Open back rounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Open back rounded vowel
ɒ
ɔ̞
IPA number 313
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɒ
Unicode (hex) U+0252
X-SAMPA Q
Kirshenbaum A.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
Listen

The open back rounded vowel, or low back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically, it is a near-open or near-low back rounded vowel.[2] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɒ⟩. It is called "turned script a", being a rotated version of "script (cursive) a", which is the variant of a that lacks the extra stroke on top of a "printed a". Turned script aɒ⟩ has its linear stroke on the left, whereas "script a" ⟨ɑ⟩ (for its unrounded counterpart) has its linear stroke on the right.

A well-rounded [ɒ] is rare, but it is found in some varieties of English. In most languages with this vowel, such as English and Persian, the rounding of [ɒ] is slight, and in English at least, it is sulcal or "grooved". However, according to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), Assamese has an "over-rounded" [ɒ̹], with rounding as strong as that for [u].[3]

According to the phonetician Geoff Lindsey, ⟨ɒ⟩ may be an entirely superfluous IPA symbol, as the sound it represents is far too similar to the open-mid back rounded vowel [ɔ], which makes it unlikely that any language would contrast these two vowels phonemically. He also writes that the contemporary Standard Southern British (SSB) accent lacks [ɒ], having replaced it with the more common [ɔ] (a realization that is also found in e.g. Australia,[4][5] New Zealand[6] and Scotland),[7][8] and advocates for transcribing this vowel with the symbol ⟨ɔ⟩ in SSB.[7]

This is not to be understood as /ɒ/ having the same quality as /ɔː/ (which Lindsey transcribes with ⟨⟩),[7] as the latter vowel is true-mid [ɔ̝ː] in SSB,[9] a pronunciation that was established decades ago.[10] Lindsey also says that more open variants of /ɒ/ used formerly in SSB are satisfyingly represented by the symbols [ɔ̞] and [ɑ] in narrow phonetic transcription, and ⟨ɔ⟩ in phonemic/broad phonetic transcription. According to him, the endless repetition of the symbol ⟨ɒ⟩ in publications on BrE has given this vowel a familiarity out of all proportion to its scarcity in the world’s languages.[7]

