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890 BC–322 BC
Location of the Pauravas relative to other groups: the Audumbaras, the Kunindas, the Vemakas, the Vrishnis, the Yaudheyas and the Arjunayanas.
Capital Hastinapur
Government Not specified
 •  Established 890 BC
 •  Disestablished 322 BC
Succeeded by
Maurya Empire
Today part of  Pakistan

Pauravas (Sanskrit: पौरव, Punjabi:ਪੌਰਵਾ/پوورا) was an ancient kingdom in the northwest Indian subcontinent, dating from at least 890 BC to 322 BC. The history of the Pauravas is contained in Hindu historical and religious texts. Dating back to 820 BC.

Porus was king of the Paurava when Alexander the Great invaded the Indian subcontinent.


The Pauravas were situated on or near the Jhelum river,[1] where their monarchs grew rich and prosperous through trade.[citation needed]

The origin of the Pauravas royals is quite ancient and pre-dates the Hindu epic, Mahabharata, which documents and is a main source of much of its history.[2] The Hindu kings who descended from the Hindu God Chandra ("moon") were called Chandravanshi (Somavanshi, or "of the Lunar dynasty"). Yayati was a Chandravanshi king, with Puru and Yadu as two of his many sons. They were the founders of two main branches of the Chandravamsha; the Yadus were descendants of Yadu, and Pauravas were descendants of Puru.[2][3]

The Pauravas had also existed earlier in the Vedic Ages.[3] They were led by King Sudas, who fought off Persian invaders at the Battle of the Ten Kings.[citation needed] The Persian kings Darius and Xerxes[citation needed] claimed suzerainty over many of the Pauravas, but this claim was loose at best.[4]

In the 8th century BCE, the capital Hastinapur, was destroyed by a severe flood and King Nikasu built a new capital, Kosambi. With the rise of the Mahajanapada powers, the state fell into a steady decline during 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[5][6]

Conquest by foreign powers

Porus was defeated by Alexander at the Battle of the Hydaspes, where the latter reappointed the former as a vassal king over the region.[1] By 322 BCE, the region had been conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, a young adventurer, who later conquered the Nanda Empire and founded the Indian Maurya Empire which was thus far the largest empire that had existed at Indian subcontinent.[7]

See also


  1. ^ a b Graham Phillips (31 March 2012). Alexander The Great. Ebury Publishing. pp. 129–131. ISBN 978-0-7535-3582-0. 
  2. ^ a b F.E. Pargiter (1922). Ancient Indian Historical Tradition. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 110. ISBN 978-81-208-1487-5. 
  3. ^ a b Anthony Kennedy Warder (1989). Indian Kavya Literature. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0447-0. 
  4. ^ Frank L. Holt (24 November 2003). Alexander the Great and the Mystery of the Elephant Medallions. University of California Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-520-23881-7. 
  5. ^ Warder, A K. "Indian Buddhism". 2001 (4th) Ed. 
  6. ^ Publications Division. THE GAZETTEER OF INDIA Volume 2. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. p. 162. ISBN 978-81-230-2265-9. 
  7. ^ Arthur A. MacDonell (28 March 2014). A History of Sanskrit Literature (Illustrated). p. 331. ISBN 978-1-304-98862-1. 
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