Oskar Morgenstern
Oskar Morgenstern  

Born 

January 24, 1902
Died  July 26, 1977
Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.

(aged 75)
Nationality  Austrian and American 
Institution 
Princeton University New York University Mathematica Policy Research 
Alma mater  University of Vienna 
Doctoral advisor 
Ludwig von Mises 
Doctoral students 
Martin Shubik Lionel W. McKenzie 
Influences  Othmar Spann 
Contributions  Game theory, Mathematical economics 
Oskar Morgenstern (January 24, 1902 – July 26, 1977) was a Germanborn economist. In collaboration with mathematician John von Neumann, he founded the mathematical field of game theory and its application to economics (see von Neumann–Morgenstern utility theorem).^{[1]}^{[2]}
Companies he served as founder/cofounder included Market Research Corporation of America, Mathematica and Mathematica Policy Research Inc.
Biography
Morgenstern was born in Görlitz, Germany. His mother was said to be an illegitimate daughter of Emperor Frederick III of Germany.^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}
Morgenstern grew up in Vienna, Austria, where he also went to university. In 1925, he graduated from the University of Vienna and got his PhD in political science. From 1925 until 1928, he went on a threeyear fellowship financed by the Rockefeller Foundation. After his return in 1928, he became a professor in economics at the University of Vienna until his visit to Princeton University in 1938. In 1935, Morgenstern published the article Perfect Foresight and Economic Equilibrium, after which his colleague Eduard Čech pointed him to an article of John von Neumann, Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele (1928).
During Morgenstern's visit to Princeton University, Adolf Hitler took over Vienna through the Anschluss Österreichs and Morgenstern decided to remain in the United States. He became a member of the faculty at Princeton but gravitated toward the Institute for Advanced Study. There, he met von Neumann and they collaborated to write Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, published in 1944, which is recognized as the first book on game theory. Game theory is a mathematical framework for the study of strategic structures which govern rational decisionmaking in certain economic, political and military situations. In 2013, the University of Vienna relocated the Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics and named the square OskarMorgensternPlatz in his honor.
The collaboration between economist Morgenstern and mathematician von Neumann led to the birth of entirely new areas of investigation in both mathematics and economics. These have attracted widespread academic and practical interest since that time. In 1944, Morgenstern also became a United States citizen, and four years later he married Dorothy Young, with whom he had two children, Carl and Karen. In 1950, he was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association.^{[8]} Morgenstern remained at Princeton as a professor of economics until his retirement in 1970, at which time he joined the faculty of New York University. Morgenstern wrote many other articles and books, including On the Accuracy of Economic Observations, and Predictability of Stock Market Prices with subsequent Nobel laureate Clive Granger.
Morgenstern died in Princeton, New Jersey in 1977. The archive of his published works and unpublished documents is held at Duke University.^{[9]}
Mathematica
In the late 1950s^{[10]}^{[11]} "Oskar Morgenstern and several of his Princeton University colleagues" began a "small research organization."
Company names with which he, along with others, were involved^{[12]} as founders/cofounders included:
 Industrial Surveys Company
 ("which later became") Market Research Corporation of America
 Mathematica
 Mathematica Policy Research (MPR)
Bibliography
 Morgenstern, Oskar (1950). On the accuracy of economic observations (1966  2nd rev. ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
 von Neumann, John; Morgenstern, Oskar (1944). Theory of games and economic behaviour (1955  3rd ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
 Kemeny, John G.; Morgenstern, Oskar; Thompson, Gerald L. (1956). "A generalization of the von Neumann model of an expanding economy". Econometrica. 24 (2): 115–135. doi:10.2307/1905746. JSTOR 1905746. MR 0080573.
