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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Orbales


The Orbales are an order of Proteobacteria with the single family Orbaceae. This order was created to accommodate novel bacterial species isolated from the guts of honeybees and bumblebees.[1][2]


  1. ^ Kwong, W. K.; Moran, N. A. (5 October 2012). "Cultivation and characterization of the gut symbionts of honey bees and bumble bees: description of Snodgrassella alvi gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Neisseriaceae of the Betaproteobacteria, and Gilliamella apicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of Orbaceae fam. nov., Orbales ord. nov., a sister taxon to the order 'Enterobacteriales' of the Gammaproteobacteria". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63 (Pt 6): 2008–2018. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.044875-0. 
  2. ^ Martinson, V. G.; Magoc, T.; Koch, H.; Salzberg, S. L.; Moran, N. A. (18 April 2014). "Genomic Features of a Bumble Bee Symbiont Reflect Its Host Environment". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 80 (13): 3793–3803. doi:10.1128/AEM.00322-14. PMC 4054214Freely accessible. PMID 24747890. 

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