Open-mid front unrounded vowel

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Open-mid front unrounded vowel
ɛ
IPA number 303
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɛ
Unicode (hex) U+025B
X-SAMPA E
Kirshenbaum E
Braille ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Listen

The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is a Latinized variant of the Greek lowercase epsilon, ⟨ɛ⟩.

Features

IPA: Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] էջ [ɛd͡ʒ] 'page'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨æ⟩.[3]
Bengali[4] এক [ɛk] 'one' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[5] пет [pɛt̪] 'five' See Bulgarian phonology
Burmese[6] [orthographic
form needed
]
[mɛ] 'mother'
Catalan[7] mel [mɛɫ] 'honey' See Catalan phonology
Czech[8][9] led [lɛt] 'ice' In Bohemian Czech, this vowel varies between open-mid front [ɛ], open-mid near-front [ɛ̠] and mid near-front [ɛ̝̈].[8] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[10][11] frisk [ˈfʁ̞ɛsɡ̊] 'fresh' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨æ⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard[12] bed About this sound [bɛt]  'bed' See Dutch phonology
The Hague[13] jij About this sound [jɛ̞ː]  'you' Corresponds to [ɛi] in standard Dutch.
English General American[14] bed About this sound [bɛd]  'bed'
Northern England[15] May be somewhat lowered.[15]
Received Pronunciation[16][17] Older RP speakers pronounce a closer vowel []. See English phonology
Scottish[18]
Cockney[19] fat [fɛt] 'fat'
Singaporean[20]
New Zealand[21] See New Zealand English phonology
Some Broad
South African speakers[22]
Other speakers realize this vowel as [æ] or [a]. See South African English phonology
Belfast[23] days [dɛːz] 'days' Pronounced [iə] in closed syllables; corresponds to [eɪ] in RP.
Zulu[24] mate [mɛt] 'mate' Speakers exhibit a met-mate merger.
Faroese[25] frekt [fɹɛʰkt] 'greedy' See Faroese phonology
French[26][27] bête About this sound [bɛt̪]  'beast' See French phonology
Georgian[28] გედი [ɡɛdɪ] 'swan'
German Standard[29][30] Bett About this sound [bɛt]  'bed' Also described as mid [ɛ̝].[31] See Standard German phonology
Franconian accent[32] oder [ˈoːdɛ] 'or' Used instead of [ɐ].[32] See Standard German phonology
Coastal Northern accents[32]
Swabian accent[33] fett [fɛt] 'fat' Contrasts with the close-mid [e].[33] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[34] See [z̥ɛː] 'lake' Close-mid [] in other accents; contrasts with the near-open [æː].[35] See Standard German phonology
Icelandic[36][37] kenna [ˈcʰɛnːä] 'to teach' Often diphthongized to [eɛ] when long.[38] See Icelandic phonology
Italian[39] bene About this sound [ˈbɛːne]  'good' See Italian phonology
Kaingang[40] mbre [ˈᵐbɾɛ] 'with'
Limburgish[41][42][43] crème [kʀ̝ɛːm] 'cream' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lower Sorbian[44] serp [s̪ɛrp] 'sickle'
Luxembourgish[45] Stär [ʃtɛːɐ̯] 'star' Allophone of /eː/ before /ʀ/.[45] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Sognamål[46] pest [pʰɛst] 'plague See Norwegian phonology
Polish[47] ten About this sound [t̪ɛn̪]  'this one' (nom. m.) See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[48][49] meleca [mɛˈl̪ɛ̞kə] 'goo' Stressed vowel might be lower [æ]. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨e⟩ allophones, such as [ e ɪ i ɨ], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[50] 'tempo' [ˈt̪ɛ̃pu] 'time' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /ẽ̞/. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Transylvanian dialects[51] vede [ˈvɛɟe] '(he) sees' Corresponds to mid [] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian[52] это About this sound [ˈɛt̪ə]  'this' See Russian phonology
Shiwiar[53] [example needed] Allophone of /a/.
Slovak[54] behať [ˈbɛɦäc̟] 'to run' Rare realization of /e/; most commonly realized as mid [].[54] See Slovak phonology
Slovene met [mɛ́t] 'throw' (n.) See Slovene phonology
Spanish Eastern Andalusian[55] las madres [læ̞ː ˈmæ̞ːð̞ɾɛː] 'the mothers' Corresponds to [] in other dialects, but in these dialects they're distinct. See Spanish phonology
Murcian[55]
Swedish Central Standard[56] ät [ɛ̠ːt̪] 'eat' (imp.) Somewhat retracted.[56] See Swedish phonology
Turkish[57][58] ülke [y̠l̠ˈcɛ] 'country' Allophone of /e/ described variously as "word-final"[57] and "occurring in final open syllable of a phrase".[58] See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[59] день [dɛnʲ] 'day' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[44][60] čelo [ˈt͡ʃɛlɔ] 'calf' See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian[61] beppe [ˈbɛpə] 'grandma' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[62] sẹ̀ [ɛ̄sɛ] 'leg'

See also

References

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  3. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Khan (2010), p. 222.
  5. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  6. ^ Watkins (2001), pp. 292–293.
  7. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  8. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  9. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 228.
  10. ^ Grønnum (1998), p. 100.
  11. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 45.
  12. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 136.
  14. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a).
  15. ^ a b Lodge (2009), p. 163.
  16. ^ Schmitt (2007), pp. 322–323.
  17. ^ "Received Pronunciation". British Library. Retrieved 2013-05-26. 
  18. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  19. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  20. ^ Bet Hashim & Brown (2000).
  21. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b).
  22. ^ Lanham (1967), p. 9.
  23. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-05-26. 
  24. ^ "Rodrik Wade, MA Thesis, Ch 4: Structural characteristics of Zulu English". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  25. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 68, 75.
  26. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  27. ^ Collins & Mees (2013), p. 225.
  28. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), pp. 261–262.
  29. ^ Hall (2003), pp. 82, 107.
  30. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 34.
  31. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 87.
  32. ^ a b c Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 40.
  33. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 64.
  34. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  35. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  36. ^ Árnason (2011), p. 60.
  37. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  38. ^ Árnason (2011), pp. 57–60.
  39. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 119.
  40. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  41. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  42. ^ Peters (2006), p. 119.
  43. ^ Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  44. ^ a b Stone (2002), p. 600.
  45. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  46. ^ Haugen (2004), p. 30.
  47. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 105.
  48. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  49. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira
  50. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP
  51. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  52. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 41.
  53. ^ Fast Mowitz (1975), p. 2.
  54. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 92.
  55. ^ a b Zamora Vicente (1967), p. ?.
  56. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  57. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005), p. 10.
  58. ^ a b Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
  59. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  60. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 20.
  61. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  62. ^ Bamgboṣe (1969), p. 166.

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