Outsourcing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Outsourcing is an agreement in which one company hires another company to be responsible for a planned or existing activity that is or could be done internally.[1][2]

It often involves the contracting of a business process (e.g., payroll processing, claims processing), operational, and/or non-core functions, such as manufacturing, facility management, call center support). The term "outsourcing" came from "outside resourcing" and dates back to at least 1981.[3][4] Outsourcing sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another.

Outsourcing is also the practice of handing over control of public services to private enterprises.[5]

Outsourcing includes both foreign and domestic contracting,[6] and sometimes includes offshoring (relocating a business function to a distant country)[7] or nearshoring (transferring a business process to a nearby country).

Offshoring and outsourcing are not mutually inclusive: there can be one without the other. They can be intertwined (Offshore outsourcing), and can be individually or jointly, partially or completely reversed, involving terms such as reshoring, inshoring, and insourcing.

Terminology

  • Offshoring is moving the work to a distant country. If the distance workplace is owned by the company, then the offshore operation is a captive.[8]
  • Insourcing entails bringing processes handled by third-party firms in-house, and is sometimes accomplished via vertical integration.
  • An Intermediary is when a business provides a contract service to another organization while contracting out that same service.[9][10]

Overview

Motivations

Global labor arbitrage can provide major financial savings from lower international labor rates can provide a major motivation for offshoring. Cost savings from Economies of scale and specialization can motivate outsourcing.

Another motivation is speed to market; to make this work, a new process was developed: "outsource the outsourcing process."[11] Details of managing DuPont's CIO Cinda Hallman's $4 billion 10-year ourtsourcing contract with Computer Sciences Corporation and Anderson Consulting were outsourced, thus avoiding "inventing a process if we'd done it in-house." A subsequently developed term to describe this is midsourcing.[12][13][14]

Outsourcing can offer greater budget flexibility and control by allowing organizations to pay for the services and business functions they need, when they need them. It also reduces the need to hire and train specialized staff, makes available specialized expertise, and can reduce capital, operating expenses,[15] and risk.

"Do what you do best and outsource the rest" has become an internationally recognized business tagline first "coined and developed"[16] in the 1990s by the "legendary management consultant" Peter Drucker.[17] The slogan was primarily used to advocate outsourcing as a viable business strategy. Drucker began explaining the concept of "Outsourcing" as early as 1989 in his Wall Street Journal article entitled "Sell the Mailroom."[18]

Agreements

Two organizations may enter into a contractual agreement involving an exchange of services, expertise, and payments. Outsourcing is said to help firms to perform well in their core competencies, fuel innovation, and mitigate a shortage of skill or expertise in the areas where they want to outsource.[19]

History

20th century

Following the adding of management layers in the 1950s and 1960 to support expansion for the sake of economy of scale, corporations found that agility and added profits could be obtained by focusing on core strengths; the 1970s and 1980s were the beginnings of what later was named outsourcing.[20] Kodak's 1989 "outsourcing most of its information technology systems"[21] was followed by others during the 1990s.[21]

Early 21st century

In the early 21st century, businesses increasingly outsourced to suppliers outside their own country, sometimes referred to as offshoring or offshore outsourcing. Other options subsequently emerged: nearshoring, crowdsourcing, multisourcing,[22][23] strategic alliances/strategic partnerships, strategic outsourcing.,[24] and vested outsourcing.

From Drucker's perspective, a company should only seek to subcontract in those areas in which it demonstrated no special ability.[25] The business strategy outlined by his slogan recommended that companies should take advantage of a specialist provider's knowledge and economies of scale to improve performance and achieve the service needed.[26]

In 2009 by way of recognition, Peter Drucker posthumously received a significant honor, when he was inducted into the Outsourcing Hall of Fame for his outstanding work in the field.[27]

Growth of white-collar outsourcing

Although offshoring initially focused on manufacturing, white-collar offshoring/outsourcing has grown rapidly since the early 21st century. The digital workforce of countries like India and China are only paid a fraction of what would be minimum wage in the US. On average, software engineers are getting paid between 250,000 and 1,500,000 rupees (US$4,000 to US$23,000) in India as opposed to $40,000–$100,000 in countries such as the US and Canada.[28] Closer to the USA, Costa Rica has become a big source for the advantages of a highly educated labor force, a large bilingual population, stable democratic government, and similar time zones with the United States. It takes only a few hours to travel between Costa Rica and the US. Companies such as Intel, Procter & Gamble, HP, Gensler, Amazon and Bank of America have big operations in Costa Rica.[29]

Unlike outsourced manufacturing, outsourced white collar workers are offered the flexibility to choose their working hours, and which companies to work for. Clients benefit from telecommuting, and clients do not need to allocate additional funds for setting up of office space, management salary, and employee benefits as these individuals are contracted workers.[30]

However, ending a government oursourcing arrangement has its difficulties too.[31]

Reasons for outsourcing

While U.S. companies do not outsource to reduce high top level executive or managerial costs,[32] they primarily outsource to reduce peripheral and "non-core" business expenses.[33] Further reasons are higher taxes, high energy costs, and excessive government regulation or mandates.

Mandated benefits like social security, Medicare, and safety protection (OSHA regulations) are also motivator.[34] By contrast, executive pay in the United States in 2007, which could exceed 400 times more than average workers — a gap 20 times bigger than it was in 1965. [32] is not a factor.

Other reasons include:

  • Reducing and controlling operating costs.
  • Improving company focus.
  • Gaining access to world-class capabilities.
  • Freeing internal resources for other purposes.
  • Streamlining or increasing efficiency for time-consuming functions.
  • Maximizing use of external resources.

Outsourcing models

There are many outsourcing models, and they've varied[35] by country,[36] year[37] and industry.[38][39]

Another approach is to differentiate between tactical and strategic outsourcing models. Tactical models include

  • staff augmentation
  • project-based
  • to gain expertise not available in-house.

Strategic consultancy includes for Business process improvement.[40]

Co-sourcing

Co-sourcing is a hybrid of internal staff supplemented by an external service provider.[41][42] Co-sourcing can minimize sourcing risks, increase transparency, clarity and lend toward better control than fully outsourced.[43]

Co-sourcing services can supplement internal audit staff with specialized skills such as information risk management or integrity services, or help during peak periods, or similarly for other areas such as software development or human resources.

Identity management co-sourcing

Identity management co-sourcing is when on-site hardware[44][45] interacts with outside identity services.

This contrasts with an "all in-the-cloud" service scenario, where the identity service is built, hosted and operated by the service provider in an externally hosted, cloud computing infrastructure.

Implications

For business

Management processes

Globalization and complex supply chains, along with greater physical distance between higher management and the production-floor employees often requires a change in management methodologies, as inspection and feedback may not be as direct and frequent as in internal processes. This often requires the assimilation of new communication methods such as voice over IP, instant messaging, and Issue tracking systems, new time management methods such as time tracking software, and new cost- and schedule-assessment tools such as cost estimation software.[citation needed]

Communications and customer service

In the area of call center outsourcing, especially when combined with offshoring,[46] agents may speak with different linguistic features such as accents, word use and phraseology, which may impede comprehension.[47]

Governance

In 1979, Nobel laureate Oliver E. Williamson wrote that the governance structure is the "framework within which the integrity of a transaction is decided." Adding further that "because contracts are varied and complex, governance structures vary with the nature of the transaction."[48] University of Tennessee researchers have been studying complex outsourcing relationships since 2003. Emerging thinking regarding strategic outsourcing is focusing on creating a contract structure in which the parties have a vested interest in managing what are often highly complex business arrangements in a more collaborative, aligned, flexible, and credible way.[49] (Also see relational contract, governance, Vested outsourcing.)

Security

Reduced security, sometimes related to lower loyalty[50] may occur, even when "outsourced" staff change their legal status but not their desk. While security and compliance issues are supposed to be addressed through the contract between the client and the suppliers, fraud cases have been reported.

In April 2005, a high-profile case involved the theft of $350,000 from four Citibank customers when call-center workers acquired the passwords to customer accounts and transferred the money to their own accounts opened under fictitious names. Citibank did not find out about the problem until the American customers noticed discrepancies with their accounts and notified the bank.[51]

Information Technology

Richard Baldwin's 2006 The Great Unbundling work was followed in 2012 by Globalization's Second Acceleration (the Second Unbundling) and in 2016 by The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization.[52] It is here, rather than in manufacturing, that the bits economy can advance in ways that the economy of atoms and things can't: an early 1990s Newsweek had a half page cartoon showing someone who had just ordered a pizza online, and was seeking help to download it.

Issues and reversals

Demonstrating need to ensure outsourcing gains are realised and losses avoided at a summit in London in 2009

A number of outsourcings and offshorings that were deemed failures[53][54] led to reversals[55][56] signaled by use of terms such as Insourcing and reshoring. The New York Times reported in 2017 that IBM "plans to hire 25,000 more workers in the United States over the next four years," overlapping India-based Infosys's "10,000 workers in the United States over the next two years."[57] A clue to a tipping point having been reached was a short essay titled "Maybe You Shouldn’t Outsource Everything After All" [58] and the longer "That Job Sent to India May Now Go to Indiana."

Among problems encountered were supply-and-demand induced raises in salaries and lost benefits of similar-time-zone. Other issues were differences in language and culture.[57] Another reason for a decrease in outsourcing is that many jobs that were subcontracted abroad have been replaced by technological advances.[59]

According to a Deloitte Consulting survey carried out in 2005, a quarter of the companies which had outsourced tasks reversed their strategy. Many big companies like Lenovo considered turning around outsourcing strategies of outsourcing.[59]

These reversals, however, didn't undo the damage. New factories often:

  • were in different locations
  • needed different skill sets
  • used more automation[60]

Public opinion in the US and other Western powers opposing outsourcing was particularly strengthened by the drastic increase in unemployment as a result of the 2007-2008 financial crisis. From 2000 to 2010, the US experienced a net loss of 687,000 jobs due to outsourcing, primarily in the computers and electronics sector. Public disenchantment with outsourcing has not only stirred political responses, as seen in the 2012 US presidential campaigns, but it has also made companies more reluctant to outsource or offshore jobs.[59]

A counterswing depicted by a 2016 Deloitte survey suggested that companies are no longer reluctant to outsource.[61] Deloitte's survey identified three trends:

  • Companies are broadening their approach to outsourcing as they begin to view it as more than a simple cost-cutting play
  • Organizations are "redefining the ways they enter into outsourcing relationships and manage the ensuing risks."
  • Organizations are changing the way they are managing their relationships with outsourcing providers to "maximize the value of those relationships."

Insourcing

Insourcing is the process of reversing an outsourcing, possibly using help from those not currently part of the inhouse staff.[62][63]

Outsourcing has gone through many iterations and reinventions, and some outsourcing contracts have been partially or fully reversed. Often the reason is to maintain control of critical production or competencies, and insourcing is used to reduce costs of taxes, labor and transportation.[64]

Regional insourcing, a related term, is when a company assigns work to a subsidiary that is within the same country. This differs from onshoring and reshoring: these may be either inside or outside the company.[65]

To those who are concerned that nations may be losing a net number of jobs due to outsourcing, some[66] point out that insourcing also occurs. According to a study by Mary Amiti and Shang-Jin Wei,[67] in the United States, the United Kingdom, and many other industrialized countries more jobs are insourced than outsourced. They found that out of all the countries in the world they studied, the United States and the United Kingdom actually have the largest net trade surpluses in business services. Countries with a net deficit in business services include Indonesia, Germany and Ireland.

The fluctuation of prefixes and names give rise to many more "cross-breeds" of insourcing. For example, "offshore insourcing" is "when companies set up their own "captive" process centers overseas, taking advantage of their cheaper surroundings while maintaining control of their back-office work and business processes."[68] "Remote insourcing" refers to hiring developers to work in-house from virtual (remote) facilities.[69]

In the United States

A 2012 series of articles in Atlantic Magazine[70][71][72][73] highlighted a turning of the tide for parts of the USA's manufacturing industry. Specific causes identified include rising third-world wages, recognition of hidden off-shoring costs, innovations in design/manufacture/assembly/time-to-market, increasing fuel and transportation costs, falling energy costs in the US, increasing US labor productivity, and union flexibility. Hiring at GE’s giant Appliance Park in Louisville increased 90% during 2012.

Standpoint of labor

From the standpoint of labor, outsourcing may represent a new threat, contributing to worker insecurity, and is reflective of the general process of globalization and economic polarization.[74]

On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.S. has outsourced too much and can no longer rely on consumer spending to drive demand.[75]

Standpoint of government

Western governments may attempt to compensate workers affected by outsourcing through various forms of legislation. In Europe, the Acquired Rights Directive attempts to address the issue. The Directive is implemented differently in different nations. In the United States, the Trade Adjustment Assistance Act is meant to provide compensation for workers directly affected by international trade agreements. Whether or not these policies provide the security and fair compensation they promise is debatable.

Policy-making strategy

A main feature of outsourcing influencing policy-making is the unpredictability it generates regarding the future of any particular sector or skill-group. The uncertainty of future conditions influences governance approaches to different aspects of long-term policies.

In particular, distinction is needed between

  • cyclical unemployment - for which pump it up solutions have worked in the past, and
  • structural unemployment - when "businesses and industries that employed them no longer exist, and their skills no longer have the value they once did."[60]
Competitiveness

A governance that attempts adapting to the changing environment will facilitate growth and a stable transition to new economic structures[76] until the economic structures become detrimental to the social, political and cultural structures.

Automation increases output and allows for reduced cost per item. When these changes are not well synronized, unemployment or underemployment is a likely result. When transportation costs remain unchanged, the negative effect may be permanent;[60] jobs in protected sectors may no longer exist.[77]

USA outsourcing's effect on Mexico, studies suggest, is that for every 10% increase in US wages, north Mexico cities along the border experienced wage rises of 2.5%, about 0.69% higher than in inner cities.[78]

By contrast, higher rates of saving and investment in Asian countries, along with rising levels of education, studies suggest, fueled the ‘Asian miracle’ rather than improvements in productivity and industrial efficiency. There was also an increase in patenting and research and development expenditures. [79]

Industrial policy

Outsourcing results from an internationalization of labor markets as more tasks become tradable. According to leading economist Greg Mankiw, the labour market functions under the same forces as the market of goods, with the underlying implication that the greater the number of tasks available to being moved, the better for efficiency under the gains from trade. With technological progress, more tasks can be offshored at different stages of the overall corporate process.[80]

The tradeoffs are not always balanced, and a 2004 viewer of the situation said "the total number of jobs realized in the United States from insourcing is far less than those lost through outsourcing."[81]

Environmental policy

Import competition has caused a de facto ‘race-to-the-bottom’ where countries lower environmental regulations to secure a competitive edge for their industries relative to other countries.

As Mexico competes with China over Canadian and American markets, its national Commission for Environmental Cooperation has not been active in enacting or enforcing regulations to prevent environmental damage from increasingly industrialized Export Processing Zones. Similarly, since the signing of NAFTA, heavy industries have increasingly moved to the US which has a comparative advantage due to its abundant presence of capital and well-developed technology. A further example of environmental de-regulation with the objective of protecting trade incentives have been the numerous exemptions to carbon taxes in European countries during the 1990s.

Although outsourcing can influence environmental de-regulatory trends, the added cost of preventing pollution does not majorly determine trade flows or industrialization.[82]

Globalization and socio-economic implications

Industrialization

Outsourcing has contributed to further levelling of global inequalities as it has led to general trends of industrialization in the Global South and deindustrialization in the Global North.

The rise in industrial efficiency which characterized development in developed countries has occurred as a result of labor-saving technological improvements. Although these improvements do not directly reduce employment levels but rather increase output per unit of work, they can indirectly diminish the amount of labor required for fixed levels of output.[83]

Growth and income

It has been suggested that "workers require more education and different skills, working with software rather than drill presses"[60] rather than rely on limited growth labor requirements for non-tradable services.

Migration

The level of migration has remained relatively low, particularly compared to the mass migratory trends which characterized the Industrial Revolution roughly between 1850 and 1914.,[76] probably because labor markets are not free now. Countries now have discrimination labor laws, only allow people with citizenship cards live and work free in their territories, even getting a citizenship card is difficult for some one not born in their territory. Free labor markets, discrimination based with a person skills would help reduce outsourcing problems, letting people freely follow their jobs in other countries.[84]

By location

United States

Protection of some data involved in outsourcing, such as about patients (HIPPA) is one of the few federal protections.[85]

"Outsourcing" is a continuing political issue in the United States, having been conflated with offshoring during the 2004 U.S. presidential election. The political debate centered on outsourcing's consequences for the domestic U.S. workforce. Democratic U.S. presidential candidate John Kerry called U.S. firms that outsource jobs abroad or that incorporate overseas in tax havens to avoid paying their "fair share" of U.S. taxes "Benedict Arnold corporations".

A Zogby International poll conducted in August 2004 found that 71% of American voters believed that "outsourcing jobs overseas" hurt the economy while another 62% believed that the U.S. government should impose some legislative action against these companies, possibly in the form of increased taxes.[86] A 2010 prediction claimed that by 2014 more than 1.3 million positions woulddisappear due to "the accelerated movement of work to India ..." and other countries.[87] President Obama promoted an act titled 'Bring Jobs Home Act' that would help reshore jobs by giving incentives such as a tax cut or a 20 percent tax credit for moving operations back to the USA.[88] The same bill was reintroduced in the 113th United States Congress as the Bring Jobs Home Act (S. 2569; 113th Congress).[89][90]

While labor advocates claim union busting as one possible cause of outsourcing,[91], another claim is high corporate income tax rate in the U.S. relative to other OECD nations,[92][93][needs update] and the practice of taxing revenues earned outside of U.S. jurisdiction, a very uncommon practice. Some counterclaim that the actual taxes paid by US corporations may be considerably lower than "official" rates due to the use of tax loopholes, tax havens, and "gaming the system".[94]

Sarbanes-Oxley has also been cited as a factor.

European Union

Council Directive 77/187 of 14 February 1977 protects employees' rights in the event of transfers of undertakings, businesses or parts of businesses (as amended 29 June 1998, Directive 98/50/EC & 12 March 2001's Directive 2001/23).

Rights acquired by employees with the former employer are to be safeguarded when they, together with the undertaking in which they are employed, are transferred to another employer, i.e., the contractor.

Case subsequent to the European Court of Justice's Christel Schmidt v. Spar- und Leihkasse der früheren Ämter Bordesholm, Kiel und Cronshagen, Case C-392/92 [1994] have disputed whether a particular contracting-out exercise constituted a transfer of an undertaking (see, for example, Ayse Süzen v. Zehnacker Gebäudereinigung GmbH Krankenhausservice, Case C-13/95 [1997]). In principle, employees may benefit from the protection offered by the directive.

Many Western European firms have been transferring tech projects eastward. Deutsche Bank has some of its software developed in Ukraine,[95] Siemens possesses an R&D center in Romania.

The outsourcing services market continued to flourish in Central and Eastern European during 2007-2009. In Poland alone, during 2009, despite a global economic downturn, approximately 10,000 jobs were created in business process outsourcing (BPO).[96][97]

Asia

Countries that have been the focus of outsourcing include India[98], and the Philippines for American and European companies, and China and Vietnam for Japanese companies.

The Asian IT service market is still in its infancy, but in 2008 industry think tank Nasscom-McKinsey predicted a $17 billion IT service industry in India alone.[99]

Nearshoring

Nearshoring, or Nearshore, is the outsourcing of business processes, especially information technology processes, to companies in a nearby country, often sharing a border with the target country.[100] Commonalities usually include: geographic, temporal (time zone), cultural, social, linguistic, economic, political, or historical linkages.[101]https://startnearshoring.com/knowledge/nearshore-vs-in-house-software-development Nearshoring] involves a development partner in a different country or region, in close proximity. Usually it's in the same time zone, facilitating communication and allowing frequent visits.[102]

Overview

Nearshoring is a derivative of the business term offshoring.

In Europe, nearshoring relationships are between clients in larger European economies and various providers in smaller European nations. Major centers are in Spain[citation needed], Czech Republic, Hungary, Portugal, Poland, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Belarus and the Baltic. There are also nearshore centers in larger markets, such as Russia and Ukraine. These destinations are attractive because they are low-cost, have skilled labor forces, and a less stringent regulatory environment, but crucially they allow for more day to day physical oversight. They also have strong cultural ties to the major economic centers in Europe.[103] For example, Bulgaria is now considered to be a viable outsourcing destination for such companies as German software company SAP, where labor costs are low, and the skills available, but which is also closer to home.[104] In 2009, the Central-Eastern European Outsourcing Association (CEEOA) published research estimating that the Eastern European region has over 95,000 IT specialists involved in the industry, working for close to 5000 companies. [105]

In the USA, American clients nearshore to Canada[100] and Mexico,[106][107] or both,[108] as well as to many nations in Central and South America.

Software development nearshoring is mainly due to available low cost skilled developers.[109] The nearshoring of call centers, shared services centers, and (Business Process Outsourcing) rose as offshore outsourcing was seen to be relatively less valuable.[110]

The complexities of offshoring stem from language and cultural differences, travel distances, workday/time zone mismatches, and greater effort for needed for establishing trust and long-term relationships. Many nearshore providers attempted to circumvent communication and project management barriers by developing new ways to align organizations. As a result, concepts such as remote insourcing were created to give clients more control in managing their own projects. Nearshoring still hasn't overcome all barriers, but proximity allows more flexibility to align organizations.[106]

English language skills are the cornerstone of Nearshore BPO and IT services. Collaboration by universities, industry, and government has slowly produced improvements.[111]

Examples

  • In 2003 Procter & Gamble outsourced their facilities' management support, but it did not involve offshoring.[112]

Print and mail outsourcing

Print and mail outsourcing is the outsourcing of document printing and distribution.

The Print Services & Distribution Association was formed in 1946, and its members provide services that today might involve the word outsource. Similarly, members of the Direct Mail Marketing Association were the "outsourcers" for advertising agencies and others doing mailings. DMMA celebrated their 100th anniversary in 2017.

The term "outsourcing" became very common in the print and mail business during the 1990s, and later expanded to be very broad and inclusive of most any process by the year 2000. Today, there are web based print to mail solutions for small to mid-size companies which allow the user to send one to thousands of documents into the mail stream, directly from a desktop or web interface.

Marketing outsourcing

The term outsource marketing has been used in Britain to mean the outsourcing of the marketing function.[113] The motivation for this has been:

  • cost reduction.[114][115]
  • specialized expertise.[116]
  • speed of execution
  • short term staff augmentation[117]

While much of this work is the "bread and butter" of specialized departments within advertising agencies, sometimes specialist are used, such as when the Guardian newspaper outsourced most of their marketing design in May 2010.[118]

Business process outsourcing

Business process outsourcing (BPO) is a subset of outsourcing that involves the contracting of the operations and responsibilities of a specific business process to a third-party service provider. Originally, this was associated with manufacturing firms, such as Coca-Cola that outsourced large segments of its supply chain.[119]

BPO is typically categorized into back office and front office outsourcing.[120]

BPO can be offshore outsourcing or to a neighbouring (or nearby) country: nearshore outsourcing. Information Technology Enabled Service (ITES-BPO),[121] Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) and Legal process outsourcing (LPO) are some of the sub-segments of BPO.

Although BPO began as a cost-reducer, changes (specifically the move to more service-based rather than product-based contracts), companies now choose to outsource their back-office increasingly for time flexibility and direct quality control.[122] Business process outsourcing enhances the flexibility of an organization in different ways:

BPO vendor charges are project-based or fee-for-service, using business models such as Remote In-Sourcing or similar software development and outsourcing models.[123][124] This can help a company to become more flexible by transforming fixed into variable costs.[125] A variable cost structure helps a company responding to changes in required capacity and does not require a company to invest in assets, thereby making the company more flexible.[126]

BPO also permits focusing on a company's core competencies.[127]

Supply chain management with effective use of supply chain partners and business process outsourcing can increase the speed of several business processes.[128]

BPO caveats

Failure to meet service levels, unclear contractual issues, changing requirements and unforeseen charges, and a dependence on the BPO which reduces flexibility. The latter is called lock-in; flexibility may be lost due to penalty clauses and other contract terms.[129] Also, the selection criteria may seem vague and undifferentiated[130]

Security risks can arise regaring both from physical communication and from a privacy perspective. Employee attitude may change, and the company risks losing independence.[131][132]

Risks and threats of outsourcing must therefore be managed, to achieve any benefits. In order to manage outsourcing in a structured way, maximising positive outcome, minimising risks and avoiding any threats, a business continuity management (BCM) model is set up. BCM consists of a set of steps, to successfully identify, manage and control the business processes that are, or can be outsourced.[133]

Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is a framework of BPO focused on identifying potential outsourceable information systems.[134] L. Willcocks, M. Lacity and G. Fitzgerald identify several contracting problems companies face, ranging from unclear contract formatting, to a lack of understanding of technical IT processes.[135]

Technological pressures

Industry analysts have identified robotic process automation (RPA) software as a potential threat to the industry[136][137] and speculate as to the likely long term impact.[138] In the short term, however, there is likely to be little impact as existing contracts run their course: it is only reasonable to expect demand for cost efficiency and innovation to result in transformative changes at the point of contract renewals. With the average length of a BPO contract being 5 years or more[139] - and many contracts being longer - this hypothesis will take some time to play out.

On the other hand, an academic study[140] by the London School of Economics was at pains to counter the so-called "myth" that RPA will bring back many jobs from offshore. One possible argument behind such an assertion is that new technology provides new opportunities for increased quality, reliability, scalability and cost control, thus enabling BPO providers to increasingly compete on an outcomes based model rather than competing on cost alone. With the core offering potentially changing from a "lift and shift" approach based on fixed costs to a more qualitative, service based and outcomes-based model, there is perhaps a new opportunity to grow the BPO industry with a new offering.

Industry size

One estimate of the worldwide BPO market from the BPO Services Global Industry Almanac 2017, puts the size of the industry in 2016 at about US$140 billion.[141]

India, China and the Philippines are major powerhouses in the industry. In 2017, in India the BPO industry generated US$30 billion in revenue according to the national industry association.[142] The BPO industry is a small segment of the total outsourcing industry in India. The BPO industry workforce in India is expected to shrink by 14% in 2021.[citation needed]

The BPO industry and IT services industry in combination are worth a total of US$154 billion in revenue in 2017.[143] The BPO industry in the Philippines generated $22.9 billion in revenues in 2016,[144] while around 700 thousand medium and high skill jobs would be created by 2022.[citation needed]

In 2015, official statistics put the size of the total outsourcing industry in China, including not only the BPO industry but also IT outsourcing services, at $130.9 billion.[145]

