Open-mid back rounded vowel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Open-mid back rounded vowel
ɔ
IPA number 306
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɔ
Unicode (hex) U+0254
X-SAMPA O
Kirshenbaum O
Braille ⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
Listen

The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɔ⟩. The IPA symbol is a turned letter c and both the symbol and the sound are commonly called "open-o". The name open-o represents the sound, in that it is like the sound represented by ⟨o⟩, the close-mid back rounded vowel, except it is more open. It also represents the symbol, which can be remembered as an o which has been "opened" by removing part of the closed circular shape.

Features

IPA: vowels
Front Near‑front Central Near‑back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
help • image • Loudspeaker.svg audio • template

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] հողմ [hɔʁm] 'storm'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[3] [example needed] May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒ⟩.[3]
Bengali[4] অর্থ [ɔrt̪ʰo] 'meaning' See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[5] род [rɔt̪] 'kin' See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6] soc [ˈsɔk] 'clog' See Catalan phonology
Cipu Tirisino dialect[7] kødø [kɔ̟̀ɗɔ̟́] "cut down!" Near-back.[8]
Danish Standard[9] og [ɔʊ̯] 'and' Also described as near-open [ɔ̞].[10] It is most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒ⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[11] och About this sound [ʔɔˤx]  'alas' 'Very tense, with strong lip-rounding',[12] strongly pharyngealized[13] (although less so in standard Belgian[14]) and somewhat fronted.[11][15] See Dutch phonology
Standard Northern[15]
English Australian[16] not About this sound [nɔt]  'not' See Australian English phonology
Estuary[17]
New Zealand[18] May be somewhat fronted.[19] Often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɒ⟩. See New Zealand English phonology
Received Pronunciation[20] /ɒ/ has shifted up in emerging RP.
General American[21] thought [θɔːt] 'thought' Mainly in speakers without the cot–caught merger. It may be from lower [ɒ]. See English phonology
Norfolk[22]
Older Received Pronunciation[23] Higher [ɔ̝ː] for most other speakers.
Scottish[24] Many Scottish dialects exhibit the cot-caught merger, the outcome of which is a vowel of [ɔ] quality.
Sheffield[25] goat [ɡɔːt] 'goat'
Newfoundland[26] but [bɔt] 'but' Less commonly unrounded [ʌ].[26] See English phonology
Faroese[27] toldi [ˈtʰɔltɪ] 'endured' See Faroese phonology
French[28][29] sort [sɔːʁ] 'fate' The Parisian realization has been variously described as back [ɔ][28] and near-back [ɔ̟].[29] See French phonology
Georgian[30] სწრი [st͡sʼɔɾi] 'correct'
German Standard[31][32] voll About this sound [fɔl]  'full' Described variously as open-mid back [ɔ],[31] open-mid near-back [ɔ̟][32] and near-open back [ɔ̞].[33] See Standard German phonology
Some speakers[34] Mutter [ˈmutɔʕ̞] 'mother' Common allophone of /ə/ before the pharyngeal approximant realization of /r/. Occurs in East Central Germany, Southwestern Germany, parts of Switzerland and in Tyrol.[34] See Standard German phonology
Western Swiss accents[35] hoch [hɔːχ] 'high' Close-mid [] in other accents.[36] See Standard German phonology
Icelandic[37][38] loft [ˈlɔft] 'air' Often diphthongized to [oɔ] when long.[39] See Icelandic phonology
Italian[40] parola About this sound [päˈrɔ̟ːlä]  'word' Near-back.[40] See Italian phonology
Kaingang[41] [ˈpɔ] 'stone'
Kera[42] [dɔ̟̀l] 'hard earth' Near-back.[42]
Kokborok kwrwi [kɔrɔi] 'not'
Limburgish[43][44] mòn [mɔːn] 'moon' Lower [ɔ̞ː] in the Maastrichtian dialect.[45] The example word is from the Hasselt dialect.
Lower Sorbian[46] osba [ˈpʂɔz̪bä] 'a request'
Luxembourgish[47] Sonn [zɔn] 'son' Possible realization of /o/.[47] See Luxembourgish phonology
Norwegian Urban East[48][49] topp [tʰɔpː] 'top' Described variously as open-mid back [ɔ],[48] open-mid near-back [ɔ̟][49] and near-open back [ɔ̞].[50] See Norwegian phonology
Some dialects[48] så [sɔː] 'so' Present e.g. in Telemark; realized as mid [ɔ̝ː] in other dialects.[48] See Norwegian phonology
Polish[51] kot About this sound [kɔt̪]  'cat' See Polish phonology
Portuguese Most dialects[52][53] fofoca [fɔˈfɔ̞kɐ] 'gossip' Stressed vowel might be lower. The presence and use of other unstressed ⟨o⟩ allophones, such as [ o ʊ u], varies according to dialect.
Some speakers[54] bronca [ˈbɾɔ̃kə] 'scolding' Stressed vowel, allophone of nasal vowel /õ̞/. See Portuguese phonology
Russian Some speakers[55] сухой [s̪ʊˈxɔj] 'dry' More commonly realized as mid [].[55] See Russian phonology
Slovak Standard[56] ohúriť [ˈɔɦʊːrɪc̟] 'to stun' Backness varies between back and near-back; most commonly realized as mid [] instead.[56] See Slovak phonology
Temne[57] pɔn [pɔ̟̀n] 'swamp' Near-back.[57]
Ukrainian[58] любов [lʲuˈbɔw] 'love' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[46][59] pos [pɔs̪] 'dog' See Upper Sorbian phonology
West Frisian[60] rôt [rɔːt] 'rat' See West Frisian phonology
Yoruba[61] [example needed] Nasalized; may be near-open [ɔ̞̃] instead.[61]

