Pakistan Meteorological Department

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Pakistan Meteorological Department
محکمہ موسمیات پاکستان
Agency overview
Formed 1947; 71 years ago (1947)[1][2]
Jurisdiction Government of Pakistan
Headquarters Islamabad, Pakistan
Agency executive
Parent department Aviation Division (Pakistan)
Website pmd.gov.pk

The Pakistan Meteorological Department (Urdu: محکمہ موسمیات پاکستان‎, abbreviated as PMD and also known as Pakistan Met Office[3][4]), is an autonomous and independent institution tasked with providing weather forecasts and public warnings concerning weather for protection, safety and general information.[1] Apart from meteorology, it is also involved in monitoring as well as investigating weather phenomenons, astronomical events, hydrology and research in astrophysics, climate changes and studies on aeronautical engineering, renewable energy resources across various parts of the country.[1] Headquartered in Islamabad, it has offices and research facilities in all provinces and territories of the country. Mr. Muhammad Riaz is the current Director-General of the Pakistan Meteorological Department (additional charge).[5]

History

The Heat wave affecting Pakistan, Summer of 2012.

Shortly after independence in 1947, the Pakistan Meteorological Department was established and inherited 15 meteorological observatories from the Central Meteorological Organization of the British Raj.[2] In 1948, PMD began providing basic weather forecast to Pakistan's print media. In the 1950s, the meteorological department became one of the leading scientific institutions in Pakistan; concerning itself in the field of research in space and atmospheric sciences, it worked in close coordination with the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Ministry of Environment (MoEn) for reporting accurate weather information for aviation and hydrography. In the 1960s, the meteorological department was split and the Pakistan Navy Hydrographic Department was established for the Pakistan Navy. Some of Pakistan's most notable and reputable scientists have been affiliated with the PMD. It assisted the federal government in establishing the Space Research Commission (SRC) in 1961, where many of its atmospheric scientists and technical staff joined the new space agency.[6] The PMD has also assisted and lead studies in the Geomagnetic Field Monitoring Program of the SRC.[7] Since its establishment, the PMD has become one of the leading governmental scientific institution in guiding the government in environmental and space policy formation.[1] In 1965, the first televised weather forecast was broadcast by PTV. Since 1974, the meteorological department has been collecting data on seismic activity in Pakistan and thus is able to act as a consultant in seismic design of dams, buildings as well as disaster relief schemes.[1] PMD's flood forecasting system has assisted the other government as well.[1]

A cold wave entering in Pakistan, 2007.

Directorates

The Pakistan Meteorological Department is headed by the Director General. The Department is further divided into several directorates as follows:

  • Institute of Meteorology & Geophysics, Karachi (IMG)
  • Tropical Cyclone Warning Center, Karachi (TCWC)
  • National Seismic Monitoring & Tsunami Early Warning Center, Islamabad (NSMC)
  • National Seismic Monitoring Center (Backup Station), Karachi (NSMC)
  • Directorate of Maintenance, Karachi
  • Directorate of Forecasting and Climatology, Karachi (F&C)
  • Climate Data Processing Center, Karachi (CDPC)
  • Regional Meteorological Centers of each Province :-
    • Karachi Regional Meteorological Center (RMC-Karachi)
    • Lahore Regional Meteorological Center (RMC-Lahore)
    • Peshawar Regional Meteorological Center (RMC-Peshawar)
    • Quetta Regional Meteorological Center (RMC-Quetta)
    • Gilgit Regional Meteorological Center (RMC-GB)
  • Remote Sensing, Islamabad
  • National Agromet Center, Islamabad (NAMC)
  • Lai Nullah Flood Early Warning Center, Islamabad
  • Drought, Environmental Monitoring & Early Warning Center, Islamabad
  • Flood Forecasting Division, Lahore (FFD)
  • Geophysical Centre, Quetta
  • Research & Development, Islamabad (R&D)
  • National Weather Forecasting Centre, Islamabad (NWFC)
  • Main Analysis Centre, Karachi (MAC)
  • Aviation Meteorological Offices (MO) :-
  • Chief Administrative Office (CAO)

Observatories

A astronomical observatory working in Nanga Parbat range, 2013.

The Pakistan Meteorological Department established and expanded its network of meteorological observatories across Pakistan since 1947.[8] As of 2017, there are 111 meteorological, airborne and astronomical observatories:

Weather stations

A cyclone system entering in Pakistan, 2007.

Some weather stations have limited reporting times, while other report continuously, mainly Pakistan Air Force and Army Aviation Corps stations where a manned met office is provided for military operations. Reports (observations) from weather stations vary considerably and it is because there are different types of weather in different regions. There is list of weather stations below:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Staff editor, PMD. "Introduction of the Pakistan Meteorological Department". Govt. of Pakistan. Pakistan Meteorological Department. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  2. ^ a b Gupta, edited by Uma Das (2010). Science and modern India : an institutional history, c. 1784–1947. Delhi: Longman Pearson Education. ISBN 8131728188.
  3. ^ News desk cast (26 August 2013). "MET office forecast rain for upper parts". GEO News. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  4. ^ Jabri, Pervez (4 January 2014). "Met Office forecast cloudy weather, rain for different areas of Country". Business recorder, Jan 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  5. ^ Staff. "Authorities of the Pakistan Met. Dept". Govt. Pakistan. Authorities of the Pakistan Met. Dept. Retrieved 4 December 2018.
  6. ^ staff. "History of Suparco". Govt. Pakistan. SUPARCO. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  7. ^ Staff. "Geomagnetic Study". Govt. Pakistna. SUPARCO Geomagnetic program. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Staff. "Met Observatories". Met Observatories. Met Observatories. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
  9. ^ Staff. "Met office in Jinnah Terminal" (PDF). Federal Aviation Authority. Federal Aviation Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.

External links

  • PMD official website
  • Training at PMD
  • Contact List of PMD Management
  • Pakistan Journal of Meteorology
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