Pakpak people

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Pakpak people
Batak Pakpak / Pakpak Dairi
Total population
(1,200,000[1])
Regions with significant populations
 Indonesia (North Sumatra & Aceh)
Languages
Batak Dairi language, Indonesian language
Religion
Christianity (predominantly), Islam and traditional beliefs. [2]
Related ethnic groups
Simalungun people, Nias people

Pakpak or Pakpak Dairi people are one of the ethnic group of Batak people (hence also known as Batak Pakpak) found mainly in North Sumatra, Indonesia. They are scattered in a few regencies and cities in North Sumatra and Aceh, such as Dairi Regency, Pakpak Bharat Regency, Humbang Hasundutan Regency and Central Tapanuli Regency of North Sumatra, and also in Aceh Singkil Regency and Subulussalam, Aceh.

In administrative governance, most of the Pakpak people settled in Dairi Regency, North Sumatra, which later in 2003 grew into two regencies, namely:-

The Pakpak people are most likely the descendents of the soldiers from Chola Kingdom, India that attacked Srivijaya Kingdom in the 11th century.[3]

Sub-ethnics

The Pakpak people are divided into five sub-ethnic groups or in local terminology, Pakpak Silima Suak consists of:[4]-

Pakpak surnames

Pakpak surnames are such as:-

  • Anakampun
  • Angkat
  • Bako
  • Bancin
  • Banurea
  • Berampu
  • Berasa
  • Beringin
  • Berutu
  • Bintang
  • Boang Manalu
  • Capah
  • Cibro
  • Gajah Manik
  • Gajah
  • Kabeaken
  • Kesogihen
  • Kaloko
  • Kombih
  • Kudadiri
  • Lingga
  • Maha
  • Maharaja
  • Manik
  • Matanari
  • Meka
  • Maibang
  • Padang
  • Padang Batanghari
  • Pasi
  • Penarik Pinayungan
  • Ramin
  • Sambo
  • Saraan
  • Sikettang
  • Sinamo
  • Sitakar
  • Solin
  • Saing
  • Tendang
  • Tinambunan
  • Tinendung
  • Tumangger
  • Turutan
  • Ujung

Society

The Pakpak people are bound by a social structure, which in local terminology is called sulang silima. Sulang silima consists of five elements that are:[5]-

  • Sinina tertua (Perisang-isang, descendants or older generations)
  • Sinina penengah (Pertulan tengah, descendants or middle generations)
  • Sinina terbungsu (Perekur-ekur, youngest generation)
  • Berru (Kinsmen who receive women into their family)
  • Puang (Kinsmen who give women into another family)

Five of these elements are very instrumental in decision making in various aspects of life especially in kinship system and traditional ceremonies, be it in the context of a single surname clan based community (Lebbuh) or village based community (Kuta). Therefore, five of these elements must be involved in order for a decision to be considered as valid in customary terms.[6]

Traditional Pakpak ceremonies are named with "working" terms, however the term "festivals" are also frequently used today. Traditional ceremonies are divided into two major parts, namely:-

  • Traditional ceremonies that involves joyous occasion are referred to as "good works".
  • Traditional ceremonies that involves sorrowful occasion are referred to as "bad works".

Examples of "good works" ceremonies are such as merbayo (wedding ceremony), menanda tahun (paddy planting ceremony), merkottas (initiating a risky task) and so on. While examples of "bad works" ceremonies includes mengrumbang and mate ncayur ntua ceremony (funeral).[7]

References

  1. ^ "Batak Dairi in Indonesia". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  2. ^ "Batak Pakpak in Indonesia". Joshua Project. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
  3. ^ Ronald Findlay & Kevin H. O'Rourke (2009). Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium. Princeton University Press. p. 67. ISBN 1-4008-3188-1. 
  4. ^ Lister Berutu (2006). Pertuturen Pakpak: Istilah Dan Adat Sopan Santun Kekerabatan Pada Masyarakat Pakpak. Grasindo Monoratama. OCLC 139777033. 
  5. ^ Mariana Makmur; Lister Berutu; Pasder Berutu (2002). Aspek-Aspek Kultural Etnis Pakpak: Suatu Eksplorasi Tentang Potensi Lokal. Monora. ISBN 979-612-106-9. 
  6. ^ Lister Berutu (2006). Mengenal Upacara Adat Pada Masyarakat Pakpak Di Sumatera Utara. Grasindo Monoratama. ISBN 978-979-612-114-4. 
  7. ^ Lister Berutu; Nurbani Padang (2006). Tradisi Dan Perubahan: Konteks Masyarakat Pakpak. Grasindo Monoratama. ISBN 979-612-205-7. 
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