 0-88048-209-5. 
  19. ^ "Gen. Petro Grigorenko seriously ill" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LII (7). 12 February 1984. p. 4. 
  20. ^ "Grigorenko thanks those who worked for his release from a Soviet mental asylum" (PDF). Amnesty International Newsletter. IV (8). August 1974. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2015. 
  21. ^ Barron, John (1974). KGB: the secret work of Soviet secret agents. Reader's Digest Press. p. 2. ISBN 0883490099. 
  22. ^ a b c Medicine betrayed: the participation of doctors in human rights abuses. Zed Books. 1992. p. 73. ISBN 1-85649-104-8. 
  23. ^ a b Voren, Robert van (2009-01-01). On Dissidents and Madness: From the Soviet Union of Leonid Brezhnev to the "Soviet Union" of Vladimir Putin. Rodopi. p. 194. ISBN 9042025859. 
  24. ^ Sabshin, Melvin (2009). Changing American psychiatry: a personal perspective. American Psychiatric Pub. p. 95. ISBN 1-58562-307-5. 
  25. ^ Prisoners of conscience in the USSR: Their treatment and conditions (PDF, immediate download). London: Amnesty International Publications. 1975. p. 118. ISBN 0900058137. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2015. 
  26. ^ Глузман, Семён (14 December 2007). "О чем не написал самиздат" [About what samizdat did not write]. Mirror Weekly (in Russian). 
  27. ^ Redlich, Shimon (1974). "Jewish appeals in the USSR: An expression of national revival". Soviet Jewish Affairs. 4 (2): 24–37. doi:10.1080/13501677408577192. 
  28. ^ a b Григоренко, Пётр (1981). В подполье можно встретить только крыс… [In Underground One Can Meet Only Rats…] (in Russian). Нью-Йорк: Детинец. 
  29. ^ a b Алещенко, Владимир (24 October 1997). "Обреченный говорить правду" [One doomed to tell the truth]. Mirror Weekly (in Russian). 
  30. ^ Knight, Amy (Autumn 1993). "The fate of the KGB archives". Slavic Review. 52 (3): 582–586. doi:10.2307/2499726. JSTOR 2499726. 
  31. ^ Dlaboha, Ihor (4 December 1977). "Grigorenko arrives in U.S." (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LXХXХIV (267). pp. 1, 8. 
  32. ^ Saul, Norman (2014). Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet foreign policy. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 148. ISBN 1442244372. 
  33. ^ "Интервью с Петром Григорьевичем Григоренко" [Interview with Pyotr Grigoryevich Grigorenko]. Kontinent (in Russian) (152). 2013 [1978]. 
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  45. ^ Grigorenko, Petr (1982). Memoirs (translated by Thomas P. Whitney). New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-01570-X. 
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  49. ^ Ulam, Adam (April 1983). "Review: the lives of Peter Grigorenko". The Russian Review. 42 (2): 197–200. doi:10.2307/129646. 
  50. ^ Orlowa, Raissa; Kopelew, Lew (28 May 1982). "Die Erinnerungen Pjotr Grigorenkos : Der Hauptheld ist die Wahrheit" [Memoirs by Pyotr Grigorenko: the main hero is the truth]. Die Zeit (in German). 
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  58. ^ Сулькин, Олег (19 July 2012). "Сын генерала Петра Григоренко готовит сборник памяти отца" [General Petro Grogorenko's son is preparing a collection in memory of his father] (in Russian). Voice of America. 

External links

  • Speech of Petro Grigorenko to Crimean Tatars, 1968
  • Petro G. Grigorenko - Review of a life and a book
  • General Petro Grigorenko Foundation - English, Russian, Ukrainian
  • Григоренко Петр Григорьевич (in Russian). The Moscow Helsinki Group. Retrieved 20 July 2011.  (The biography of Grigorenko on the website of the Moscow Helsinki Group)
  • Пётр (Петро) Григорьевич ГРИГОРЕНКО (1907–1987) (in Russian). The Online Library of Alexander Belousenko. Retrieved 20 July 2011.  (The biography of Grigorenko on the website of the Online Library of Alexander Belousenko)
  • Григоренко Пётр Григорьевич (1907–1987) (in Russian). The Sakharov Center. Retrieved 20 July 2011.  (The biography of Grigorenko on the website of the Andrei Sakharov Museum and Public Center)
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