Offside (association football)

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An assistant referee signals for offside by raising his flag

Offside is one of the laws of association football, codified in Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. The law states that a player is in an offside position, when he/she receives the ball which is played forwards by a teammate, actively involved in the play. A player cannot be offside if they are level with or behind the ball when it is played. A player is in an offside position if any of their body parts with which they can touch the ball during any other part of the play is in the opponents' half of the pitch and closer to the opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-to-last opponent (usually, but not necessarily always, the last defensive player in front of the goalkeeper).[1] Being in an offside position is not an offence in itself; at the moment the ball touches, or is played by, the player's team, the player must also be "actively involved in the play" in the opinion of the referee, in order for an offence to occur.[1] When the offside offence occurs, the referee stops play and awards an indirect free kick to the defending team from the position of the offending player.[1]

The offside offence is neither a foul nor a misconduct, players are never booked or sent off for offside.[2] Like fouls, however, any play (such as the scoring of a goal) that occurs after an offence has taken place but before the referee is able to stop the play is nullified.[3] Players that continue such play may be booked based on the referee's assessment of how significant or intentional the play was.

One of the main duties of the assistant referees is to assist the referee in adjudicating offside[4] — their position on the sidelines giving a more useful view sideways across the pitch.[5]:86, 95 Assistant referees communicate that an offside offence has occurred by raising a signal flag.[5]:97 However, as with all officiating decisions in the game, adjudicating offside is ultimately up to the referee, who can overrule the advice of their assistants if they see fit.


The application of the offside rule may be considered in three steps: offside position, offside offence and offside sanction.

Offside position

The blue forward on the left of the diagram is in an offside position as he is in front of both the second-to-last opponent (marked by the dotted line) and the ball. This does not necessarily mean he is committing an offside offence. It only becomes an offence if the ball is played while he is in an offside position and he subsequently interferes with play (such as receiving a pass), interferes with an opponent, or somehow gains an advantage by being in an offside position (such as receiving a deflected ball) no matter if any of these events occur after he moves to an onside position.
The blue forward in the penalty box of the diagram is not in an offside position, as he is behind the ball, despite the fact that he is in front of all of his outfield opponents.

A player is in an offside position if he is in the opposing team's half of the field and is also "nearer to his opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent."[1] The 2005 edition of the Laws of the Game included a new IFAB decision that stated[citation needed] being "nearer to an opponent's goal line" meant that "any part of his head, body or feet is nearer to his opponents' goal line than both the ball and the second-last opponent". By the 2014/2015 Laws, the interpretation included the proviso that "The arms are not included in this definition".[5]:108

In other words, a player is in an offside position if three conditions are met:

  • The player is in the opposing team's half of the field.
  • The player is closer to the opposing goal line than the ball is.
  • There are one or zero opposing players between the player and the opposing goal line.

(The goalkeeper counts as an opposing player in the third condition, but it is not necessary that the last opponent be the goalkeeper.)

Regardless of position, there is no offside offence if a player receives the ball directly from a goal kick, a corner kick, or a throw-in. However, an offside offence may occur if a player receives the ball directly from either a direct free kick or an indirect free kick.[1]

Offside offence

A player in an offside position at the moment the ball is touched or played by a teammate is only committing an offside offence if, in the opinion of the referee, he becomes actively involved in play by:

Interfering with play
"playing or touching the ball passed or touched by a team-mate"[5]:108
Interfering with an opponent
"preventing an opponent from playing or being able to play the ball by clearly obstructing the opponent’s line of vision or challenging an opponent for the ball"[5]:108
Gaining an advantage by being in an offside position
"playing a ball that rebounds or is deflected to him off the goalpost, crossbar or an opponent having been in an offside position; or that rebounds, is deflected or is played to him from a deliberate save by an opponent having been in an offside position"[5]:108

Since offside is judged at the time the ball is touched or played by a teammate, not when the player receives the ball, it is possible for a player to receive the ball significantly past the second-to-last opponent, or even the last opponent, without committing an offence.

Determining whether a player is in "active play" can be complex. The quote, "If he's not interfering with play, what's he doing on the pitch?" has been attributed to Bill Nicholson[6] and Danny Blanchflower.[7] FIFA issued new guidelines for interpreting the offside law in 2003 and these were incorporated in Law 11 in July 2005. The new wording seeks to define the three cases more precisely, but controversy regarding offside decisions often arises from assessment of what movements a player in an offside position can make without interfering with an opponent.[citation needed] This was further clarified by FIFA in 2015.[8]

Offside sanction

The restart for an offside sanction is an indirect free kick for the opponent at the place where the offence occurred, even including if it is in the player’s own half of the field of play.[9]


An assistant referee signals that the offside offence was in the middle of the pitch; on the far side the flag would be pointed up at 45 degrees, for near the assistant it would be pointed down.

