People's Defence Forces

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People's Defence Forces
Hêzên Parastina Gel (HPG)
Foundation 1984 (1984)[5]
Dates of operation 1984–present
Motives Cultural and political rights for the Kurdish population in Turkey.[6]
Active region(s) Turkey, Iraq, Syria
Ideology Kurdish nationalism
Democratic confederalism
Notable attacks 1984 PKK attacks
May 24, 1993 PKK ambush
2011 Hakkâri attack
Status Fights against ISIS.[7][8]

Ongoing war with Turkey, after ceasefire ended.
Size over 40,000 active fighters (2015 Turkish claim)[9]

The People's Defence Forces (Kurdish: Hêzên Parastina Gel‎, HPG) is the military wing of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).


  1. ^ Can, Eyüp (14 July 2013). "PKK Changes Leadership". (trans. Timur Göksel). Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2014. Originally published as Karayılan'ı kim niye gönderdi? in Radikal, 11 July 2013.
  2. ^ Tahiri, Hussein. The Structure of Kurdish Society and the Struggle for a Kurdish State. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publications 2007. pp 232 ff
  3. ^ Bila, Fikret (7 November 2007). "Kenan Evren: 'Kürtçeye ağır yasak koyduk ama hataydı'" (in Turkish). Milliyet. Retrieved 30 July 2008. Şimdi İmralı'dan PKK'yı yönetiyor. Cezaevinden avukatları kanalıyla.
  4. ^ "Ojalan: Which way now?". BBC News. 21 November 2000. Retrieved 1 September 2007.
  5. ^ "Terrorist Organization Profiles – START – National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism". Retrieved 2014-08-14.
  6. ^ Howard, Michael (13 May 2005). "Radical firebrand who led bloody nationalist war". Guardian. London. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
  7. ^ "War against Isis: PKK commander tasked with the defence of Syrian Kurds claims 'we will save Kobani'". The Independent. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  8. ^ "BREAKING: HPG operation in Sinjar; 20 ISIS dead". Retrieved 25 June 2015.
  9. ^ "The PKK In Numbers".{}, 28 December 2015
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