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Scientific classification


The Orbales are an order of Proteobacteria with the single family Orbaceae. This order was created to accommodate novel bacterial species isolated from the guts of honeybees and bumblebees.[1][2]


  1. ^ Kwong, W. K.; Moran, N. A. (5 October 2012). "Cultivation and characterization of the gut symbionts of honey bees and bumble bees: description of Snodgrassella alvi gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Neisseriaceae of the Betaproteobacteria, and Gilliamella apicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of Orbaceae fam. nov., Orbales ord. nov., a sister taxon to the order 'Enterobacteriales' of the Gammaproteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63 (Pt 6): 2008–2018. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.044875-0.
  2. ^ Martinson, V. G.; Magoc, T.; Koch, H.; Salzberg, S. L.; Moran, N. A. (18 April 2014). "Genomic Features of a Bumble Bee Symbiont Reflect Its Host Environment" (PDF). Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80 (13): 3793–3803. doi:10.1128/AEM.00322-14. PMC 4054214. PMID 24747890.

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