In enforcing this rule, the referee depends greatly on an assistant referee, who generally keeps in line with the second-to-last opponent, the ball, or the halfway line, whichever is closer to the goal line of their relevant end.[5]:86 An assistant referee signals that an offside offence has occurred by first raising their flag upright without movement and then, when acknowledged by the referee, by raising their flag in a manner that signifies the location of the offence:

  • Flag pointed at a 45-degree angle downwards: offence has occurred in the third of the pitch nearest to the assistant referee;[5]:97
  • Flag parallel to the ground: offence has occurred in the middle third of the pitch;[5]:97
  • Flag pointed at a 45-degree angle upwards: offence has occurred in the third of the pitch furthest from the assistant referee.[5]:97

{{cns|The assistant referees' task with regard to offside can be difficult, as they need to keep up with attacks and counter-attacks, consider which players are in an offside position when the ball is played, and then determine whether and when the offside-positioned players become involved in active play. The risk of false judgement is further increased by the foreshortening effect, which occurs when the distance between the attacking player and the assistant referee is significantly different from the distance to the defending player, and the assistant referee is not directly in line with the defender. The difficulty of offside officiating is often underestimated by spectators. Trying to judge if a player is level with an opponent at the moment the ball is kicked is not easy: if an attacker and a defender are running in opposite directions, they can be two metres apart in less than a second.

Some researchers believe that offside officiating errors are "optically inevitable".[10] It has been argued that human beings and technological media are incapable of accurately detecting an offside position quickly enough to make a timely decision.[11] Sometimes it simply is not possible to keep all the relevant players in the visual field at once.[12] There have been some proposals for automated enforcement of the offside rule.[13]


Offside rules date back to codes of football developed at English public schools in the early nineteenth century. These offside rules, which varied widely between schools, were often much stricter than the modern game. In some of them, a player was "off his side" if he was standing in front of the ball.[14] This was similar to the current offside law in rugby, which penalises any player between the ball and the opponent's goal. By contrast, the original Sheffield Rules had no offside rule, and players known as "kick-throughs" were positioned permanently near the opponents' goal.[citation needed]

Offside was probably part of the "Cambridge Rules" from their inception in 1848. A ruleset dating from 1856 found in the library of Shrewsbury School is probably closely modelled on the Cambridge Rules and is thought to be the oldest set still in existence. Rule No. 9 required more than three defensive players to be ahead of an attacker who plays the ball. The rule states:[14]

If the ball has passed a player and has come from the direction of his own goal, he may not touch it till the other side have kicked it, unless there are more than three of the other side before him. No player is allowed to loiter between the ball and the adversaries' goal.

When the original Laws of the Game were first drafted in 1863 no forward passes of any sort were permitted, except for kicks from behind the goal line.[14] The rule states:

6. When a player has kicked the ball any one of the same side who is nearer to the opponent's goal line is out of play and may not touch the ball himself, nor in any way whatever prevent any other player from doing so until the ball has been played, but no player is out of play when the ball is kicked from behind the goal line

As football developed in the 1860s and 1870s, the offside law proved the biggest argument between the clubs. Sheffield got rid of the "kick-throughs" by amending their laws so that one member of the defending side was required between a forward player and the opponents' goal.

The compromise rule that was written into the Laws of the Game in 1866, and eventually adopted universally, was to adopt a form of the Cambridge rule, but with "at least three" rather than "more than three" opponents.[14][15]

The rule changed to "two opponents" in 1925 and led to an immediate increase in goal-scoring. 4,700 goals were scored in 1,848 Football League games in 1924–25. This number rose to 6,373 goals (from the same number of games) in 1925–26.[14]

In 1990 the law was amended to adjudge an attacker as onside if level with the second-to-last opponent. This change was part of a general movement by the game's authorities to make the rules more conducive to attacking football and help the game to flow more freely.[14]

Unadopted experiments

During the 1973–74 and 1974–75 seasons, an experimental version of the offside rule was operated in the Scottish League Cup and Drybrough Cup competitions.[16] The concept was that offside should only apply in the last 18 yards of play (i.e. inside or beside the penalty area).[16] To signify this, the horizontal line of the penalty area was extended to the touchlines.[16] FIFA President Sir Stanley Rous attended the 1973 Scottish League Cup Final, which was played using these rules.[16] The manager of one of the teams involved, Celtic manager Jock Stein, complained that it was unfair to expect teams to play under one set of rules in one game and then a different set a few days before or later.[16] The experiment was quietly dropped after the 1974–75 season, as no proposal for a further experiment or rule change was submitted for the Scottish Football Association board to consider.[16]

Throughout the 1987–88 season, the Football Conference was used to test an experimental rule change, whereby no attacker could be offside directly from a free-kick. This change was not deemed a success, as the attacking team could pack the penalty area for any free-kick (or even have several players stand in front of the opposition goalkeeper) and the rule change was not introduced at a higher level.[citation needed]

Offside trap

Pioneered in the early 20th century by Arsenal[17] and later adopted by influential Argentine coach Osvaldo Zubeldía,[18] the offside trap is a defensive tactic designed to force the attacking team into an offside position. Just before an attacking player is played a through ball, the last defender(s) move up field, isolating the attacker into an offside position. The execution requires careful timing by the defence and is considered a risk, since running up field against the direction of attack may leave the goal exposed. Now that changes to interpretation of "interfering with play" mean a player is not offside unless he interferes with play, players not interfering cannot be "caught offside", making the tactic more risky.


  1. ^ a b c d e "Law 11 — Offside" (PDF). Laws of the Game 2014/2015. Zurich: Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 2014-06-27. p. 35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  2. ^
  3. ^ "Law 10 — The Method of Scoring" (PDF). Laws of the Game 2014/2015. Zurich: Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 2014-06-27. p. 34. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2015. A goal is scored ... provided that no infringement of the Laws of the Game has been committed previously by the team scoring the goal. 
  4. ^ "Law 6 — The Assistant Referees" (PDF). Laws of the Game 2014/2015. Zurich: Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 2014-06-27. p. 28. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Interpretation of the Laws of the Game and Guidelines for Referees" (PDF). Laws of the Game 2014/2015. Zurich: Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 2014-06-27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 September 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2015. 
  6. ^ "Guardian Football: The Knowledge". The Guardian. 2006-09-13. Retrieved 2017-07-10. 
  7. ^ Barry Davies (1994-05-09). Commentary: Brazil vs Netherlands, World Cup 1994 (YouTube). United States: FIFA / BBC. Retrieved 2014-05-26. 
  8. ^ "FIFA Circular 3" (PDF). Retrieved 19 October 2015. 
  9. ^ "LAW 11: OFFSIDE". Retrieved 12 February 2017. 
  10. ^ Oudejans, Raôul R. D.; Verheijen, Raymond; Bakker, Frank C.; Gerrits, Jeroen C.; Steinbrückner, Marten; Beek, Peter J. (2000), "Errors in judging 'offside' in football", Nature, 404 (6773): 33–33, doi:10.1038/35003639 
  11. ^ FB Maruenda (2009), An offside position in football cannot be detected in zero milliseconds, doi:10.1038/npre.2009.3835.1, hdl:10101/npre.2009.3835.1 
  12. ^ B Maruenda (2004), "Can the human eye detect an offside position during a football match?", BMJ, British Medical Journal, 329 (7480): 1470–2, PMC 535985Freely accessible, PMID 15604187, doi:10.1136/bmj.329.7480.1470  Correction: "Can the human eye detect an offside position during a football match?", BMJ, 330 (7484): 188, 2005, doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7484.188 
  13. ^ S Iwase, H Saito (2002), Tracking soccer player using multiple views, Proceedings of the IAPR Workshop on Machine Vision, CiteSeerX accessible 
  14. ^ a b c d e f Carosi, Julian (2006). "The History of Offside" (PDF). Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  15. ^ "150 years of Association Football ~ How the Rules have changed". Retrieved 2013-04-25. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f Russell, Grant (1 April 2011). "How the Scottish FA tried to revolutionise the offside law". STV. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  17. ^ Wilson, Jonathan (13 April 2010), The Question: Why is the modern offside law a work of genius? 
  18. ^ Intercontinental Cup 1968, archived from the original on 6 Nov 2012 

External links

  • Laws of the Game 2014/2015 — Page 35 is Law 11. Pages 108–116 give referees interpretations and visual diagrams of situations in which an offside offences occur or do not occur under Law 11.
  • FIFA Offside Presentation, June 2005
  • Offside explained at
  • FIFA interactive guide
  • Professional Referee Organization offside discussion, from 2015 pre-season (includes video examples)
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