See also

References

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  4. ^ Khan (2010:222)
  5. ^ Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999:56)
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:54)
  7. ^ McGill (2014), pp. 308–309.
  8. ^ McGill (2014), p. 308.
  9. ^ Grønnum (1998:100)
  10. ^ Basbøll (2005:47)
  11. ^ a b Verhoeven (2005:245)
  12. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132)
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:132, 222 and 224)
  14. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:222)
  15. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1992:47)
  16. ^ Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  17. ^ Wells (1982a:305)
  18. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009a)
  19. ^ Bauer et al. (2007:98)
  20. ^ Wikström (2013:45), "It seems to be the case that younger RP or near-RP speakers typically use a closer quality, possibly approaching Cardinal 6 considering that the quality appears to be roughly intermediate between that used by older speakers for the LOT vowel and that used for the THOUGHT vowel, while older speakers use a more open quality, between Cardinal Vowels 13 and 6."
  21. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009b)
  22. ^ Lodge (2009:168)
  23. ^ Wells (1982a:293)
  24. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  25. ^ Stoddart, Upton and Widowson in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 74
  26. ^ a b Wells (1982b:498)
  27. ^ Árnason (2011:68, 75)
  28. ^ a b Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  29. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013:225)
  30. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261–262)
  31. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:34)
  32. ^ a b Lodge (2009:87)
  33. ^ Collins & Mees (2013:234)
  34. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:51)
  35. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), p. 65.
  36. ^ Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015), pp. 34, 65.
  37. ^ Árnason (2011:60)
  38. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  39. ^ Árnason (2011:57–60)
  40. ^ a b Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:119)
  41. ^ Jolkesky (2009:676–677 and 682)
  42. ^ a b Pearce (2011:251)
  43. ^ Verhoeven (2007:221)
  44. ^ Peters (2006:118–119)
  45. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:158–159)
  46. ^ a b Stone (2002:600)
  47. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013:70)
  48. ^ a b c d Popperwell (2010:26)
  49. ^ a b Strandskogen (1979:15, 19)
  50. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  51. ^ Jassem (2003:105)
  52. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  53. ^ Variação inter- e intra-dialetal no português brasileiro: um problema para a teoria fonológica – Seung-Hwa LEE & Marco A. de Oliveira
  54. ^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (in Portuguese)
  55. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969:56)
  56. ^ a b Pavlík (2004:94–95)
  57. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010:249)
  58. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  59. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:20)
  60. ^ Tiersma (1999), p. 10.
  61. ^ a b Bamgboṣe (1969:166)

