Duchy of Pannonian Croatia

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Duchy of Pannonian Croatia
Kneževina Panonska Hrvatska
duchy
7th century–10th century
Duchy of Pannonian Croatia (peach coloured) under Braslav in the 9th century on an old map of the Hungarian historian Dr. Márki Sándor
Capital Sisak
Government duchy
Historical era Middle Ages
 •  Established 7th century
 •  Disestablished 10th century
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Pannonia Savia
Kingdom of Croatia (medieval)
Today part of Mainly northern Croatia, but also small parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary and Slovenia
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Duchy of Pannonian Croatia (Croatian: Kneževina Panonska Hrvatska) was a medieval duchy from the 7th to the 10th century located in the Pannonian Plain approximately between the rivers Drava and Sava in today's Croatia, but at times also considerably to the south of the Sava. Its capital was Sisak.

History

Slavs came to the territory of the former Roman province Pannonia in the late 6th and early 7th century, as evidenced by many archeological finds. According to De administrando imperio, at the time of the rule of Emperor Herakleios (610-640), Croats arrived in Dalmatia, founded a duchy there and, shortly afterward, a part of them went to the north to Pannonia and founded another duchy there (Pannonian Croatia).

In the late 7th century or in the 8th century, the Duchy became vassalaged to the Avar Empire, as archaeological finds suggest.[citation needed] After the defeat of the Avar Empire by Frankish troops, Duke Vojnomir was assigned the Duchy as a vassal of the Frankish margrave of Friuli.[1][better source needed] The Duchy failed to end Frankish domination during a rebellion under Duke Ljudevit Posavski in the early 9th century.

In 827, the Bulgarians invaded and conquered the Duchy and parts of territories to the north of it. In 829 they imposed a local Duke Ratimir as the new ruler of Pannonian Croatia in their name.[citation needed] The Franks however claimed the territory, which in their view belonged (since 827) to the March of Carantania and thus under the rule of Count Ratbod[dubious ], who had been head of the Avar March and March of Carantania since 828.
In 838, Ratbod deposed Ratimir and subordinated the Duchy to the Frankish March of Carantania. Another known ruler of Pannonian Croatia was Braslav, who ruled there in 880-898/900, still vassalaged to the Kingdom of East Francia.

In the 10th century, under Duke (later King) Tomislav, the Duchy of Pannonian Croatia was united with Littoral Croatia to form the Kingdom of Croatia.[2]

Rulers

See also

References

  1. ^ Mediaeval Academy of America (1945). Speculum. University of California. p. 230. 
  2. ^ Opća enciklopedija JLZ. Yugoslavian Lexicographical Institute. Zagreb. 1982. 

External links

  • The Duchy of Pannonian Croatia was established between Sava and Drava Rivers
  • Northern Pannonian Croatia was ruled by dukes
  • Map of Pannonian and Dalmatian Croatia
  • Map - Pannonian Duchy in the time of Ljudevit
  • Map - Pannonian Principality in the time of Braslav
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