Order of the Crown of Italy

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Order of the Crown of Italy
Ordine della Corona d'Italia
MG 7947 post.jpg
Star of the Grand Cordon set of the Order
Awarded by
Royal Standard of Italy (1880–1946).svg
The Head of the Italian Royal Family
Type Dynastic Order of Knighthood
Established 20 February 1868
Royal house House of Savoy
Eligibility Military, civilian
Awarded for Meritorious Service or Achievement
Status Rarely constituted
Founder King Victor Emmanuel II
Grand Master Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Chairman of the Council Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice
Grades Grand Cordon, Special Class
Grand Cordon
Grand Officer
Commander
Officer
Knight/Dame
Precedence
Next (higher) Royal Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Next (lower) Royal Civil Order of Savoy
Royal Military Order of Savoy
Cavaliere OCI BAR.svg
Ribbon bar

The Order of the Crown of Italy, Italian: Ordine della Corona d'Italia, was founded as a national order in 1868 by King Vittorio Emanuele II, to commemorate the unification of Italy in 1861.[1] It was awarded in five degrees for civilian and military merit.

Compared with the older Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (1572), the Order of the Crown of Italy was awarded more liberally and could be conferred on non-Catholics as well; eventually, it became a requirement for a person to have already received the Order of the Crown of Italy in at least the same degree before receiving the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.

The order has been suppressed by law since the foundation of the Republic in 1946. However, Umberto II did not abdicate his position as fons honorum and it remained under his Grand Mastership as a dynastic order. While the continued use of those decorations conferred prior to 1951 is permitted in Italy, the crowns on the ribbons issued before 1946 must be substituted for as many five pointed stars on military uniforms.[2]

Grades

The various degrees of the order, with corresponding ribbons, were as follows:

Ribbon Class (English) Class (Italian) Manner of wear
Cavaliere di Gran Croce OCI Kingdom BAR.svg 1st Class / Knight/Dame Grand Cordon Gran Cordone Badge on sash on right shoulder, plus star on left chest
Grande ufficiale OCI Kingdom BAR.svg 2nd Class / Grand Officer Grande Ufficiale dell'Ordine della Corona d'Italia Star on left chest
Commendatore OCI Kingdom BAR.svg 3rd Class / Commander Commendatore dell'Ordine della Corona d'Italia Badge on necklet
Ufficiale OCI Kingdom BAR.svg 4th Class / Officer Ufficiale dell'Ordine della Corona d'Italia Badge on ribbon with rosette on left chest
Cavaliere OCI BAR.svg 5th Class / Knight Cavaliere dell'Ordine della Corona d'Italia Badge on ribbon on left chest

Insignia

Divisa.Ord.Coronad'Italia.png
Medaglie
Order of the Crown of Italy Knight medal.jpg
Order Crown of Italy officer medal.jpg
Order of the Crown of Italy - Fram Museum.jpg
Order of the Crown of Italy.jpg
Italian Kruunuritarikunnan rintatähti.png
Regno d'Italia
Cavaliere OCI BAR.svg
Knight
Ufficiale OCI Kingdom BAR.svg
Officer
Commendatore OCI Kingdom BAR.svg
Commander
Grande ufficiale OCI Kingdom BAR.svg
Grand Officer
Cavaliere di Gran Croce OCI Kingdom BAR.svg
Knight Grand Cross
Repubblica Italiana e Casa Savoia
Cavaliere OCI BAR.svg
Knight
Ufficiale OCI BAR.svg
Officer
Commendatore OCI BAR.svg
Commander
Grande ufficiale OCI BAR.svg
Grand Officer
Gran croce OCI BAR.svg
Knight Grand Cross
  • The badge of the order was a gilt cross with curved edges, enamelled in white, with the so-called Savoy knots between the arms of the cross. The obverse central disc featured the Iron Crown of Lombardy (as appeared on the Austrian Order of the Iron Crown) on a blue enamel background. The reverse central disc had a black-enamelled eagle bearing the Savoy cross on a golden background.
  • The star of the Grand Cross was an eight-pointed faceted silver star; the central disc featured the Iron Crown on a blue enamelled background, surrounded by a white enamel ring bearing the inscription VICT. EMMAN. II REX ITALIAE MDCCCLXVI (Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy, 1866). There was a black-enamelled eagle bearing the Savoy cross above the star.
  • The star of the Grand Officer was an eight-pointed faceted silver star with ball tips at each point and with the obverse of the badge superimposed upon it.
  • The ribbon of the order was red-white-red.

Members

Members of the order have included:

See also

References

  1. ^ Founded by Royal Decree No. 4251 of 20 February 1868, renewed by Royal Decree No. 4850 of 24 January 1869, Royal Magistral Decree of 17 November 1907 and Royal Decree No. 276 of 16 March 1911
  2. ^ Ordini Cavallereschi del Regno d'Italia Archived 2010-01-20 at WebCite Corpo della Nobiltà Italiana (retrieved 10 September 2009)
  3. ^ Tremblay, Yves (2005). "BAYLOCK, HARRY WOODBURN". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 15. University of Toronto/Université Laval. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
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