Features

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is open, also known as low, which means the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth – that is, as low as possible in the mouth.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • It is rounded, which means that the lips are rounded rather than spread or relaxed.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[11] daar [dɒːr] 'there' Fully back. Used by some speakers, particularly young female speakers of northern accents. Other speakers use an unrounded vowel [ɑː ~ ɑ̟ː].[11] See Afrikaans phonology
Assamese[3] পোট্ [pɒ̹t] 'to bury' Also described as close-mid near-back [ʊ̞].[12]
Catalan Majorcan[13][14] soc [ˈsɒk] 'clog' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Catalan phonology
Minorcan[13][14]
Valencian[13][14]
Some Valencian speakers[15] taula [ˈt̪ɑ̟wɫɒ̝] 'table' Can be realized as unrounded [ɑ].
Danish Standard[16][17] ånd [ɒ̜̽nˀ] 'spirit' Weakly rounded near-open near-back vowel.[16][17] Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ʌ⟩. The vowel transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒ⟩ has been described variously as near-open [ɒ̝][17] and open-mid [ɔ].[16] See Danish phonology
Dutch Leiden[18] bad [bɒ̝t] 'bath' Near-open fully back; may be unrounded [ɑ̝] instead.[18] It corresponds to [ɑ] in standard Dutch.
Rotterdam[18]
Some dialects[19] bot [bɒt] 'bone' Some non-Randstad dialects,[19] for example those of Den Bosch and Groningen. It is open-mid [ɔ] in standard Dutch.
English Received Pronunciation[20] not [nɒt] 'not' Somewhat raised. Younger RP speakers may pronounce a closer vowel [ɔ]. See English phonology
Northern English[21] May be somewhat raised and fronted.[21]
South African[22] [nɒ̜̈t] Near-back and weakly rounded.[22] Some younger speakers of the General variety may actually have a higher and fully unrounded vowel [ʌ̈].[22] See South African English phonology
General American[23] thought About this sound [θɒt]  'thought' Present in accents without the cotcaught merger. May be as high as [ɔː].
Inland Northern American[24] See Northern cities vowel shift
Indian[25] /ɒ/ and /ɔː/ differ entirely by length in Indian English.
Welsh[26][27] Open-mid in Cardiff; may merge with // in northern dialects.
German Standard[28] voll [fɒ̝l] 'full' Near-open;[28] also described as open-mid back [ɔ][29] and open-mid near-back [ɔ̟].[30] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. See Standard German phonology
Many speakers[31] Gourmand [ɡʊʁˈmɒ̃ː] 'gourmand' Nasalized; common phonetic realization of /ɑ̃ː/.[31] Also described as central unrounded [ã̠ː].[32] See Standard German phonology
Many Swiss dialects[33] mane [ˈmɒːnə] 'remind' The example word is from the Zurich dialect, in which [ɒː] is in free variation with the unrounded [ɑː].[34]
Hungarian Standard[35] magyar [ˈmɒ̜̽ɟɒ̜̽r] 'Hungarian' Somewhat fronted and raised, with only slight rounding; sometimes transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. Unrounded [ɑ] in some dialects.[36] See Hungarian phonology
Ibibio[37] d [dɒ̝́] 'marry' Near-open;[37] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.
Irish Ulster[38] ólann [ɒ̝ːɫ̪ən̪ˠ] '(he) drinks' Near-open;[38] may be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.
Lehali[39] dö [ⁿdɒ̝ŋ] 'yam' Raised vowel, being the back rounded counterpart of /æ/ in a symmetrical vowel inventory.[39]
Lemerig[40] ān̄sār [ʔɒ̝ŋsɒ̝r] 'person' Raised vowel, being the back rounded counterpart of /æ/ in a symmetrical vowel inventory.[40]
Limburgish Maastrichtian[41] plaots [plɒ̝ːts] 'place' Near-open fully back; typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔː⟩.[41] Corresponds to [ɔː] in other dialects.
Norwegian Urban East[42] topp [tʰɒ̝pː] 'top' Near-open,[42] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩. Also described as open-mid near-back [ɔ̟][43] and open-mid back [ɔ].[44] See Norwegian phonology
Dialects along the Swedish border[45] hat [hɒ̜ːt] 'hate' Weakly rounded and fully back.[45] See Norwegian phonology
Romanian Istro-Romanian[46] cap [kɒp] 'head' Corresponds to [ä] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Slovak Some speakers[47] a [ɒ] 'and' Under Hungarian influence, some speakers realize the short /a/ as rounded.[47] See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[48][49] jаg [jɒ̝ːɡ] 'I' Near-open fully back weakly rounded vowel.[48] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɑː⟩. See Swedish phonology
Gothenburg[49] [jɒːɡ] More rounded than in Central Standard Swedish.[49]
Vastese[50] [example needed]
Yoruba[51] [example needed] Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɔ⟩.

