Palatal lateral approximant

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Palatal lateral approximant
ʎ
IPA number 157
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʎ
Unicode (hex) U+028E
X-SAMPA L
Kirshenbaum l^
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
Listen
Alveolo-palatal lateral approximant
l̠ʲ
ʎ̟
ȴ

The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʎ⟩, a rotated lowercase letter ⟨y⟩ (not to be confused with lowercase lambda, ⟨λ⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L.

Many languages that were previously thought to have a palatal lateral approximant actually have a lateral approximant that is, broadly, alveolo-palatal; that is to say, it is articulated at a place in-between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate (excluded), and it may be variously described as alveolo-palatal, lamino-postalveolar,[1] or postalveolo-prepalatal.[2] None of the 13 languages investigated by Recasens (2013), many of them Romance, has a 'true' palatal.[3] That is likely the case for several other languages listed here. Some languages, like Portuguese and Catalan, have a lateral approximant that varies between alveolar and alveolo-palatal.[4]

There is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolo-palatal lateral approximant. If precision is desired, it may be transcribed ⟨l̠ʲ⟩ or ⟨ʎ̟⟩; they are essentially equivalent because the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. There is also a non-IPA letter ⟨ȴ⟩ ("l", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩), used especially in Sinological circles.

The palatal lateral approximant contrasts phonemically with its voiceless counterpart /ʎ̥/ in the Xumi language spoken in China.[5][6]

Features

Features of the palatal lateral approximant:

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Aragonese agulla [a̠ˈɣuʎa̠] 'needle'
Aromanian ljepuri [ˈʎepuri] 'rabbit'
Astur-Leonese Asturian llingua [ˈʎĩŋgwa̝] 'language' Where /ʎ/ is absent due to a yeísmo-like merger, it is replaced by different sounds (depending on dialect) and spelled ⟨ḷ⟩. Yeísmo is prevalent in Extremaduran language (spoken in northwestern Extremadura) and west central Asturian.
Leonese
Mirandese lhéngua [ˈʎɛ̃gwɐ]
Aymara llaki [ʎaki] 'sad'
Basque bonbilla [bo̞mbiʎa̠] 'bulb'
Breton familh [fa̠miʎ] 'family'
Bulgarian любов [l̠ʲubof] 'love' Alveolo-palatal.[citation needed]
Catalan Standard ull [ˈuʎ̟] 'eye' Alveolo-palatal.[2] See Catalan phonology
Eastern Aragon clau [ˈkʎ̟a̠w] 'key' Allophone of /l/ in consonant clusters.
English County Donegal[7] million [ˈmɪʎən] 'million' Allophone of the sequence /lj/.[7]
General American[8] A frequent allophone of the sequence /lj/; sometimes realized as [jj].[8] See English phonology
Enindhilyagwa angalya [aŋal̠ʲa] 'place' Laminal post-alveolar
Faroese[9] telgja [ˈtʰɛʎt͡ʃa] 'to carve' Allophone of /l/ before palatal consonants.[9] Sometimes voiceless [ʎ̥].[9] See Faroese phonology
Franco-Provençal balyi [baʎi] 'give'
French Some dialects[10] papillon [papiʎɒ̃] 'butterfly' Corresponds to /j/ in modern standard French. See French phonology
Galician Standard illado [iˈʎa̠ðo̝] 'insulated' Many Galician speakers are nowadays yeístas because of influence from Spanish
Greek ήλιος About this sound [ˈiʎos]  'sun' Postalveolar.[11] See Modern Greek phonology
Hungarian Northern dialects[12] lyuk [ʎuk] 'hole' Alveolo-palatal.[13] Modern standard Hungarian has undergone a phenomenon akin to Spanish yeísmo, merging /ʎ/ into /j/. See Hungarian ly and Hungarian phonology
Italian[2] figlio About this sound [ˈfiʎːo]  'son' Alveolo-palatal.[2] Realized as fricative [ʎ̝] in a large number of accents.[14] See Italian phonology
Ivilyuat Iviuɂat [ʔivɪʎʊʔat] 'the speaking [Ivilyuat]' ('Ivilyuat language')
Norwegian Northern and central dialects[15] alle [ɑʎːe] 'all' See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Standard miralhar [miɾa̠ˈʎa̠] 'to reflect' See Occitan phonology
Paiwan Language Standard veljevelj [vəʎəveɬ] 'banana' See Paiwan Language
Portuguese Standard ralho [ˈʁaʎu] 'I scold' Alveolo-palatal in European Portuguese.[16] May instead be [lʲ], [l] (Northeast) or [j] (Caipira), especially before unrounded vowels.[17][18] See Portuguese phonology
Many dialects[19] sandália [sɐ̃ˈda̠l̠ʲɐ] 'sandal' Possible realization of post-stressed /li/ plus vowel.
Quechua[20] qallu [qaʎʊ] 'tongue'
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[21] lingură [ʎungurə][stress?] 'spoon' Corresponds to [l][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[22] till [tʲʰiːʎ] 'return' Alveolo-palatal.[citation needed] See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[23] љуљaшка / ljuljaška [ʎ̟ǔʎ̟a̠ːʃka̠] 'swing (seat)' Palato-alveolar.[23] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Sissano piyl [piʎ] 'fish'
Slovak ľúbiť About this sound [ˈʎu̞ːbi̞c̟]  'to love' Merges with /l/ in southern dialects. See Slovak phonology
Spanish[24] Andean caballo [ka̠ˈβa̠ʎö] 'horse' Found in traditional speakers in Peninsular Spanish. Also found in Andean countries and Paraguay. For most speakers, this sound has merged with /ʝ/, a phenomenon called yeísmo. See Spanish phonology
Castilian[25]
Chavacano
Central areas in Extremadura
Eastern and southwestern Manchego
Murcian
Paraguayan[26]
Philippine Spanish
Very few areas in Andalusia
Xumi Lower[5] [Rʎ̟o] 'musk deer' Alveolo-palatal; contrasts with the voiceless /ʎ̥/.[5][6]
Upper[6] [Hʎ̟ɛ] 'correct, right'

See also

References

  1. ^ Recasens (2013:2), citing Ladefoged (1997:602)
  2. ^ a b c d Recasens et al. (1993:222)
  3. ^ Recasens (2013:11)
  4. ^ Recasens (2013:10–13)
  5. ^ a b c Chirkova & Chen (2013:365, 367–368)
  6. ^ a b c Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013:382–383)
  7. ^ a b Stenson (1991), cited in Hickey (2004:71)
  8. ^ a b Wells (1982:490)
  9. ^ a b c Árnason (2011:115)
  10. ^ Grevisse & Goosse (2011, §33, b), Fagyal, Kibbee & Jenkins (2006:47)
  11. ^ Arvaniti (2007:20)
  12. ^ Benkő (1972:?)
  13. ^ Recasens (2013:10)
  14. ^ Ashby (2011:64): "(…) in a large number of Italian accents, there is considerable friction involved in the pronunciation of [ʎ], creating a voiced palatal lateral fricative (for which there is no established IPA symbol)."
  15. ^ Skjekkeland (1997:105–107)
  16. ^ Teixeira et al. (2012:321)
  17. ^ Stein (2011:223)
  18. ^ Aragão (2009:168)
  19. ^ Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português
  20. ^ Ladefoged (2005:149)
  21. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  22. ^ Oftedal (1956:?)
  23. ^ a b Jazić (1977:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:188)
  24. ^ [1] ALPI
  25. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  26. ^ Lipski (1996) and Alvar (1996). [dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/5120313.pdf Yeísmo en el español de América]

Bibliography

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