Orodrominae

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Orodromines
Temporal range: Cretaceous, 113–75 Ma
Orodromeus (pencil 2013).png
Reconstruction of the type species, Orodromeus makelai
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Family: Parksosauridae
Subfamily: Orodrominae
Brown et al, 2013
Type species
Orodromeus makelai
Horner & Weishampel, 1988
Genera

Orodrominae is a subfamily of parksosaurid dinosaurs from the Cretaceous of North America.[2]

Distribution

Orodromines were a North American based group with fossils from Canada and United States only.[2] Albertadromeus, as its name suggests, is only from the upper (later) part of the Oldman Formation in the Belly River Group of Alberta, Canada.[3][4] Orodromeus, the type genus, was widespread through Montana.[2] Its holotype was found at the Egg Mountain in the Two Medicine Formation.[5] Oryctodromeus fossils were found in the Lima Peaks section of the Blackleaf Formation, also from Montana.[2][6] Zephyrosaurus, the most widespread genus, lived in southern Montana and northern Wyoming.[2][7] Its holotypes locality is the Wolf Creek Canyon, which is a sandstone in the Cloverly Formation.[8]

Age

Orodromines are widespread throughout time starting in the Aptian and ending in the Campanian. The earliest fossils are of Zephyrosaurus and are from the Aptian (113 Ma).[7][8] After a 13 million year gap in the fossil record, fossils of a less common Oryctodromeus date to about 95 Ma in the Cenomanian.[6] The next chronological fossils are from 76.5 Ma and belong to Albertadromeus.[3][4] The latest fossils in the fossil record belonging to Orodromines are from the type genus, Orodromeus and date to 75 Ma.[5]

Paleoecology

An illustration of Oryctodromeus burrowing

All Orodromines lived the lifestyle of a ground dwelling herbivore. Oryctodromeus burrows have been discovered. Orodromeus and Zephyrosaurus also probably lived in burrows.[2]

Classification

Orodrominae is sister taxa to Thescelosaurinae. Its parent taxon is Thescelosauridae (Brown et al, 2013).[2]

Phylogeny

Previously, all genera in Orodrominae (except Albertadromeus, which was named along with Orodrominae) were classified in the now unnatural group Hypsilophodontidae. They are all now simply considered to be basal members of Euornithopoda.[9] The cladogram below is based on a phylogenetic analysis by Brown et al., 2013.[3]

Thescelosauridae
Orodrominae

TMP 2008.045.0002

Oryctodromeus

Albertadromeus

Orodromeus

Zephyrosaurus

Thescelosaurinae

Parksosaurus

Changchunsaurus

Jeholosaurus

Haya

Thescelosaurus

References

  1. ^ a b Madzia, Daniel; Boyd, Clint A.; Mazuch, Martin (2017). "A basal ornithopod dinosaur from the Cenomanian of the Czech Republic". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. doi:10.1080/14772019.2017.1371258.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Orodrominae". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Brown, C. M.; Evans, D. C.; Ryan, M. J.; Russell, A. P. (2013). "New data on the diversity and abundance of small-bodied ornithopods (Dinosauria, Ornithischia) from the Belly River Group (Campanian) of Alberta". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (3): 495. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.746229.
  4. ^ a b "Albertadromeus". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Orodromeus". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  6. ^ a b "Oryctodromeus". Palaobiology Database. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  7. ^ a b "Zephyrosaurus". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  8. ^ a b "Zephyrosaurus species". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  9. ^ Horner, J. and Weishampel, D. (1988), "Acomparative embryological study of two ornithischian dinosaurs". Nature (London), 332(No. 6161): 256-257 (1988)
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