Open back rounded vowel

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Open back rounded vowel
ɒ
ɔ̞
IPA Number 313
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɒ
Unicode (hex) U+0252
X-SAMPA Q
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256)⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
Audio sample

The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɒ⟩. It is called "turned script a", being a rotated version of "script (cursive) a", which is the variant of a that lacks the extra stroke on top of a "printed a". Turned script aɒ⟩ has its linear stroke on the left, whereas "script a" ⟨ɑ⟩ (for its unrounded counterpart) has its linear stroke on the right.

According to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), Assamese has an "over-rounded" [ɒ̹], with rounding as strong as that for [u].[2]

According to the phonetician Geoff Lindsey, ⟨ɒ⟩ may be an entirely superfluous IPA symbol, as the sound it represents is far too similar to the open-mid back rounded vowel [ɔ], which makes it unlikely that any language would contrast these two vowels phonemically. He also writes that the contemporary Standard Southern British (SSB) accent lacks [ɒ], having replaced it with the more common [ɔ] (a realization that is also found in e.g. Australia,[3][4] New Zealand[5] and Scotland),[6][7] and advocates for transcribing this vowel with the symbol ⟨ɔ⟩ in SSB.[6]

This is not to be understood as /ɒ/ having the same quality as /ɔː/ (which Lindsey transcribes with ⟨⟩), as the latter is close-mid [], not open-mid.[6] Lindsey also says that more open variants of /ɒ/ used formerly in SSB are satisfyingly represented by the symbols [ɔ̞] and [ɑ] in narrow phonetic transcription, and ⟨ɔ⟩ in phonemic/broad phonetic transcription. According to him, the endless repetition of the symbol ⟨ɒ⟩ in publications on BrE has given this vowel a familiarity out of all proportion to its scarcity in the world’s languages.[6]

Features

  • Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned far from the roof of the mouth – that is, low in the mouth.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • It is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[8] daar [dɒːr] 'there' Fully back. Used by some speakers, particularly young female speakers of northern accents. Other speakers use an unrounded vowel [ɑː ~ ɑ̟ː].[8] See Afrikaans phonology
Assamese[2] পোট্ [pɒ̹t] 'to bury' Also described as close-mid near-back [ʊ̞].[9]
Catalan Majorcan[10][11] soc [ˈsɒk] 'clog' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Catalan phonology
Menorcan[10][11]
Valencian[10][11]
Some Valencian speakers[12] taula [ˈt̪ɑ̟wɫɒ̝] 'table' Can be realized as unrounded [ɑ].
Dutch Leiden[13] bad [bɒ̝t] 'bath' Near-open fully back; may be unrounded [ɑ̝] instead.[13] It corresponds to [ɑ] in standard Dutch.
Rotterdam[13]
Some dialects[14] bot [bɒt] 'bone' Some non-Randstad dialects,[14] for example those of Den Bosch and Groningen. It is open-mid [ɔ] in standard Dutch.
English Received Pronunciation[15] not [nɒt] 'not' Somewhat raised. Younger RP speakers may pronounce a closer vowel [ɔ]. See English phonology
Northern English[16] May be somewhat raised and fronted.[16]
South African[17] [nɒ̜̈t] Near-back and weakly rounded.[17] Some younger speakers of the General variety may actually have a higher and fully unrounded vowel [ʌ̈].[17] See South African English phonology
General American thought About this sound[θɒt]  'thought' Vowel /ɔ(:)/ is lowered (Phonetic realization of /ɔ(:)/ is much lower in GA than in RP).

However "Short o" before r before a vowel (a short o sound followed by r and then another vowel, as in orange, forest, moral, and warrant) is realized as [oɹ~ɔɹ].