Bibliography

  • Árnason, Kristján (2011), The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-922931-4 
  • Bamgboṣe, Ayọ (1966), A Grammar of Yoruba, [West African Languages Survey / Institute of African Studies], Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul; Bardsley, Dianne; Kennedy, Marianna; Major, George (2007), "New Zealand English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (1): 97–102, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002830 
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406 
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2013) [First published 2003], Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (3rd ed.), Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-50650-2 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083 
  • Dudenredaktion; Kleiner, Stefan; Knöbl, Ralf (2015) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (in German) (7th ed.), Berlin: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04067-4 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Einarsson, Stefán (1945), Icelandic. Grammar texts glossary., Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, ISBN 978-0801863578 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29 (2): 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526 
  • Gussmann, Edmund (2011). "Getting your head around: the vowel system of Modern Icelandic" (PDF). Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia. 12: 71–90. ISBN 978-83-232-2296-5. 
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics, 17 (2): 155–84, doi:10.1080/07268609708599550 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Jolkesky, Marcelo Pinho de Valhery (2009), "Fonologia e prosódia do Kaingáng falado em Cacique Doble", Anais do SETA, Campinas: Editora do IEL-UNICAMP, 3: 675–685 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521153003 
  • Kanu, Sullay M.; Tucker, Benjamin V. (2010), "Temne", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 247–253, doi:10.1017/S002510031000006X 
  • Khan, Sameer ud Dowla (2010), "Bengali (Bangladeshi Standard)" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (2): 221–225, doi:10.1017/S0025100310000071 
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009a), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009b), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • McGill, Stuart (2014), "Cicipu", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 44 (3): 303–318, doi:10.1017/S002510031400022X 
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis, 55: 87–109 
  • Pearce, Mary (2011), "Kera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41 (2): 249–258, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000168 
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428 
  • Popperwell, Ronald G. (2010) [First published 1963], Pronunciation of Norwegian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15742-1 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Šewc-Schuster, Hinc (1984), Gramatika hornjo-serbskeje rěče, Budyšin: Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Stone, Gerald (2002), "Sorbian (Upper and Lower)", in Comrie, Bernard; Corbett, Greville G., The Slavonic Languages, London and New York: Routledge, pp. 593–685, ISBN 9780415280785 
  • Strandskogen, Åse-Berit (1979), Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger, Oslo: Gyldendal, ISBN 82-05-10107-8 
  • Ternes, Elmer; Vladimirova-Buhtz, Tatjana (1999), "Bulgarian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 55–57, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Tiersma, Peter Meijes (1999) [First published 1985 in Dordrecht by Foris Publications], Frisian Reference Grammar (2nd ed.), Ljouwert: Fryske Akademy, ISBN 90-6171-886-4 
  • Traunmüller, Hartmut (1982), "Vokalismus in der westniederösterreichischen Mundart.", Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, 2: 289–333 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Wells, John C. (1982a), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Wells, John C. (1982b), Accents of English, III: Beyond the British Isles, Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-28541-0 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2007), "The Belgian Limburg dialect of Hamont", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37 (2): 219–225, doi:10.1017/S0025100307002940 
  • Wikström, Jussi (2013), "An acoustic study of the RP English LOT and THOUGHT vowels", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 37–47, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000345 
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Open-mid_back_rounded_vowel&oldid=798972958"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-mid_back_rounded_vowel
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Open-mid back rounded vowel"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA