Orleans County, New York

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Orleans County, New York
Orleans County Courthouse, Albion, NY.jpg
County courthouse and clerk's office in Albion
Seal of Orleans County, New York
Seal
Map of New York highlighting Orleans County
Location in the U.S. state of New York
Map of the United States highlighting New York
New York's location in the U.S.
Founded 1824
Named for House of Orléans
Seat Albion
Largest town Albion
Area
 • Total 817 sq mi (2,116 km2)
 • Land 391 sq mi (1,013 km2)
 • Water 426 sq mi (1,103 km2), 52%
Population
 • (2010) 42,883
 • Density 110/sq mi (42/km²)
Congressional district 27th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Website www.orleansny.com

Orleans County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,883.[1] The county seat is Albion.[2] The county received its name at the insistence of Nehemiah Ingersoll[3] though historians are unsure how the name was selected[4]. The two competing theories are that it was named to honor the French Royal House of Orleans or that it was to honor Andrew Jackson's victory in New Orleans.[4]

Located on the south shore of Lake Ontario, Orleans County since the late 20th century has been considered part of the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History

When counties were established by the British authorities in the province of New York in 1683, the present Orleans County was part of the territory of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of present-day New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.

On March 12, 1772, the remaining Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. Tryon County contained the large western portion (and thus, since no western boundary was specified, theoretically still extended west to the Pacific). The eastern boundary of Tryon County was approximately five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, and the county included the Mohawk River valley, the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area then designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York. This western area was occupied largely by the Onondaga, Oneida and other western nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. The westernmost European settlements were in the area of Little Falls and present-day Herkimer.

During the unrest prior to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, feelings ran high in the Mohawk Valley, and there were local attacks by rebels against known Loyalists. Most of Tryon County's Loyalists fled to Canada before 1776, where they were later granted land by the Crown to develop what is now Ontario.

In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, Tryon County's name was changed to Montgomery County to honor the general, Richard Montgomery. He had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec. It replaced the name of the now hated colonial British governor. In 1789, Ontario County split off from Montgomery.[5] During this period, thousands of migrants settled in the western part of the state from New England and eastern New York resulting in the creation of more counties.

In 1802, Genesee County was created by splitting Ontario County.[5] Genesee County was then divided into Allegany County in 1806, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, and Niagara Counties in 1808, Ontario, Livingston, and Monroe Counties in 1821, and finally Orleans County in 1824.

When Orleans County was formed in 1824[6], a dispute arose about naming it after President Andrew Jackson or President John Adams.[4] The conflict was ended by choosing the name of the French Royal House of Orléans.[citation needed] During and following the Napoleonic era in France, numerous French refugees came to New York, some settling in the upstate areas.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 817 square miles (2,120 km2), of which 391 square miles (1,010 km2) is land and 426 square miles (1,100 km2) (52%) is water.[7]

The high proportion of water is due to the extension of Orleans County north into Lake Ontario to the Canada–US border (a line of latitude running through the middle of the lake). The distance from the Orleans shore north to the international border is greater than the distance from the shore south to the Genesee County line, meaning the area of Orleans under water is greater than that above water.

Orleans County is in western New York State, northeast of Buffalo and west of Rochester, on the southern shore of Lake Ontario.

The Erie Canal passes (east–west) through the middle of the county. When its construction was completed in 1824, it attracted new settlers to the largely rural county. Trade and passenger traffic stimulated the development of local businesses.

Adjacent counties

Major highways

National protected area

State protected areas

Presidential Elections Results[8]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 66.8% 10,936 27.3% 4,470 6.0% 974
2012 58.4% 8,594 39.4% 5,787 2.2% 325
2008 58.5% 9,708 39.9% 6,614 1.6% 262
2004 62.2% 10,317 36.0% 5,959 1.8% 301
2000 58.1% 9,202 37.8% 5,991 4.1% 651
1996 45.0% 6,865 40.8% 6,233 14.2% 2,170
1992 44.6% 7,468 29.4% 4,927 26.0% 4,359
1988 60.0% 9,028 39.3% 5,913 0.8% 114
1984 70.2% 10,543 29.5% 4,429 0.4% 52
1980 51.6% 7,536 39.5% 5,767 9.0% 1,308
1976 59.9% 8,994 39.5% 5,927 0.7% 102
1972 71.4% 10,938 28.5% 4,371 0.1% 20
1968 60.7% 8,509 34.1% 4,786 5.2% 729
1964 37.4% 5,567 62.5% 9,304 0.2% 25
1960 65.2% 10,344 34.8% 5,515 0.0% 5
1956 77.5% 11,895 22.6% 3,464 0.0% 0
1952 75.0% 11,686 25.0% 3,893 0.1% 8
1948 69.2% 9,566 29.0% 4,009 1.9% 259
1944 71.3% 9,998 28.6% 4,006 0.2% 22
1940 70.6% 10,958 29.2% 4,525 0.2% 36
1936 70.5% 10,569 26.8% 4,016 2.7% 409
1932 68.0% 9,735 30.1% 4,303 2.0% 283
1928 68.8% 9,828 26.5% 3,792 4.7% 672
1924 71.9% 8,543 19.5% 2,320 8.6% 1,017
1920 72.8% 8,305 19.9% 2,266 7.4% 839
1916 64.4% 4,903 33.2% 2,529 2.4% 180
1912 41.4% 2,983 33.9% 2,448 24.7% 1,781
1908 62.3% 4,885 33.0% 2,590 4.7% 365
1904 63.5% 5,027 31.6% 2,502 4.9% 389
1900 59.1% 4,667 36.1% 2,851 4.7% 373
1896 59.0% 4,664 37.8% 2,993 3.2% 252
1892 52.3% 4,013 39.9% 3,065 7.8% 596
1888 52.0% 4,277 39.1% 3,214 9.0% 737
1884 52.3% 3,997 38.0% 2,907 9.7% 737

Government and politics

Starting in 1824, the county government was run by a board of supervisors, consisting of elected supervisors from each township in Orleans County. This geographic representation meant that the residents of more urbanized areas were underrepresented on the board.