Inland Northern American[18] See Northern cities vowel shift
Indian[19] [t̪ʰɒʈ] /ɒ/ and /ɔː/ differ entirely by length in Indian English.
Welsh[20][21] [θɒːt] Open-mid in Cardiff; may merge with // in northern dialects.
German Many speakers[22] Gourmand [ɡ̊ʊʁˈmɒ̃ː] 'gourmand' Nasalized; common phonetic realization of /ɑ̃ː/.[22] See Standard German phonology
Many Swiss dialects[23] mane [ˈmɒːnə] 'remind' The example word is from the Zurich dialect, in which [ɒː] is in free variation with the unrounded [ɑː].[24]
Hungarian Standard[25] magyar [ˈmɒ̜̽ɟɒ̜̽r] 'Hungarian' Somewhat fronted and raised, with only slight rounding; sometimes transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. Unrounded [ɑ] in some dialects.[26] See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[27] d [dɒ̝́] 'marry' Near-open;[27] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.
Irish Ulster[28] ólann [ɒ̝ːɫ̪ən̪ˠ] '(he) drinks' Near-open;[28] may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.
Istro-Romanian[29] cåp [kɒp] 'head' See Istro-Romanian pronunciation (in Romanian).
Lehali[30] dö [ⁿdɒ̝ŋ] 'yam' Raised vowel, being the back rounded counterpart of /æ/ in a symmetrical vowel inventory.[30]
Lemerig[31] ān̄sār [ʔɒ̝ŋsɒ̝r] 'person' Raised vowel, being the back rounded counterpart of /æ/ in a symmetrical vowel inventory.[31]
Limburgish Maastrichtian[32] plaots [plɒ̝ːts] 'place' Near-open fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.[32] Corresponds to [ɔː] in other dialects.
Norwegian Urban East[33][34] topp [tʰɒ̝pː] 'top' Near-open,[33][34] also described as close-mid back [o].[35] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Norwegian phonology
Dialects along the Swedish border[36] hat [hɒ̜ːt] 'hate' Weakly rounded and fully back.[36] See Norwegian phonology
Persian ف‍‍ارسی [fɒːɾˈsiː] 'Persian'
Slovak Some speakers[37] a [ɒ] 'and' Under Hungarian influence, some speakers realize the short /a/ as rounded.[37] See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[38][39] jаg [jɒ̝ːɡ] 'I' Near-open fully back weakly rounded vowel.[38] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɑː⟩. See Swedish phonology
Gothenburg[39] [jɒːɡ] More rounded than in Central Standard Swedish.[39]
Uzbek Standard[40] choy [t͡ʃɒj] 'tea'
Vastese[41] uâʃtə
Yoruba[42] [example needed] Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 293–294.
  3. ^ Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 65.
  4. ^ Horvath (2004), p. 628.
  5. ^ Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008:21). Some sources (e.g. Bauer et al. (2007:98)) describe it as more central [ɞ] than back.
  6. ^ a b c d Geoff Lindsey (2012) Morgen — a suitable case for treatment, Speech Talk
  7. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  8. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded low-central vowel /a/".
  9. ^ Mahanta (2012), p. 220.
  10. ^ a b c Recasens (1996), pp. 81, 130–131.
  11. ^ a b c Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  12. ^ Saborit (2009), pp. 25–26.
  13. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  14. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  15. ^ Roach (2004), p. 242.
  16. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  17. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 115.
  18. ^ W. Labov, S. Ash and C. Boberg (1997), A national map of the regional dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved May 27, 2013
  19. ^ Sailaja (2009), pp. 24–25.
  20. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  21. ^ Tench (1990), p. 135.
  22. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 38.
  23. ^ Krech et al. (2009), p. 263.
  24. ^ Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 248.
  25. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  26. ^ Vago (1980), p. 1.
  27. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  28. ^ a b Ní Chasaide (1999), p. 114.
  29. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  30. ^ a b François (2011), p. 194.
  31. ^ a b François (2011), pp. 195, 208.
  32. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), pp. 158–159.
  33. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), pp. 13, 17.
  34. ^ a b Kvifte & Gude-Husken (2005), p. 2.
  35. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 16–17.
  36. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), p. 23.
  37. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 54.
  38. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), pp. 140–141.
  39. ^ a b c Riad (2014), pp. 35–36.
  40. ^ Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963). Uzbek Structural Grammar. Uralic and Altaic Series. 18. Bloomington: Indiana University. p. 17.
  41. ^ "Vastesi Language - Vastesi in the World". Vastesi in the World. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
  42. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.

References

  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 978-9004103405
  • Connolly, John H. (1990), "Port Talbot English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 121–129, ISBN 978-1-85359-032-0
  • Cox, Felicity; Fletcher, Janet (2017) [First published 2012], Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-316-63926-9
  • Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (7th ed.), Berlin: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0
  • Fleischer, Jürg; Schmid, Stephan (2006), "Zurich German" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 243–253, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002441
  • François, Alexandre (2011), "Social ecology and language history in the northern Vanuatu linkage: A tale of divergence and convergence", Journal of Historical Linguistics, 1 (2): 175–246, doi:10.1075/jhl.1.2.03fra
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008), New Zealand English, Dialects of English, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2529-1
  • Horvath, Barbara M. (2004), "Australian English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 625–644, ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), "7.3.10 Norwegisch", Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
  • Kvifte, Bjørn; Gude-Husken, Verena (2005) [First published 1997], Praktische Grammatik der norwegischen Sprache (3rd ed.), Gottfried Egert Verlag, ISBN 978-3-926972-54-5
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.), Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2
  • Mahanta, Shakuntala (2012), "Assamese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (2): 217–224, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000096
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0
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  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1
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  • Sailaja, Pingali (2009), Indian English, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, pp. 17–38, ISBN 978-0-7486-2594-9
  • Scobbie, James M.; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090
  • Tench, Paul (1990), "The Pronunciation of English in Abercrave", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard (eds.), English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 130–141, ISBN 978-1-85359-032-0
  • Urua, Eno-Abasi E. (2004), "Ibibio", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 105–109, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001550
  • Vago, Robert M. (1980), The Sound Pattern of Hungarian, Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 978-82-990584-0-7
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 2: The British Isles (pp. i–xx, 279–466). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128540-2 .
  • Wissing, Daan (2016). "Afrikaans phonology – segment inventory". Taalportaal. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.

External links

  • List of languages with [ɒ] on PHOIBLE
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