Other areas

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Oursourcing". Britannica.com.
  2. ^ Ian McCarthy; Angela Anagnostou (2004). "The impact of outsourcing on the transaction costs and boundaries of manufacturing". International Journal of Production Economics. 88 (1): 61–71. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.468.9139. doi:10.1016/s0925-5273(03)00183-x.
  3. ^ "outsourcing". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. ^ "outsource". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ Jamieson, Dave, "Public Interest Group Challenges Privatization Of Local, State Government Services" Archived 2013-12-11 at the Wayback Machine, The Huffington Post, July 1, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  6. ^ Hira, Ron, and Anil Hira. Outsourcing America: What's behind Our National Crisis and How We Can Reclaim American Jobs. New York: AMACOM, 2008. Print # 67-96.
  7. ^ Davies, Paul. What's This India Business?: Offshoring, Outsourcing, and the Global Services Revolution. London: Nicholas Brealey International, 2004. Print.
  8. ^ "Offshore insurers creating concerns among regulators". The New York Times. October 19, 1992.
  9. ^ "Delegated authority: Outsourcing in the general insurance market" (PDF). June 29, 2015.
  10. ^ "Binder and other intermediary agreements". April 5, 2012.
  11. ^ Abbie Lundberg (April 1, 1997). "Outsourcing: Letter from the editor". CIO. p. 12.
  12. ^ "Messaging and Collaboration". InfoWorld. February 21, 2000. p. 14. ... will offer .. through .. "midsourcing" model
  13. ^ Harold F. Tipton; Micki Krause (2003). Information Security Management Handbook, Fifth Edition. ISBN 978-0849319976. The term midsourcing refers to ...
  14. ^ The term "Midsourcing" subsequently became known as contracting a local or regional manufacturing service provider to arrange for the outsourced task(s). "Your Source for Commercial Manufacturing Services". October 10, 2017.
  15. ^ Olive, B (2004). "Outsourcing Growing, Despite Controversy". Power: 148(4), 19–20.
  16. ^ Marian Haus (2011). "Best 10 Peter Drucker quotes". pmseed. pmseed. Archived from the original on 16 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  17. ^ Kate Vitasek (1 June 2011). "A New way to Outsource". Forbes. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  18. ^ Drucker Peter F, (1989) "Sell the Mailroom," Wall Street Journal, accessible at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-22. Retrieved 2015-04-27.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ Overby, S (2007) ABC: An Introduction to Outsourcing Archived 2007-06-30 at the Wayback Machine. CIO.com.
  20. ^ "A Brief History of Outsourcing".
  21. ^ a b "Outsourcing emerged as a new business strategy in early 1980s". September 20, 2010.
  22. ^ (Q4 2006)Mandatory Multisourcing Discipline Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine Business Trends Quarterly
  23. ^ (2006) Mandatory Multisourcing Discipline Archived 2007-11-19 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ see Holcomb & Hitt, 2007
  25. ^ Wartzman, Rick (5 February 2010). "The Drucker Difference: Insourcing and Outsourcing: the Right Mix". Bloomberg Business. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  26. ^ Richards, Gwynne (2014). Warehouse Management: A Complete Guide To Improving Efficiency and Minimizing Costs In the Modern Warehouse (Second ed.). Walnut Street Suite 1100 Philadelphia PA 19102: Kogan Page Limited. p. 316. ISBN 978 0 7494 6934 4. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  27. ^ Wartzman, Rick (February 2010). "Insourcing and Outsourcing: the Right Mix". Bloomberg Business. Bloomberg Business.com. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2015.
  28. ^ Gillis, A. (2001, Digital sweatshops. This, 34, 6-6.
  29. ^ Barrett J. Brunsman (April 3, 2018). "Former P&G manager elected president of Costa Rica". Cincinnati Business Courier.
  30. ^ Ross, J; Irani, L; Silberman, M.S.; Zaldivar, A; Tomlinson, B (2010). "Who are the Crowdworkers? Shifting Demographics in Mechanical Turk". CHI 2010.
  31. ^ Kate M. Manuel; Jack Maskell (May 5, 2011). "Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues" (PDF). The Washington Post.
  32. ^ a b Albert R. Hunt (February 18, 2007). "Letter From Washington: As U.S. rich-poor gap grows, so does public outcry - Americas - nternational Herald Tribune". The New York Times.
  33. ^ Forey, Gail, and Jane Lockwood. Globalization, Communication and the Workplace: Talking across the World. New York: Continuum, 2011. Electronic Book #21-26.
  34. ^ Buchholz, Todd G. Bringing the Jobs Home: How the Left Created the Outsourcing Crisis — and How We Can Fix It. New York: Sentinel, 2004. Print 97-118.
  35. ^ "Define Outsourcing Models: 5 Forms of Business Process Outsourcing". January 29, 2015.
  36. ^ "Britain's outsourcing model, copied around the world, is in trouble". The Economist. June 28, 2018.
  37. ^ "Vested: A Business Model for 21st Century Outsourcing". May 29, 2012.
  38. ^ "Outsourcing model redesign". ADLittle (Arthur D. Little).
  39. ^ Sinclair, Nicholas (21 August 2014). "Models of Outsourcing". The Outsourced Accountant. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  40. ^ Serhiy Haziyev; Halyna Semenova (4 June 2015). "Outsourcing Engagement Models". Network World. IDG. Archived from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
  41. ^ Andrew R. McIlvaine (March 16, 2008). "'Co-Sourcing' and More". hreonline.com. Archived from the original on May 13, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
  42. ^ Diane Rezendes Khirallah (September 2, 2002). "Out With 'Outsourcing' And In With 'Co-Sourcing'". informationweek.com. Retrieved May 23, 2012.
  43. ^ Business Dictionary: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  44. ^ "68 success secrets". microsoft.com.
  45. ^ "extending messaging to enterprise collaboration" (PDF). IBM.com.
  46. ^ Nadeem, S (2009) Macaulay's (Cyber) Children: The Cultural Politics of Outsourcing in India Archived 2010-06-20 at the Wayback Machine. Cultural Sociology.
  47. ^ Alster, N (2005) Customer Disservice. Archived 2007-07-02 at the Wayback Machine www.CFO.com.
  48. ^ Williamson, Oliver E. (1979) "Transaction-Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations," Journal of Law and Economics: Vol. 22: No. 2, Article 3|accessible at: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-09-19. Retrieved 2016-08-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ Vitasek, Kate, et. al. (2011). The Vested Outsourcing Manual (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230112681.
  50. ^ "Outsourcing exposes firms to fraud". BBC.co.uk. June 16, 2005.
  51. ^ J. Ribeiro (2005). "Indian call center workers charged with Citibank fraud". InfoWorld.com. Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine
  52. ^ Richard Baldwin. The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization.
  53. ^ Jim Ditmore. "Why IT Outsourcing Often Fails". InformationWeek. ineffectual leadership, process failures, talent issues
  54. ^ Ephraim Schwartz. "IT Outsourcing Gone Bad: 4 Painful Lessons". In the .. $4 billion deal between the U.S. Navy and .. EDS, .. in 2003, ... reasons behind the failure are complex, but ..
  55. ^ Eric Savitz; Andy Sealock; Christopher Stacy (January 16, 2013). "Why Some U.S. Companies Are Giving Up On Outsourcing". Forbes. GM is not the only company to pull back at least a portion of its previously outsourced offshore IT operations.
  56. ^ NYTimes,2017: "Mr. Lacerte ... had farmed out but the headaches of navigating time zones, cultures and language ... problems went away when ...
  57. ^ a b Steve Lohr (July 30, 2017). "Hot Spot for Tech Outsourcing: The United States". NYTimes.com.
  58. ^ Carl Richards (May 7, 2018). "Maybe You Shouldn't Outsource Everything After All". The New York Times.
  59. ^ a b c "Here, There and Everywhere". The Economist [London] n.d.: n. pag. 17 January 2013. Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
  60. ^ a b c d Floyd Norris, the chief financial correspondent (January 29, 2013). "Outsourcing, Insourcing and Automation". The New York Times.
  61. ^ "Outsourcing accelerates forward," (2016) Deloitte 2016 Global Outsourcing Survey accessed 18 August 2016 at "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-01-12. Retrieved 2016-08-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  62. ^ "Outsourcing, BPO & Contract Manufacturing Market Research-Access Industry Trends, Revenues, Statistics, Forecasts, Technologies, Mailing Lists". Plunkettresearch.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  63. ^ Margaret Rouse. "What is insourcing? - Definition from WhatIs.com". Whatis.techtarget.com. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  64. ^ Shermon, G (2017). "Digital Talent - Business Models and Competencies" Page 190
  65. ^ Insource To America, LLC.
  66. ^ Sirkin, Harold L. (2011-08-25). "Made in America, Again". Bcg.perspectives. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  67. ^ Amiti, Mary & Wei, Shang-Jin (2004). "Fear of Service Outsourcing: Is it Justified?" (PDF). WP/04/186, International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2017-05-23.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  68. ^ "Gartner: Don't forget to insource". Searchcio.techtarget.com. 2003-09-04. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  69. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-03. Retrieved 2013-03-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  70. ^ January: "The Past and Future of American Manufacturing".
  71. ^ February: "Manufacturing is Special: Why America Needs its Makers".
  72. ^ June:"The Amazing (and Puzzling) Manufacturing Recovery".
  73. ^ December: "The Insourcing Boom".
  74. ^ Krugman, Paul (2006). "Feeling No Pain." New York Times, March 6, 2006.
  75. ^ Bailey, David and Soyoung Kim (June 26, 2009).GE's Immelt says U.S. economy needs industrial renewal Archived 2015-06-11 at the Wayback Machine.UK Guardian.. Retrieved on June 28, 2009.
  76. ^ a b Richard Baldwin (2006). Globalisation: the great unbundling(s), Chapter 1: Globalization Challenges for Europe. Secretariat of the Economic Council, Finnish Prime Minister's Office, Helsinki, 2006.
  77. ^ Stiglitz, J. And Charlton, A., (2005). "Trade can be Good for Development," Ch. 2 in Fair Trade for All, Oxford University Press, Oxford, NY.
  78. ^ Hanson, G. (2003), "What Has Happened to Wages in Mexico Since NAFTA", NBER Working Paper Series, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA.
  79. ^ Krugman, P., Obtsfeld, M. And Melitz, M., (2012) "East Asia: Success and Crisis", in International Economics: Theory and Policy, Addison-Wesley.
  80. ^ Mankiw, G. and Swagel, P. (2005). "The Politics and Economics of Offshore Outsourcing," working paper for the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy
  81. ^ "Outsourcing's Other Side". NYTimes.com. April 25, 2004.
  82. ^ Copeland, B. (2007), "Trade and the Environment: What do we do now", Ch. 39 in Handbook on International Trade Policy, ed. Kerr, W and Gaosford, J., Edward Elgar Publishing
  83. ^ Easterly, W. (2002), "Solow's Surprise: Investment is not the Key to Growth", Ch. 3 in The Elusive Quest for Growth, The MIT Press, Cambridge.
  84. ^ Chang, Howard (2007). Cultural Communities in a Global Labor Market: Immigration Restrictions as Residential Segregation. USA: University of Pennsylvania Law School.
  85. ^ "Outsourcing 2018 (USA)".
  86. ^ Zogby International survey results online at zogby.com[permanent dead link]
  87. ^ Bonasia, J. (2010, December 03). Offshoring, for good or ill, comes of age putting India on the map competitive world markets demand outsourcing, but it does drain domestic jobs. Investor's Business Daily. A04.
  88. ^ Congressional Documents and Publications. (2012, May 16). Brown outlines "Bring Jobs Home Act" aim at encouraging business to bring hobs back to the U.S. 2012 Federal Information and News Dispatch, Inc.
  89. ^ Everett, Burgess (23 July 2014). "Borrowed time: Tale of a Walsh bill". Politico. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  90. ^ "S. 2569 - Summary". United States Congress. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  91. ^ "Tell Xerox to Stop Unionbusting and Shipping Jobs Overseas". American Rights at Work. Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-03-09.
  92. ^ "U.S. Lagging Behind OECD Corporate Tax Trends". The Tax Foundation. 2006-05-05. Archived from the original on 2009-07-06. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  93. ^ John Tamny. "John Tamny on Hillary Clinton Economics on NRO Financial". Article.nationalreview.com. Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  94. ^ "High Corporate Tax Rate Is Misleading at". Smartmoney.com. Archived from the original on 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
  95. ^ "Outsourcing software development in Ukraine vs Poland". AgileEngine.com. July 23, 2018.
  96. ^ "BPO and Shared Services Centers - Polish Investment and Trade".
  97. ^ "Poland as the destination for Shared Services Centers". PAIH.gov.PL.
  98. ^ Outsourcing Opportunities in India , https://arcgate.com/ai-training-data-outsourcing
  99. ^ Global Sourcing of Business and IT Services, https://books.google.com/books?id=_IHStt6MRukC&lpg
  100. ^ a b Sourcingmag.com Dictionary definition
  101. ^ Erran Carmel; Pamela Abbott (October 2007). "Why 'nearshore' means that distance matters". Communications of the ACM.
  102. ^ "When IT challenges overwhelm your company - Start Nearshoring". startnearshoring.com. Retrieved 2018-10-19.
  103. ^ Meyer Thomas (2006-08-14). "Offshoring to new shores: Nearshoring to Central and Eastern Europe" (PDF). Deutsche Bank. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  104. ^ Andy Reinhardt (2004-03-01). "Forget India, Let's Go To Bulgaria". [Business Week]]. Retrieved 2009-11-07.
