Peerage of Ireland

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The Peerage of Ireland consists of those titles of nobility created by the English monarchs in their capacity as Lord or King of Ireland, or later by monarchs of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[note 1] The creation of such titles came to an end in the 19th century. The ranks of the Irish peerage are Duke, Marquess, Earl, Viscount and Baron. As of 2016, there were 135 titles in the Peerage of Ireland extant: two dukedoms, ten marquessates, 43 earldoms, 28 viscountcies, and 52 baronies. The Crown of the United Kingdom of Great Britain & Northern Ireland continues to exercise jurisdiction over the Peerage of Ireland, including those peers whose titles derive from places located in what is now the Republic of Ireland.[1] Article 40.2 of the Irish Constitution forbids the state conferring titles of nobility and a citizen may not accept titles of nobility or honour except with the prior approval of the Government.[2] As stated above, this issue does not arise in respect of the Peerage of Ireland, as no creations of titles in it have been made since the Constitution came into force.

In the following table, each peer is listed only by his or her highest Irish title, showing higher or equal titles in the other peerages. Those peers who are known by a higher title in one of the other peerages are listed in italics.

History

William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster.

A handful of titles in the peerage of Ireland date from the Middle Ages. Before 1801, Irish peers had the right to sit in the Irish House of Lords, on the abolition of which by the Union effective in 1801 by an Act of 1800 they regularly elected a small proportion: twenty-eight representative peers of their number to the House of Lords at Westminster.[3]

Both before and after the Union, Irish peerages were often used as a way of creating peerages which did not grant a seat in the English House of Lords and so allowed the grantee (such as Clive of India) to sit in the House of Commons in London. As a consequence, many Irish peers had little or no connection to Ireland, and indeed the names of some Irish peerages refer to places in Great Britain (for example, the Earldom of Mexborough refers to a place in England and the Ranfurly refers to a village in Scotland). Irish peerages continued to be created for almost a century after the Union, although the treaty of Union placed restrictions on their numbers: three needed to become extinct before a new peerage could be granted, until there were only one hundred Irish peers (exclusive of those who held any peerage of Great Britain subsisting at the time of the union, or of the United Kingdom created since the union)– a condition still not achieved. There was a spate of creations of Irish peerages from 1797 onward, mostly peerages of higher ranks for existing Irish peers, as part of the negotiation of the Act of Union; this ended in the first week of January 1801, but the restrictions of the Act were not applied to the last few peers. Irish peerages were created in the early nineteenth century at least as often as the Act permitted, but the pace then slowed.

The last two grants of Irish peerages were: the promotion of the Marquess of Abercorn (a peerage of Great Britain) to be Duke of Abercorn in the Irish Peerage when he became Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1868 and the granting of the Curzon of Kedleston barony to George Curzon when he became Viceroy of India in 1898. Peers of Ireland have precedence below peers of England, Scotland, and Great Britain of the same rank, and above peers of the United Kingdom of the same rank; but Irish peers created after 1801 yield to United Kingdom peers of earlier creation. Accordingly, the Duke of Abercorn (the junior Duke in the Peerage of Ireland) ranks between the Duke of Sutherland and the Duke of Westminster (both dukes in the Peerage of the United Kingdom).

When one of the Irish representative peers died, the Irish Peerage met to elect his replacement; but the officers required to arrange this were abolished as part of the creation of the Irish Free State. The existing representative peers kept their seats in the House of Lords, but they have not been replaced. Since the death of Francis Needham, 4th Earl of Kilmorey in 1961, none remains. The right of the Irish Peerage to elect representatives was abolished by the Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1971.

Titles in the Peerage of the United Kingdom have also referred to places in Ireland, for example Baron Arklow (created 1801 and 1881) or Baron Killarney (created 1892 and 1920). Since partition, only places in Northern Ireland have been used, although the 1880 title "Baron Mount Temple, of Mount Temple in the County of Sligo", was recreated in 1932 as "Baron Mount Temple, of Lee in the County of Southampton".

Extant peerages

In the following table of the Peerage of Ireland as it currently stands,[4] each peer's highest titles in each of the other peerages (if any) are also listed. Irish peers possessed of titles in any of the other peerages (except Scotland, which only got the right to an automatic seat in 1963, with the Peerage Act 1963) had automatic seats in the House of Lords until 1999.

Dukes in the Peerage of Ireland

Title Creation Other Dukedom or higher titles
House of Lords titles
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Duke of Leinster 26 November 1766 Viscount Leinster in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999;
Lord Kildare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1874–1999.
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Duke of Abercorn 10 August 1868 Marquess of Abercorn in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999.

