Papal conclave, April 1555

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Papal conclave
April 1555
Sede vacante.svg
Coat of arms during the vacancy of the Holy See
Dates and location
5–9 April 1555
Apostolic Palace, Papal States
Key officials
Dean Giovanni Pietro Carafa
Camerlengo Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora
Protopriest Robert de Lenoncourt
Protodeacon Francesco Pisani
Ballots 1
Elected Pope
Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi
Name taken: Marcellus II
Pope Marcellus II.PNG

The papal conclave of April 1555 (April 5–9) was convoked after the death of Pope Julius III. Elected as his successor Cardinal Marcello Cervini, who took the name of Marcellus II, being the last pope who retained his baptismal name.

List of participants

Pope Julius III died on March 23, 1555. Thirty-seven out of fifty-seven cardinals participated in the election of his successor:[1]

Fifteen electors were created by Julius III, twenty by Pope Paul III, one by Pope Clement VII and one by Leo X.

Absentee cardinals

Twenty cardinals were absent:[1]

Thirteen were created by Paul III, four by Clement VII, two by Julius III and one by Leo X.

Divisions in the Sacred College

College of Cardinals was divided into three parties:[2]

The election of Pope Marcellus II

The Cardinals present in Rome entered the conclave on April 5. Initially, they prepared and subscribed the conclave capitulation, which obliged elect to maintain neutrality in the European conflicts and forbade him conducting wars against Christian princes.[3] In spite of the existed divisions, cardinals quickly achieved consensus. On April 9 at 11 p.m.[4] they elected by acclamation[5] Cardinal Marcello Cervini. He was proposed by French faction,[6] but obtained also the support of the Imperial cardinals (e.g. Madruzzo[3]) despite the expressed wishes of Charles V against Cervini's election.[7]

On April 10 in the morning a formal scrutiny took place to confirm the election. Cervini received all votes except of his own, which he gave to Gian Pietro Carafa.[3] He retained his baptismal name, adding to it only an ordinal number (Marcellus II). On that same day, he was consecrated bishop of Rome by Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa, bishop of Ostia e Velletri and Dean of the College of Cardinals, and crowned by Cardinal Francesco Pisani, Protodeacon of S. Marco.[4]

See also


  1. ^ a b This is according to an account of this conclave in German on Vatican History Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine., to the account of J. P. Adams in English at Sede Vacante 1555, and to Onuphrio Panvinio, p. 424-425. Salvador Miranda: list of participants of the conclave of April 1555 indicates that all cardinals participated in this conclave except Pietro Tagliavia de Aragonia and Louis I de Guise. The list of the electors and absentees is presented according to Panvinio, p. 424-425.
  2. ^ Valérie Pirie: The Triple Crown: the election of Paul IV Although that link concerns the next conclave held in May 1555, the information about parties existed in the Sacred College are correct also for the conclave of April 1555.
  3. ^ a b c Vatican History Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ a b Cardinal Marcello Cervini (Pope Marcellus II by S. Miranda
  5. ^ Helmut Feld (1993). "Marcellus II., Papst". In Bautz, Traugott. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 5. Herzberg: Bautz. cols. 771–775. ISBN 3-88309-043-3. 
  6. ^ The Triple Crown
  7. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Marcellus II


  • O. Panvinio, J. Strada, Epitome pontificum Romanorum a s. Petro usque ad Paulum IIII, gestorum videlicet electionisque singulorum & conclavium compendiaria narratio. Cardinalium item nomina... Onuphrio Panvinio,... authore... Ex musaeo Jacobi Stradae,... (J. de Strada edidit), Impensis Jacobi Stradae Mantuani, 1557.
  • Leti, Gregorio (1667). Conclavi de' pontefici romani, quali si sono potuti trovare fin à questo giorno [éd. Grogorio Leti] (in Italian). Volume I. no place given: no publisher given. pp. 135–144. 
  • Petruccelli della Gattina, Ferdinando (1864). Histoire diplomatique des conclaves (in French). Volume II. Paris: A. Lacroix, Verboeckhoven et cie. 
  • Herre, Paul (1907). Papsttum und Papstwahl im Zeitalter Philipps II (in German). Leipzig: Teubner. 
  • Vatican History
  • Valérie Pirie, The Triple Crown: An Account of the Papal Conclaves. Pope Marcellus II (Cervini)
  • List of participants of papal conclave of April 1555 (by Salvador Miranda)
  • S. Miranda: Cardinal Marcello Cervini (Pope Marcellus II)
  • Bautz Biografisch-Bibliografiches Kirchenlexikon: Marcellus II
  • Pope Marcellus II The Catholic Encyclopedia
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