Penataran

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Coordinates: 8°0′58″S 112°12′33″E / 8.01611°S 112.20917°E / -8.01611; 112.20917

The main temple of the Penataran complex took the form of a stepped pyramid.

Penataran or Panataran (Indonesian: Candi Penataran) is one of the largest Hindu temple ruins complex in East Java, Indonesia.[1] It is located roughly 12 km northeast of Blitar, with the closest airport being farther away at Malang. Believed to have been constructed between the 12th century to the 15th century, the temple played a significant role in the Majapahit Kingdom, especially under King Hayam Wuruk.[1][2] He considered his favorite sanctuary.[3]:241 Penataran dates from the Kediri era.

Candi Panataran is a Shiva (Siwa) temple. It is notable for including one the largest Indonesian collection of reliefs showing life stories of Hindu god Vishnu in different avatars. In particular, the temple site include the Rama story in the Javanese version of the epic Ramayana, as well Krishna story as depicted Triguna's Krishnayana epic poem.[4][5][3]:158 Comparative studies of reliefs related to Hindu epics at Penataran and Prambanan temple (Yogyakarta) complexes have attracted the attention of archaeologists.[6]

World Heritage status

The dated temple in the Penataran complex

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on October 19, 1995 in the Cultural category. This temple was identified in Nagarakretagama as Palah temple and reported being visited by King Hayam Wuruk during his royal tour across East Java. The site is being considered to be put on the World Heritage list of sites that have "outstanding universal value" to the world.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Lydia Kieven (2013). Following the Cap-Figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs: A New Look at the Religious Function of East Javanese Temples, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. BRILL. pp. 161–175. ISBN 978-90-04-25865-5. 
  2. ^ "Penataran Temple - One of Majapahit Inheritance in Blitar". East Java.com. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
  3. ^ a b Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824803681. 
  4. ^ Jan Fontein (1973), The Abduction of Sitā: Notes on a Stone Relief from Eastern Java, Boston Museum Bulletin, Vol. 71, No. 363 (1973), pp. 21-35
  5. ^ James R. Brandon (2009). Theatre in Southeast Asia. Harvard University Press. pp. 15–27. ISBN 978-0-674-02874-6. 
  6. ^ Willem Frederik Stutterheim (1989). Rāma-legends and Rāma-reliefs in Indonesia. Abhinav Publications. pp. 109–111, 161–172. ISBN 978-81-7017-251-2. 
  7. ^ "Penataran Hindu Temple Complex". UNESCO. Retrieved 6 May 2012. 
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