Marquesses in the Peerage of Ireland

Title Creation Other Marquisette or higher titles
House of Lords titles
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Marquess of Waterford 19 August 1789 Lord Tyrone in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999.
The Marquess of Downshire 20 August 1789 Earl of Hillsborough in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999.
The Marquess of Donegall 4 July 1791 Lord Fisherwick in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999;
Lord Templemore in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1975–1999.
The Marquess of Headfort 29 December 1800 Lord Kenlis in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1831–1999.
The Marquess of Sligo 29 December 1800 Lord Monteagle in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1806–1999.
The Marquess of Ely 29 December 1800 Lord Loftus in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1801–1999.
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Marquess Conyngham 1 January 1816 Lord Minster in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1821–1999.
The Marquess of Londonderry 13 January 1816 Earl Vane in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1823–1999.

Earls in the Peerage of Ireland

  •   Subsidiary title.
Title Creation Other Earldom or higher titles
House of Lords titles
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Earl of Waterford 17 July 1446 Earl of Shrewsbury in the Peerage of England until 1999
The Earl of Cork 26 October 1620 Earl of Orrery in the Peerage of Ireland;
Lord Boyle of Marston in the Peerage of Great Britain until 1999.
The Earl of Westmeath 4 September 1621
The Earl of Meath 16 April 1627 Lord Chaworth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1831–1999.
The Earl of Desmond 28 October 1628 Held by the Earl of Denbigh in the Peerage of England since 1675.
The Earl of Cavan 1647
The Earl of Orrery 1660 Held with Earl of Cork in the Peerage of Ireland;
Sat as Lord Boyle of Marston in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords until 1999
.
The Earl of Drogheda 1661 Lord Moore in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1954–1999.
The Earl of Granard 1684 Lord Granard in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1806–1999.
The Earl of Kerry 1722 Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Earl of Darnley 1725 Lord Clifton in the Peerage of England in House of Lords from 1937–1999.
The Earl of Bessborough 1739 Lord Ponsonby in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1749–1999;
Lord Duncannon in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Earl of Carrick 1748 Sat as Lord Butler in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1912–1999.
The Earl of Shelburne 1753 Marquess of Lansdowne in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Earl of Shannon 1756 Lord Carleton in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1786–1999.
The Earl of Mornington 1760 Duke of Wellington in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Earl of Arran 1762 Sat as Lord Sudley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1884–1999.
The Earl of Courtown 1762 Sat as Lord Saltersford in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1796–1999.
The Earl of Mexborough 1766
The Earl Winterton 1766
The Earl of Kingston 1768
The Earl of Roden 1771
The Earl of Lisburne 1776
The Earl of Clanwilliam 1776 Sat as Lord Clanwilliam in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1828–1999.
The Earl of Antrim 1785
The Earl of Longford 1785 Sat as Lord Silchester in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1821–1999;
Sat as Lord Pakenham in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1961–1999.
The Earl of Portarlington 1785
The Earl of Mayo 1785
The Earl Annesley 1789
The Earl of Enniskillen 1789 Sat as Lord Grinstead in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1815–1999.
The Earl Erne 1789 Sat as Lord Fermanagh in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1876–1999.
The Earl of Lucan 1795 Sat as Lord Bingham in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1934–1974/1999.
The Earl of Leitrim 1795
The Earl Belmore 1797
The Earl Castle Stewart 1800
The Earl of Donoughmore 1800 Sat as Viscount Hutchinson in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1821–1999.
The Earl of Caledon 1800
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Earl of Limerick 1803 Sat as Lord Foxford in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1815–1999.
The Earl of Clancarty 1803 Sat as Viscount Clancarty in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1823–1999.
The Earl of Gosford 1806 Sat as Lord Worlingham in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1835–1999;
Sat as Lord Acheson in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1847–1999.
The Earl of Rosse 1806
The Earl of Normanton 1806 Sat as Lord Mendip in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1974–1999;
Sat as Lord Somerton in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1873–1999.
The Earl of Kilmorey 1822
The Earl of Listowel 1822 Sat as Lord Hare in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1869–1999.
The Earl of Norbury 1827
The Earl of Ranfurly 1831 Sat as Lord Ranfurly in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1826–1999.