 Morgenstern, Oskar (1972). "Thirteen Critical Points in Contemporary Economic Theory: An Interpretation," Journal of Economic Literature 10, no. 4 (December): 1184
 – reprinted in Selected Economic /writings by Oskar Morgenstern, Andrew Schotter, ed. (New York: New York University Press, 1976), p. 288.
 Morgenstern, Oskar (1959). While the Atomic Clock Ticks On – The Question Of National Defense. ^{[13]}
 Morgenstern, Oskar; Granger, Clive W. J. (1970). Predictability of stock market prices. Lexington, Massachusetts: Lexington Books (D. C. Heath and Company).
 Morgenstern, Oskar; Thompson, Gerald L. (1976). Mathematical theory of expanding and contracting economies. Lexington Books. Lexington, Massachusetts: D. C. Heath and Company. pp. xviii, 277.
 Morgenstern, Oskar (1976). "The collaboration between Oskar Morgenstern and John von Neumann on the Theory of Games". Journal of Economic Literature 14, No. 3 (Sep., 1976), pp. 805816
 – reprinted in Theory of games and economic behaviour — Sixtieth anniversary edition. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, p. 712. ISBN 0691130612.
References
 ^ Schotter, Andrew (1992). "Oskar Morgenstern's Contribution to the Development of the Theory of Games". In Weintraub, E. Roy (ed.). Toward a History of Game Theory. Durham: Duke University Press. pp. 95–112. ISBN 0822312530.
 ^ Leonard, Robert (2010). Von Neumann, Morgenstern and the Creation of Game Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
 ^ Weintraub, E. Roy; Forget Evelyn L. Economists' lives: biography and autobiography in the history of economics p. 234, Duke University Press Books (December 6, 2007)
 ^ The New York Times biographical service, vol. 8, p. 276, New York Times & Arno Press, 1977
 ^ Niehans, Jürg. A history of economic theory: classic contributions, 1720–1980, p. 394, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990
 ^ Bewersdorff, Jörg. Luck, logic, and white lies: the mathematics of games, p. 368, A.K Peters/CRC Press (November 23, 2004)
 ^ Fleck, Christian (2007). Transatlantische Bereicherungen: zur Erfindung der empirischen Sozialforschung. Berlin: Suhrkamp
 ^ View/Search Fellows of the ASA, accessed 20160723.
 ^ "Oskar Morgenstern Archive". Duke University Library. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
 ^ 1983 article, "25 years ago" would be 1958
 ^ Karen W. Arenson (February 22, 1983). "Mathematica's Shift Into Software Field". The New York Times.
 ^ "Samuel D. Barton, 68, A Marketing Specialist". NYTimes.com. January 29, 1982.
 ^ S.L.A. Marshall (November 22, 1959). "While the Atomic Clock Ticks On – The Question Of National Defense". NYTimes.com. 306 pp. New York: Random House. "In this book, Oskar Morgenstern, the Princeton economist, takes a look at the prospects for American survival and what we are doing to improve them. What he finds should make the angels weep."
Sources
 Shapley, D. (August 12, 1977). "Game theorist Morgenstern dies". Science. 197 (4304): 649. Bibcode:1977Sci...197..649S. doi:10.1126/science.197.4304.649. PMID 17776264.
External links
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Oskar Morgenstern 
 The Limits of Economics; William Hodge and Company, London, 1937
 Oskar Morgenstern Papers, 1866–1992 and undated, Rubenstein Library, Duke University
 Oskar Morgenstern’s Contribution to the Development of the Theory of Games; Andrew Schotter, Center for Experimental Social Science
 Theory of Games and Economic Behavior; Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1944
 Oskar Morgenstern (1902–1977). The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Library of Economics and Liberty (2nd ed.). Liberty Fund. 2008.
 Oskar Morgenstern at Find a Grave
 Biography of Oskar Morgenstern from the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences
 1902 births
 1977 deaths
 Austrian people of German descent
 Game theorists
 German economists
 German emigrants to the United States
 People from Görlitz
 People from the Province of Silesia
 Emigrants from Austria after the Anschluss
 Princeton University faculty
 Rationality theorists
 University of Vienna faculty
 Fellows of the American Statistical Association
 Fellows of the Econometric Society
 Distinguished Fellows of the American Economic Association