See also

References

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  3. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 293–294.
  4. ^ Cox (2012), p. 159.
  5. ^ Horvath (2004), p. 628.
  6. ^ Hay, Maclagan & Gordon (2008:21). Note that some sources (e.g. Bauer et al. (2007:98)) describe it as more central [ɞ] than back.
  7. ^ a b c d Geoff Lindsey (2012) Morgen — a suitable case for treatment, Speech Talk
  8. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  9. ^ Gimson (2014), pp. 128–129.
  10. ^ Wells (1982a:293). According to this source, open-mid [ɔː] was the standard pronunciation in the 1930s.
  11. ^ a b Wissing (2016), section "The unrounded low-central vowel /a/".
  12. ^ Mahanta (2012), p. 220.
  13. ^ a b c Recasens (1996), pp. 81, 130–131.
  14. ^ a b c Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  15. ^ Saborit (2009), pp. 25–26.
  16. ^ a b c Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  17. ^ a b c Basbøll (2005), p. 47.
  18. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), p. 131.
  19. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 132.
  20. ^ Roach (2004), p. 242.
  21. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  22. ^ a b c Lass (2002), p. 115.
  23. ^ Wells (1982b), p. 476.
  24. ^ W. Labov, S. Ash and C. Boberg (1997), A national map of the regional dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved May 27, 2013 
  25. ^ Sailaja (2009), pp. 24–25.
  26. ^ Connolly (1990), p. 125.
  27. ^ Tench (1990), p. 135.
  28. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013:234)
  29. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34)
  30. ^ Lodge (2009:87)
  31. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 38.
  32. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 106–107.
  33. ^ Krech et al. (2009), p. 263.
  34. ^ Fleischer & Schmid (2006), p. 248.
  35. ^ Szende (1994), p. 92.
  36. ^ Vago (1980), p. 1.
  37. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  38. ^ a b Ní Chasaide (1999), p. 114.
  39. ^ a b François (2011), p. 194.
  40. ^ a b François (2011), pp. 195, 208.
  41. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), pp. 158–159.
  42. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 13.
  43. ^ Strandskogen (1979), pp. 15, 19.
  44. ^ Popperwell (2010), p. 26.
  45. ^ a b Popperwell (2010), p. 23.
  46. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  47. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 54.
  48. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), pp. 140–141.
  49. ^ a b c Riad (2014), pp. 35–36.
  50. ^ "Vastesi Language - Vastesi in the World". Vastesi in the World. Retrieved 21 November 2016. 
  51. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.

Bibliography

  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2013) [First published 2003], Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (3rd ed.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-50650-2 
  • Connolly, John H. (1990), "Port Talbot English", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 121–129, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Cox, Felicity (2012), Australian English Pronunciation and Transcription, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-14589-3 
  • Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (7th ed.), Berlin: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4 
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Fleischer, Jürg; Schmid, Stephan (2006), "Zurich German" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 243–253, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002441 
  • François, Alexandre (2011), "Social ecology and language history in the northern Vanuatu linkage: A tale of divergence and convergence", Journal of Historical Linguistics, 1 (2): 175–246, doi:10.1075/jhl.1.2.03fra 
  • Gimson, Alfred Charles (2014), Cruttenden, Alan, ed., Gimson's Pronunciation of English (8th ed.), Routledge, ISBN 9781444183092 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 29 (2): 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526 
  • Hall, Christopher (2003) [First published 1992], Modern German pronunciation: An introduction for speakers of English (2nd ed.), Manchester: Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-6689-1 
  • Hay, Jennifer; Maclagan, Margaret; Gordon, Elizabeth (2008), New Zealand English, Dialects of English, Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-2529-1 
  • Horvath, Barbara M. (2004), "Australian English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 625–644, ISBN 3-11-017532-0 
  • Kráľ, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateľstvo 
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), "7.3.10 Norwegisch", Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mahanta, Shakuntala (2012), "Assamese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 42 (2): 217–224, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000096 
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj 
  • Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999), "Irish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–16, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Popperwell, Ronald G. (2010) [First published 1963], Pronunciation of Norwegian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15742-1 
  • Rafel, Joaquim (1999), Aplicació al català dels principis de transcripció de l'Associació Fonètica Internacional (PDF) (3rd ed.), Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, ISBN 84-7283-446-8 
  • Recasens, Daniel (1996), Fonètica descriptiva del català: assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i el consonantisme català al segle XX (2nd ed.), Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, ISBN 978-84-7283-312-8 
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1 
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768 
  • Sailaja, Pingali (2009), Indian English, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, pp. 17–38, ISBN 978 0 7486 2594 9 
  • Scobbie, James M.; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8 
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090 
  • Tench, Paul (1990), "The Pronunciation of English in Abercrave", in Coupland, Nikolas; Thomas, Alan Richard, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change, Multilingual Matters Ltd., pp. 130–141, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Urua, Eno-Abasi E. (2004), "Ibibio", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 105–109, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001550 
  • Vago, Robert M. (1980), The Sound Pattern of Hungarian, Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Wells, John C. (1982a), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Wells, John C. (1982b), Accents of English, 3: Beyond the British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0 
  • Wissing, Daan (2016). "Afrikaans phonology – segment inventory". Taalportaal. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017. 
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Open_back_rounded_vowel&oldid=787269182"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_back_rounded_vowel
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Open back rounded vowel"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA