Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

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Ecoregion: Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga
Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga
Lake Korbohon, Bureinsky Nature Reserve
Ecoregion territory (in purple)
Ecoregion territory (in purple)
Ecology
Realm Palearctic
Biome Boreal forests/taiga
Geography
Area 401,900 km2
Country Russia
Coordinates 52°15′N 136°15′E / 52.250°N 136.250°E / 52.250; 136.250Coordinates: 52°15′N 136°15′E / 52.250°N 136.250°E / 52.250; 136.250
Rivers Amur River
Climate type Koppen (Dwb)

The Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga ecoregion (WWF ID:PA0606) is an area of coniferous forests in the Russian Far East, covering the Amur River delta, the west coast of the Okhotsk Sea, and the rugged extension of the northern Sikhote-Alin Mountains that run southwest-to-northeast through the Primorsky and Khabarovsk regions. It is the southernmost taiga forest in Eurasia. The ecoregion is distinguished from surrounding ecoregions by the slightly warmer climate due to the maritime influence and the shield of the mountains to the west, and by the mixing of flora and fauna species from Okhotsk-Kamchatka communities to the north and Manchurian species from the south. The forest at lower altitudes is "light taiga" (mostly larch), and "dark taiga" (spruce and fir) at higher altitudes.[1]

Location and description

The ecoregion covers an area about 700 km west-east by 1,200 km north-south, the north-south distance being extended by long narrow strips along the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk to the north, and down the spine of Sikhote-Alin to the south. The Amur River delta and Sikhote-Alin Mountains run through the center of the ecoregion, meeting at the Sea of Okhotsk and the Shantar Islands offshore. To the west is the Manchurian Mixed Forest ecoregion, an area of low hills with cover of pine and deciduous forest. The eastern edge is the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sakhalin Gulf. To the north is the East Siberian taiga ecoregion, a colder region of larch forest and less snow. The Ussuri-broadleaf forest ecoregion lies to the south, with warmer temperatures and mixed broadleaf forests.[2]

Climate

The region has a Humid continental, warm summer climate (Koppen classification (Dwb)). This climate is characterized by high variation in temperature, both daily and seasonally; with dry winters and cool summers.[3]

Center of Okhotsk-Manchurian ecoregion (52.25 N, 136.25 E)
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
0.4
 
 
−5
−29
 
 
0.3
 
 
7
−21
 
 
0.4
 
 
24
−3
 
 
1.1
 
 
43
21
 
 
1.8
 
 
58
35
 
 
2.5
 
 
71
46
 
 
3.7
 
 
76
54
 
 
3.9
 
 
74
53
 
 
3.2
 
 
63
43
 
 
1.7
 
 
44
26
 
 
0.8
 
 
19
−2
 
 
0.5
 
 
−2
−23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: GlobalSpecies.org [3]

Average temperatures range from −27 °C (−17 °F) in January to 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) in July. The wind blows from the east (sea to land) during the warm period, bringing 80-90% of the precipitation, and blows west to east (from Siberia towards the sea) during the cold season.

Flora

The Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga ecoregion is the most southern of the boreal ecoregions; the dominant forest cover is dark taiga (spuce and fir) at high altitudes, and larch at lower altitudes. The region is farther north, and higher than, the Ussuri mixed broadleaf forest ecoregion which supports Mongolian oak and other broadleaf species. The Amur River delta provides extensive wetlands and associated plant life.[2][4]

Fauna

Among mammals, common predators are red fox, wolverines, wolves and lynx. Also common are forest mammals such as brown bear, and ungulates such as moose, sika deer, and caribou.[4] The Shantar Islands and the Sea of Okhotsk are host to large colonies of seabirds. Common land birds include northern goshawks, Ural owls, Oriental cuckoos, and brown creepers.

Protections

Notable protected areas of the Russian Federation in the West Siberian taiga include:

Threats

Commercial gas extraction in the area of Sakhalin Island has brought more industrial human activity, including pipelines through the forests. As with most of the maritime Far East, pressure from commercial logging affects the forests.

Urban areas and settlements

The area is sparsely populated; the largest city is Komsomolsk on the Amur River at the southern edge of the region.[2][5] The region is in the Palearctic ecozone (Euro-Siberian region). It covers 155,260 km2 (59,950 sq mi).

See also

References

  1. ^ "Forest Monitoring for Greenhouse Gas Information in Northeastern Asia". NEA-Forest. VITO. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c "Okhotsk-Manchurian Taiga". World Ecoregions. GlobalSpecies.org. Retrieved July 24, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Climate - Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga". Global Species - Ecoregions. Global Species. Retrieved July 24, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b "Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga". Wild World ecoregion profile. National Geographic. Archived from the original on 8 March 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2016. 
  5. ^ "Okhotsk-Manchurian Taiga". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Federation. Retrieved July 24, 2016. 

External links

  • Map of ecoregion "Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga". GlobalSpecies.org
  • Vegetation map of Amur River basin
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