  105. ^ Cerntral and Eastern European Outsourcing Review 2010 (PDF) (Report). 2010. Retrieved 2013-07-22.
  106. ^ a b Sam Cinquegrani. "Nearshoring: A Smart Alternative to Offshore". IT Today. Auerbach Publications. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
  107. ^ Michael Kanellos (2009-05-18). "Mexico sells itself as 'nearshore' outsourcing hub for US: Venga! Venga!". Silicon.com. Retrieved 2009-03-22.
  108. ^ Rae Anne Marsh (2014-01-01). "Trade across the border. Arizona is building strong ties with Mexico and Canada". inbusinessmag.com. Retrieved 2014-11-03.
  109. ^ "Custom Software Development Company". nearshore-it.eu. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  110. ^ "As Philippines Value Prop Sinks, Nearshore Steps Up, Says Atento Exec - Nearshore Americas". Nearshore Americas. 2017-08-23. Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  111. ^ "The Nearshore English Evolution - Nearshore Americas". Nearshore Americas. Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  112. ^ "5 Facts About Overseas Outsourcing". Center for American Progress. 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2018-05-31.
  113. ^ [Outsource marketing
  114. ^ Should You Outsource Your Marketing?. Harvard Business School. 2005-007-04.
  115. ^ "RSM Marketing | Outsourced Marketing Department". RSM Connect. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  116. ^ "Leave It To The Experts: Should You Outsource Your Marketing?". forbes.com. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  117. ^ "Employee Augmentation – Marketing Outsourcing - THiNK - Marketing Operations Advisory". think-moa.com.au. Retrieved 2017-12-05.
  118. ^ Deans, Jason (17 May 2010). "Guardian News & Media to outsource marketing design services". The Guardian. London.
  119. ^ Tas, J. & Sunder, S. 2004, Financial Services Business Process Outsourcing, Communications of the ACM, Vol 47, No. 5
  120. ^ "Getting A Piece Of Business Process Outsourcing". Forbes.
  121. ^ J. G. Nellis; David Parker (2006). Principles of Business Economics. Financial Times Prentice Hall. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-273-69306-2.
  122. ^ Sagoo, Anoop. "How IT is reinvigorating business process outsourcing" CIO. 6 Sep 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  123. ^ BPM Watch. "In-Sourcing Remotely: A Closer Look at an Emerging Outsourcing Trend" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-03-03. Retrieved 2013-03-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  124. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-10-25. Retrieved 2013-03-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  125. ^ Willcocks, L., Hindle, J., Feeny, D. & Lacity, M. 2004, IT and Business Process Outsourcing: The Knowledge Potential, Information Systems Management, Vol. 21, pp 7–15
  126. ^ Gilley, K.M., Rasheed, A. 2000. Making More by Doing Less: An Analysis of Outsourcing and its Effects on Firm Performance. Journal of Management, 26 (4): 763-790.
  127. ^ Kakabadse, A., Kakabadse. N. 2002. Trends in Outsourcing: Contrasting USA and Europe. European Management Journal Vol. 20, No. 2: 189–198
  128. ^ Tas, Jeroen, Sunder, Shyam. 2004. Financial Services Business Process Outsourcing. COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM Vol. 47, No. 5
  129. ^ Michel, Vaughan, Fitzgerald, Guy. 1997. The IT outsourcing market place: vendors and their selection. Journal of Information Technology 12: 223-237
  130. ^ Adsit, D. (2009) Will a Toyota Emerge from the Pack of Me-Too BPO's?, In Queue "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-10. Retrieved 2009-05-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  131. ^ Bunmi Cynthia Adeleye, Fenio Annansingh and Miguel Baptista Nunes. "Risk management practices in IS outsourcing: an investigation into commercial banks in Nigeria", International Journal of Information Management 24 (2004): 167-180.
  132. ^ K. Altinkemer, A. Chaturvedi and R. Gulati. "Information systems outsourcing: Issues and evidence", International Journal of Information Management 14- 4 (1994): 252- 268.
  133. ^ Forbes Gibb, and Steven Buchanan. "A framework for business continuity management", International Journal of Information Management 26- 2 (2006): 128- 141.
  134. ^ Chyan Yang and Jen-Bor Huang. "A decision model for IS outsourcing", International Journal of Information Management 20- 3 (2000): 225- 239.
  135. ^ L. Willcocks, M. Lacity and G. Fitzgerald. "Information technology outsourcing in Europe and the USA: Assessment issues", International Journal of Information Management 15- 5 (1995): 333- 351.
  136. ^ Robotic Automation Emerges as a Threat to Traditional Low Cost Outsourcing, HfS Research, archived from the original on 2015-09-21
  137. ^ Gartner Predicts 2014: Business and IT Services Are Facing the End of Outsourcing as We Know It, Gartner
  138. ^ Visions of the Future: The Next Decade in BPO, Outsource Magazine, archived from the original on 2015-04-13
  139. ^ Market Trends: Outsourcing Contracts, Worldwide, Gartner
  140. ^ Robotic Process Automation at Xchanging (PDF), London School of Economics
  141. ^ "The battle of the BPO titans: Eastern Europe vs. India". itproportal.com.
  142. ^ "India holds its global edge in BPM sector with $28billion revenue". ETCIO.com.
  143. ^ Pramanik, Ayan (12 October 2017). "BPM sector sees faster growth than IT services: Nasscom" – via Business Standard.
  144. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-08. Retrieved 2017-12-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  145. ^ "China's service outsourcing grows in 2015". China Daily. January 20, 2016.

Further reading

  • Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data Jackson, J. K. (2008). Outsourcing and insourcing jobs in the U.S. economy: Evidence based on foreign investment data (RL32461). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.[1][2]
  • Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: An Overview of the Legal Issues Manuel, K.M. and Maskell, J. (2013). (RL41810) Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service[3]


  • The dictionary definition of outsourcing at Wiktionary
  • Quotations related to Outsourcing at Wikiquote
  1. ^ ""Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on" by James K. Jackson". Digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu. 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  2. ^ James K. Jackson. "Outsourcing and Insourcing Jobs in the U.S. Economy: Evidence Based on Foreign Investment Data". Digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  3. ^ Kate M. Manuel. "Insourcing Functions Performed by Federal Contractors: Legal Issues" (PDF). Fas.org. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Outsourcing&oldid=887712204"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outsourcing
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Outsourcing"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA