Papal election, 1118
Papal election January 1118  

Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
 
Dates and location  
24 January 1118 Palatine Hill, Rome  
Key officials  
Dean  Crescenzio 
Protopriest  Boniface 
Protodeacon  Giovanni Coniulo 
Elected Pope  
Giovanni Coniulo Name taken: Gelasius II  
The Papal election of 1118 saw the election of Pope Gelasius II as the successor of Pope Paschal II, who died January 21, 1118 in Rome after an over 18year pontificate.
Contents
List of Cardinalelectors
The Papal bull In nomine Domini issued by Pope Nicholas II in 1059, stated that on the death of the incumbent pope, the cardinalbishops should confer among themselves as to a candidate; when a candidate has been deduced the cardinalbishops and all other cardinals are to proceed to an election.^{[1]}
Data on the number and composition of the College of Cardinals in January 1118, are very uncertain. The primary source was written over a dozen years later by Pandulf of Pisa, cardinalpriest of Santi Cosma e Damiano.^{[2]} It claimed that the election was attended by 49 cardinals (four bishops, 27 priests and 18 deacons), however, mentions the names of only 35 of them (four bishops, 20 priests and 11 deacons, including the elect).^{[3]}According to Pandulf, one cardinalpriest, Hugh of Santi Apostoli, was absent, to which must be added two other cardinals bishops, which Pandulf in the context of the election, although does not mention, but whose existence and dignity are documented in no uncertain terms. The credibility of the relationship Pandulf, including a list of electors, is challenged by modern historians; indicates on its polemical nature of the atmosphere resulting from the schism Antipope Anacletus II (1130–1138)^{[4]} Critical analysis of the sources revealed that:^{[5]}
 In January 1118 the Cardinals priests and deacons, cardinals was less than clear from the relationship Pandulf ^{[6]}
 Several cardinals mentioned by Pandulf were elevated by later popes ^{[7]}
In January 1118, the College of Cardinals had a population of probably only 41 members, including six bishops, 20 priests and 15 deacons, of which 36 (4, 18 and 14) participated in the election:
 Crescenzio (nominated cardinal in 1100 ^{[8]})  Cardinalbishop of Sabina; Primate of the Holy College of Cardinals
 Pietro Senex (1102)  Cardinalbishop of Porto
 Lamberto (1116)  Cardinalbishop of Ostia
 Witalis (1111)  Cardinalbishop of Albano
 Boniface (1100)  CardinalPriest of S. Marco; Cardinalprotopriest of the College of Cardinals
 Benedict (1102)  CardinalPriest of S. Pietro in Vincoli
 Anastasio (1102)  CardinalPriest of S. Clemente
 Divizzo (1106)  CardinalPriest of Ss. Silvestro e Martino
 Jan (1106)  CardinalPriest of S. Cecilia
 Teobald (1111)  CardinalPriest of Ss. Giovanni e Paolo
 Rainier (1111)  CardinalPriest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro
 Corrado Demetri (1114)  CardinalPriest of S. Pudenziana
 Gregory (1115)  CardinalPriest of S. Prisca
 Desiderio (1115)  CardinalPriest of S. Prassede
 Deusdedit (1116)  CardinalPriest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso
 Gregorio Sienense (1116)  CardinalPriest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina
 Giovanni, O.S.B. Cas. (1116)  CardinalPriest of S. Eusebio
 Guido, O.S.B. (1116)  CardinalPriest of S. Balbina
 Giovanni Cremense (1116)  CardinalPriest of S. Crisogono
 Sasso de Anagni (1116)  cardinalpriest. S. Stefano al Monte Celio
 Pietro Pisano (1113)  CardinalPriest of S. Susanna
 Amico, O.S.B. Cas. (1117)  CardinalPriest of Ss. Nereo ed Achilleo; Abbot of S. Vincenzo al Volturno
 Giovanni Coniulo, O.S.B. Cas. (1088)  CardinalDeacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin; Cardinalprotodeacon of the College of Cardinals
 Gregorio, OSB (1108)  CardinalDeacon of S. Eustachio
 Romoaldo (1109)  CardinalDeacon of S. Maria in Via Lata
 Gregorio Gaetano (1109)  CardinalDeacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio
 Aldo da Ferentino (1109)  cardinaldeacon of Ss. Sergio e Bacco
 Teobaldo Boccapecora (1109)  CardinalDeacon of S. Maria Nuova
 Roscemanno, O.S.B.Cas. (1112)  CardinalDeacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro
 Pietro Pierleoni, OSBCluny (1113)  cardinaldeacon of Ss. Cosma e Damiano
 Oderisio di Sangro, O.S.B.Cas. (1112)  cardinaldeacon of S. Agata
 Comes (1113)  cardinaldeacon of S. Maria in Aquiro
 Gregorio Papareschi (1116)  cardinaldeacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria
 Crisogono (1117)  cardinaldeacon of S. Nicola in Carcere
 Enrico de Mazara (1117)  cardinaldeacon of S. Teodoro; Dean Mazara del Vallo
 Crescenzio di Anagni (1117)  cardinaldeacon
Two subdeacons were in attendance, Nicholas, Provost of the Choir School and Amico O.S.B. (Cluny), Abbot of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls^{[9]}
Absent
It is presumed that two cardinalpriests, two cardinalbishops and a cardinaldeacon were absent:
 Giovanni Marsicano, O.S.B. (1100)  Cardinalbishop of Tusculum^{[10]}
 Kuno von Urach (1107)  Cardinalbishop of Palestrina; papal legate in France^{[10]}
 Boso (1109)  Cardinalpriest of S. Anastasia; papal legate in Spain^{[10]}
 Ugone d'Alatri (1116)  Cardinalpriest of Santi Dodici Apostoli; Governor Monte Circeo^{[10]}
 Giovanni, O.S.B. (1073)  Cardinaldeacon of Santa Maria in Domnica; Abbot of Subiaco^{[11]}
Giovanni Subiaco was a nominee Gregory VII, the others — Paschal II.
The choice of Gelasius II
Paschal II throughout his papacy fought the investiture controversy of Emperor Henry V who supported the Roman aristocracy. After his death, the Cardinals took refuge in a Benedictine monastery on the Palatine Hill fearing supporters of the emperor. On January 24, three days after the customary prayers and devotions, the electors unanimously chose Giovanni Cardinal Coniulo from Gaeta, cardinaldeacon of Santa Maria in Cosmedin and Chancellor of the Holy See, on election he adopted the papal name Gelasius II.
Shortly after his election the pope was arrested by the Roman baron Cenzio II Frangipani, a supporter of the emperor. Despite being freed by a popular uprising in March, the pope fled from Rome to France, where he remained until his death at the beginning of the following year. During this time, the emperor appointed Archbishop Maurice Burdinusa Braga, who took the name Gregory VIII, as antipope.
References

^ Fanning, W. (1911). "Pope Nicholas II". The Catholic Encyclopaedia. Robert Appleton Company. ISBN 0840731752. External link in
chapter=
(help)  ^ Gelasius II  Vita Operaque (Auctore Pandulpho Aletrino Familiari)
 ^ Missing in Pandulf relationship cardinals tried to make the names of the sixteenthcentury historian Alphonso Chacón (1530/40–1599) in his posthumously published work, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et SRE Cardinalium, but edu / ~ Mirandas / conclavexii.htm # 1118 added by the cardinals^{[permanent dead link]} or were appointed only by later popes (Ugo Lectifredo of S. Vitale, Romano S. Maria in Portico, Pietro S. Adriano), or their existence there is no reliable way documented (Giovanni S. Callisto, Pietro Vuilhelmus S. Sabina, Ducale of Ss. IV Coronati, Crisostomo of S. Ciriaco, Amico of Ss. Vito e Modesto), and also two cardinals were listed twice (Teobaldo Boccapecora as a deacon of S. Maria Nuova, and as a priest of S. Anastasia, in fact, has been promoted from the first rank to second in 1123, and as a priest Divizzo Ss. Silvestro Martino and as bishop of Tusculum, the promotion of the first rank to the second took place in 1121)
 ^ Pandulf was a supporter of Anacletus II, who made him a cardinal. More on this topic Robinson, p 63, and Furst, p 69
 ^ Klewitz, pp. 100–101, 119–134; Furst, pp. 69–80; Hulse, passim, esp. pp. 63–64.
 ^ Klewitz gives the number of 23 priests and 16 deacons; Furst 18 presbyters and deacons 12; article presents a list according to the analysis Hulse, pp. 63–64.
 ^ From Callistus II nominated will receive Amico of S. Croce, Gerardo S. Prisca and Sigizo of S. Sisto, perhaps Gregorio S. Eustachio, although in the latter case it is unlikely. Stefano S. Lucia in Silice was appointed only by Honorius II. Cardinal S. Prisca was then Gregorio and Gerardo, although the vacancy is not completely excluded. In addition, Teobaldo Boccapeccora was mentioned by Pandulf as cardinalpriest of S. Anastasia, even though at the time he was still a deacon of S. Maria Nuova (elevated in 1121/22). Klewitz, with the exception of the last case, approved the names given by Pandulf
 ^ appointment dates are approximate. Primary source for these dates are approximate Huls, pp. 84–86
 ^ Pandulf mistakenly marked Amico as Cardinalpriest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. He received this honor only from Callistus II. Perhaps among the lower clergy was also Sigizo, later cardinalpriest of San Sisto, whose Pandulf listed as an elector of the Cardinalspriests
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} Klewitz, p 100
 ^ Huls, p 233
Bibliography
 H. W. Klewitz, Reformpapsttum und Kardinalkolleg, Darmstadt 1957
 CG Furst, Kennen Wir die Wahlern Gelsius' II?, In: Festschrift Karl Pivec. Zum 60 Geburtstag von gewidmet Kollegen, edited by Anton Haidacher, Hans Eberhard Mayer, ed. Sprachwissenschaftliches Institut der LeopoldFranzensUniversität, 1966, pp. 69–80
 I. S. Robinson, The Papacy 1073–1198. Continuity and Innovations, Cambridge University Press 1990
 R. Huls, Kardinal, Klerus und Kirchen Roms: 1049–1130, Tübingen 1977
External links
 ~ Mirandas / conclavexii.htm # 1118 List of Participants election in 1118 by Alfonso Chacón, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et SRE Cardinalium from 1677
 Gelasius II  Vita Operaque
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