In 1980, the state and county established a seven-member elected legislature to replace the board of supervisors. Representatives are elected from single-member districts roughly equal in population. It is headed by a chairman.

County government

Orleans County legislature

Office District Area of the county Officeholder Party Residence
County Legislator District 1 Barre, Clarendon, Shelby William H. Eick Republican Medina
County Legislator - Vice Chairman District 2 Ridgeway, Yates Lynne M. Johnson Republican Lyndonville
County Legislator - Minority Leader District 3 Albion, Gaines Fred Miller Democratic Albion
County Legislator District 4 Carlton, Kendall, Murray Kenneth DeRoller Republican Kendall
County Legislator At Large All Merle L. "Skip" Draper Republican Shelby
County Legislator At Large All Don Allport Republican Albion
County Legislator - Chairman At Large All E. John DeFilipps Republican Holley

Orleans County elected officials

Office Officeholder Party
County Judge Sanford A. Church Republican
District Attorney Joseph V. Cardone Republican
County Clerk Karen A. Lake-Maynard Republican
County Treasurer Kimberly C. L. DeFrank Republican
Chief Coroner Scott M. Schmidt Republican
Coroner Rocco L. Sidari Republican
Coroner Charles M. Smith Republican

State and federal government

Office District Officeholder Party First took office Residence
Congressman New York's 27th congressional district Christopher C. Collins Republican 2013 Clarence, Erie County
State Senator 62nd State Senate District Rob Ortt Republican 2015 , Niagara County
State Assemblyman 139th State Assembly District Stephen M. Hawley Republican 2006 Batavia, Genesee County

Orleans County is part of:

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1830 17,732
1840 25,127 41.7%
1850 28,501 13.4%
1860 28,717 0.8%
1870 27,689 −3.6%
1880 30,128 8.8%
1890 30,803 2.2%
1900 30,164 −2.1%
1910 32,000 6.1%
1920 28,619 −10.6%
1930 28,795 0.6%
1940 27,760 −3.6%
1950 29,832 7.5%
1960 34,159 14.5%
1970 37,305 9.2%
1980 38,496 3.2%
1990 41,846 8.7%
2000 44,171 5.6%
2010 42,883 −2.9%
Est. 2016 41,346 [9] −3.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[10]
1790-1960[11] 1900-1990[12]
1990-2000[13] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[14] of 2000, there were 44,171 people, 15,363 households, and 10,846 families residing in the county. The population density was 113 people per square mile (44/km²). There were 17,347 housing units at an average density of 44 per square mile (17/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 89.12% White, 7.31% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.54% from other races, and 1.21% from two or more races. 3.89% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 20.3% were of German, 18.3% English, 10.8% Italian, 10.3% Irish, 9.4% American and 7.3% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.0% spoke English and 3.0% Spanish as their first language.

There were 15,363 households out of which 35.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.4% were non-families. 23.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.13.

In the county, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $37,972, and the median income for a family was $42,830. Males had a median income of $32,450 versus $22,605 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,457. About 7.7% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.0% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over.

Education

Public schools

The county has five school districts, although the actual district boundaries can extend into neighboring counties, and the same is true for neighboring counties' districts. The five districts, from west to east[15], are:

Each of these school districts participates in Orleans/Niagara BOCES.[16]

Private school

There is currently one non-denominational K-12 school in the county.

  • Orleans County Christian School[17]

College

One college maintains satellite campuses in Orleans County.[15]

Public Services

Orleans County has 4 public libraries serving its population.[18]

  • Community Free Library, located in Holley
  • Hoag Library, located in Albion
  • Lee-Whedon Memorial Library, located in Medina
  • Yates Community Library, located in Lyndonville

Communities

The town and village borders

Towns

Villages

Hamlets

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ Lattin, C.W. (23 January 1981). "Early County History - Part II". Journal-Register. 
  4. ^ a b c Lattin, Cary (1976). Orleans County History. Albion, NY: Eddy Printing Corp. p. 20. 
  5. ^ a b Signor, Issac (1894). Landmarks of Orleans County New York. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Company. p. 1. 
  6. ^ Signor, Isaac (1894). Landmarks of Orleans County New York. Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Company. pp. 2–5. 
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  8. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS
  9. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  10. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2015. 
  14. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  15. ^ a b "Orleans County Visitors". Orleans County New York. Retrieved 27 Oct 2017. 
  16. ^ "Component Districts". Orleans/Niagara BOCES. Retrieved 27 Oct 2017. 
  17. ^ "Orleans County Christian School". Orleans County Christian School. Retrieved 27 Oct 2017. 
  18. ^ "NIOGA Library System". New York State Library. Retrieved 30 Oct 2017. 

External links

  • Official Webpage
  • Orleans County at DMOZ
  • Orleans County travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Genesee Community College in Orleans County
  • Brief historical summary of Orleans County, NY

Coordinates: 43°22′N 78°14′W / 43.37°N 78.23°W / 43.37; -78.23

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