Viscounts in the Peerage of Ireland

  •   Subsidiary title.
Title Creation Other Viscountcy or higher titles
House of Lords titles
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Viscount Gormanston 1478 Sat as Lord Gormanston in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1868–1999.
The Viscount Mountgarret 1550 Sat as Lord Mountgarret in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1911–1999.
The Viscount Grandison 1620 Earl of Jersey in the Peerage of England.
The Viscount Valentia 1622
The Viscount Dillon 1622
The Viscount Lumley 1628 Earl of Scarbrough in the Peerage of England.
The Viscount Massereene 1660 Held by with Viscount Ferrard in the Peerage of Ireland.
Sat as Lord Oriel in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1821–1999.
The Viscount Cholmondeley 1661 Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;
Earl of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of England;
Lord Newburgh in the Peerage of Great Britain
.
The Viscount Charlemont 1665
The Viscount Downe 1681 Sat as Lord Dawnay in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1897–1999.
The Viscount Molesworth 1716
The Viscount Chetwynd 1717
The Viscount Midleton 1717 Sat as Lord Brodrick in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1796–1999.
The Viscount Boyne 1717 Lord Brancepeth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1866–1999.
The Viscount Grimston 1719 Earl of Verulam in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;
Lord Forrester in the Peerage of Scotland;
Lord Verulam in the Peerage of Great Britain
.
The Viscount Gage 1720 Sat as Lord Gage in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1790–1999.
The Viscount Galway 1727
The Viscount Powerscourt 1743 Sat as Lord Powerscourt in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1885–1999.
The Viscount Ashbrook 1751
The Viscount Southwell 1776
The Viscount de Vesci 1776
The Viscount Lifford 1781
The Viscount Bangor 1781
The Viscount Doneraile 1785
The Viscount Harberton 1791
The Viscount Hawarden 1793
The Viscount Ferrard 1797 Held by with Viscount Massereene in the Peerage of Ireland.
Sat as Lord Oriel in the Peerage of the United Kingdom from 1821–1999.
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Viscount Monck 1801 Sat as Lord Monck in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1866–1999.
The Viscount Gort 1816

Barons in the Peerage of Ireland

In Ireland, barony may also refer to an obsolete political subdivision of a county. There is no connection between such a barony and the noble title of baron.

  •   Subsidiary title.
Title Creation Other Barony or higher titles
House of Lords titles
 Kingdom of Ireland
The Lord Kingsale 1397
The Lord Dunsany 1439
The Lord Trimlestown 1461
The Lord Dunboyne 1541
The Lord Louth 1541
The Lord Inchiquin 1543
The Lord Digby 1620 Sat as Lord Digby in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1765–1999.
The Lord Conway and Killultagh 1712 Marquess of Hertford in the Peerage of Great Britain;
Lord Conway in the Peerage of England
.
The Lord Newborough 1715 Marquess of Cholmondeley in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Carbery 1715
The Lord Aylmer 1718
The Lord Farnham 1756
The Lord Lisle 1758
The Lord Clive 1762 Earl of Powis in the Peerage of the United Kingdom;
Lord Clive in the Peerage of Great Britain
.
The Lord Mulgrave 1767 Marquess of Normanby in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Newborough 1776
The Lord Macdonald 1776
The Lord Kensington 1776 Lord Kensington in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1886–1999.
The Lord Westcote 1776 Viscount Cobham in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Lord Massy 1776
The Lord Muskerry 1781
The Lord Hood 1782 Viscount Hood in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The Lord Sheffield 1783 Sat as Lord Stanley of Alderley in Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1903–1999;
Sat as Lord Eddisbury in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1903–1999.
The Lord Kilmaine 1789
The Lord Auckland 1789 Sat as Lord Auckland in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1793–1999.
The Lord Waterpark 1792
The Lord Bridport 1794 Viscount Bridport in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.
The Lord Graves 1794
The Lord Huntingfield 1796
The Lord Carrington 1796 Sat as Lord Carrington in the Peerage of Great Britain in House of Lords from 1797–1999.
The Lord Rossmore 1796 Sat as Lord Rossmore in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1838–1999.
The Lord Hotham 1797
The Lord Crofton 1797
The Lord ffrench 1798
The Lord Henley 1799 Sat as Lord Northington in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1885–1999.
The Lord Langford 1800
The Lord Dufferin and Claneboye 1800
The Lord Henniker 1800 Sat as Lord Hartismere in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1866–1999.
The Lord Ventry 1800
The Lord Dunalley 1800
The Lord Clanmorris 1800
The Lord Ashtown 1800
 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The Lord Rendlesham 1806
The Lord Castlemaine 1812
The Lord Decies 1812
The Lord Garvagh 1818
The Lord Talbot of Malahide 1831
The Lord Carew 1834 Sat as Lord Carew in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1838–1999.
The Lord Oranmore and Browne 1836 Sat as Lord Mereworth in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in House of Lords from 1926–1999.
The Lord Bellew 1848
The Lord Fermoy 1865
The Lord Rathdonnell 1868

See also

Notes

  1. ^ With the establishment of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the separate title "King of Ireland" ceased.

References

  1. ^ "The Peerage of Ireland genealogy project". geni_family_tree. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  2. ^ "40.2" (PDF), Constitution of Ireland, Dublin: Stationery Office, archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2009
  3. ^ "The Peerage of Ireland". www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk. Retrieved 12 July 2017.
  4. ^ Cracroft's Peerage – The Peerage of Ireland

External links

  • Courthope, William (editor) (1838). Debrett's Complete Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: 22nd edition. London.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Lodge, John; Archdall, Mervyn (1789). The Peerage of Ireland: Volume I. Dublin: James Moore.
  • Lodge, John; Archdall, Mervyn (1789). The Peerage of Ireland: Volume II. Dublin: James Moore.
  • Kimber, Edward (1768). The Peerage of Ireland: Volume II. London: J Alman.
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