Odia language

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Odia
ଓଡ଼ିଆ oḍiā
Odia.svg
Pronunciation [oɽi'a]
Region Odisha, India
Ethnicity Odias
Native speakers
37.5 million (2011 census)[1]
Odia alphabet
Odia Braille
Official status
Official language in
 India (Odisha[2] and Jharkhand)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 or
ISO 639-2 ori
ISO 639-3 oriinclusive code
Individual codes:
ory – Odia
spv – Sambalpuri
ort – Adivasi Odia (Kotia)
dso – Desiya (duplicate of [ort])[3]
Glottolog macr1269  partial match[4]
Linguasphere 59-AAF-x

Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ About this sound oḍiā ) (formerly romanized as Oriya)[5] is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.[6] It is a classical Indo-Aryan language that is spoken mostly in eastern India, with around 40 million native speakers globally.

It is the predominant language of the Indian state of Odisha (Orissa)[7] where native speakers make up 91.85% of the population,[8] and is also spoken in parts of West Bengal,[9] Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh,[10] and Andhra Pradesh.[11]

Odia is one of the many official languages of India; it is the official language of Odisha and the second official language of Jharkhand.[12][13][14] The language is also spoken by a sizeable population of at least 1 million people in Chhattisgarh.

Odia is the sixth Indian language to be designated a Classical Language in India on the basis of having a long literary history and not having borrowed extensively from other languages.[15][16][17][18]

The earliest known inscription in Odia dates back to the 10th century AD.[19]

Geographical distribution

India

Odia is mainly spoken in the state of Odisha, but there are significant Odia-speaking populations in the neighbouring states, such as Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and Chhattisgarh; as well as in the neighbouring country of Bangladesh.[20]

Due to the increasing migration of labour, the west Indian state of Gujarat also has a significant population of Odia speakers, with Surat being the city with largest Odia-speaking population in Gujarat.[21][better source needed] Significant numbers of Odia speakers can also be found in the cities of Vishakhapatnam, Hyderabad, Pondicherry, Bangalore, Chennai, Goa, Mumbai, Raipur, Jamshedpur, Baroda, Ahmedabad, New Delhi, Kolkata, Kharagpur, Guwahati, Shillong, Pune, and Silvassa.[22][not in citation given]

Foreign countries

The Odia diaspora constitute a sizeable number in several countries around the world, totalling the number of Odia speakers on a global scale to 55 million.[23][page needed][need quotation to verify] It has a significant presence in eastern countries such as Bangladesh, Indonesia, mainly carried by the sadhaba, ancient traders from Odisha who carried the language along with the culture during the old-day trading,[24] and in western countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia and England as well. The language has also spread to Burma, Malaysia, Fiji, Sri Lanka and Middle East countries.[23]

Standard Odia

The official language of Odisha is considered as Standard Odia due to literary traditions. It is spoken mainly in the Middle area of the Ganga and the Godavari river which is call the state of Odisha.

Major forms or dialects

Minor non literary and tribal forms or dialects

Odia's minor dialects include:[26]

  • Sundargadi Odia  : Variation of Odia Spoken in Sundargarh district of Odisha and in adjoining pockets of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
  • Kalahandia Odia  : Variation of Odia spoken in undivided Kalahandi District and neighboring districts of Chhattisgarh.
  • Kurmi: Spoken in Northern Odisha and South west Bengal.
  • Sounti: Spoken in Northern Odisha and South west Bengal.
  • Bathudi: Spoken in Northern Odisha and South west Bengal.
  • Kondhan: A tribal dialect spoken in Western Odisha..
  • Laria: Spoken in bordering areas of Chatishgarh and Western Odisha.
  • Aghria: Spoken mostly by the ingenious people of Aghria caste in Western Odisha.
  • Bhulia: Tribal form spoken in Western Odisha.
  • Sadri: A mixture of Odia and Hindi language with major regional tribal influence.
  • Bodo Parja / Jharia: Tribal dialect of Odia spoken mostly in Koraput district of Southern Odisha .
  • Matia: Tribal dialect of Odia spoken in Southern Odisha.
  • Bhuyan: Tribal dialect of Odia spoken in Southern Odisha.
  • Reli: Spoken in Southern Odisha and bordering areas of Andhra Pradesh.
  • Kupia: Spoken by Valmiki caste people in the Indian state of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, mostly in Hyderabad, Mahabubnagar, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram, East Godavari and Visakhapatnam districts.

History

Ancient Odia Script at Jogimath of Nuapada District, Odisha
Bikramkhol Inscription of Odisha (1500 C. BC)
Script Tree of India
A detailed chart depicting evolution of the Odia script as displayed in a museum at Ratnagiri, Odisha

Odia is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-Aryan language family. It is thought to be directly descended from an OdraMagadhi Prakrit similar to Ardha Magadhi, which was spoken in eastern India over 1,500 years ago, and is the primary language used in early Jain texts.[27] Odia appears to have had relatively little influence from Persian and Arabic, compared to other major North Indian languages.

The history of the Odia language is divided into eras:

  • Old Odia: The rock painting of the Yogimatha (10th Millennium B.C.)[28] of Nuapada District of Odisha which was older script of India. The script ‘Ga’, and ‘o’ (tha) was discovered from yogimatha rock painting, this painting saw a person with four animals and write some alphabet. That painting created a word Like "Gaitha" (very popular Odia word at present ‘Gotha’ or ‘group’ in English). This art closely related to this alphabet. This alphabet has similarity to Dhauli and Jaugada Inscription’s script of Ashok. He assume it was the ancient form of Indian script and it is the first glimpse of possible origin of the Odia language and script.[29]The next evidence of Old Odia is found in the 3rd century BC Ashoka edit of Dhauli and 1st century BC Hathigumpha inscription.[30]. Kharavel’s Hatigumpha inscription(40 c. BC) is the real evidence of past Odia cultural, political, ritual & social status and it is the 1st poetic stake inscription. This inscriptions show the flexibility of a language in a sweet flow.[31][32][33]. The old colloquial literature is the Charyapada and Nath Literature, poetry written in an Apabhraṃśa or proto Odia ancestral to Odia, Bengali and Assamese.
  • Early Middle Odia (1200–1400): The earliest use of prose can be found in the Madala Panji of the Jagannath Temple at Puri, which dates back to the 12th century. Such works as Shishu Veda, Amara Kosha, Gorakha Samhita, Kalasha Chautisha, and Saptanga are written in this form of Odia.[34][35][36]
  • Middle Odia (1400–1700): Sarala Das writes the Vilanka Ramayana.[37][38] Towards the 16th century, poets emerged around the Vaishnava leader Achyutananda, These five poets are Balaram Das, Jagannatha Dasa, Achyutananda, Ananta Dasa and Jasobanta Dasa.
  • Late Middle Odia (1700–1850): Ushabhilasa of Sisu Sankara Das, the Rahasya Manjari of Deba Durlabha Dasa and the Rukmini Bibha of Kartika Dasa were written. A new form of metrical epic-poems (called Chhanda-Kabya) evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote Haravali. Upendra Bhanja took a leading role in this period- his creations Baidehisha Bilasa, Koti Brahmanda Sundari, Labanyabati were landmarks in Odia Literature. Dinakrushna Dasa’s Rasokallola and Abhimanyu Samanta Singhara’s Bidagdha Chintamani are prominent Kavyas of this time. Four major poets emerged in the end of the era are Baladeba Rath, Bhima Bhoi, Brajanath Badajena and Gopala Krushna Pattanaik.
  • Modern Odia (1850 till present day): The first Odia printing typeset was cast in 1836 by the Christian missionaries which made a great revolution in Odia literature and language.
Eastern Hemisphere in the year 200.

Charyapada of 8th Century and its affinity with Odia language

The beginnings of Odia poetry coincide with the development of charya sahitya, the literature started by Vajrayana Buddhist poets such as in the Charyapada. This literature was written in a specific metaphor called twilight language and prominent poets included Luipa, Tilopa and Kanha. Quite importantly, the Ragas that have mentioned for singing the Charyapadas are found abundantly in latter Odia literature.

Poet Jayadeva's literary contribution

Jayadeva was a Sanskrit poet. He was born in an Utkala Brahmin family of Puri in circa 1200 AD. He is most known for his composition, the epic poem Gita Govinda, which depicts the divine love of the Hindu deity Krishna and his consort, Radha, and is considered an important text in the Bhakti movement of Hinduism. About the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th, the influence of Jayadeva's literary contribution changed the pattern of versification in Odia.[citation needed]

John Beames, a British author and civil servant in British India who stayed for a considerable time in Odisha and worked for the survival of Odia language quotes:

At a period when Odia was already a fixed and settled language, Bengali did not exist. The Bengalis spoke a vast variety of corrupt forms of Eastern Hindi. It is not till quite recent times that we find anything that can with propriety be called a Bengali language.[39]

Dialects have bit of variety from the literary language, and bengal circulated in a vast region so that it have some varieties, called dialects.[40] Odia circulated in a small region and less no of speaker that's why variety is very less, rather it have a similarity to bengali language.

We may place the Hindi with its subsidiary forms Gujurati and Punjabi first fixing their rise and establishment as a modern languages distinct from their previous existence as Prakrit till the 12th or 13th century. Odia must have quite completed its transformation by the end of the 14th century. Bengali was no separate independent language but a maze of dialects without a distinct national or provincial type till the 17th or beginning of the 18th century. It was not till the gradual decay of the central Mohammedan power of Delhi enabled the provincial governors to assume an independent position that Bengali severed itself from Hindi and assumed characteristics which now vindicate for its right to be called a separate language.[41]

Phonology

Pronunciation of Odia alphabet.

Odia has twenty-eight consonant phonemes, two semivowel phonemes and six vowel phonemes.

Odia vowel phonemes[citation needed]
Front Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a ɔ

All vowels except /o/ also have nasal counterparts, but these are not always contrastive. Final vowels are standard and pronounced, e.g. Odia [pʰulɔ] contra Bengali [pʰul] "flower".[42]

Odia consonant phonemes[citation needed]
Bilabial Alveolar
/Dental
Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ (ŋ)
Stop/
Affricate
voiceless p ʈ k
voiceless aspirated t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
voiced b ɖ ɡ
voiced aspirated d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
Fricative s h
Flap ɾ ɺ̢[43]
Lateral approximant l

The velar nasal [ŋ] is given phonemic status in some[which?] analyses. Nasals assimilate for place in nasal–stop clusters. /ɖ ɖʱ/ have the flap allophones [ɽ ɽʱ] in intervocalic position and in final position (but not at morpheme boundaries). Stops are sometimes deaspirated between /s/ and a vowel or an open syllable /s/+vowel and a vowel. Some speakers distinguish between single and geminate consonants.[44]

Morphology

Unlike Hindi, Odia retains most of the cases of Sanskrit, though the nominative and vocative have merged (both without a separate marker), as have the accusative and dative. There are three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter) and two grammatical numbers (singular and plural). There are three true tenses (present, past and future), others being formed with auxiliaries.

Writing system

Literature

Kharavel’s Hatigumpha inscription (1st Century B.C.) is the real evidence of past Odia cultural, political, ritual and social status and it is the 1st poetic stake inscription.[45] Though Ashok has created many rock edicts and inscription before Kharavela, yet his instructions for administration have been written in a rude and chocked language. On the other hand, the Hatigumpha inscriptions show the flexibility of a language in a sweet flow.

Main feature of this inscription was based on principles of Sanskrit poetic structure: such as-

Sadvanshah kshyatriya bâ pi dhiirodâttah gunanwitâh I

Ekabanshodva bhupâhâ kulajâ bahabo pi Jâ II
Shrungarabirashantânâmekoangirasa ishyate I
Angâni sarbe<pi rasâha sarbe nâtakasandhyâhâ II
Itihâsodvabam bruttamânânyad bâ sajjanâshrayam I
Chatwarastasya bargahâ syusteshwekam cha phalam bhavet II
Aâdyu namaskriyashribâ bastunirddesha eba bâ I
Kwacinnindâ khalâdinâm satâm cha gunakirttinam II
(Sâhitya darpan- Biswanâth kabirâj)

It means that such creations will be called as poem which Protagonist would be Dhirodatta belonging to an untouchable kshtriya. In Rasa (aesthetics) Srunagâra (Love, Attractiveness), Vîra (Heroic mood), Sânta (Peace or tranquility)among them one would be tha main rasa and others are remain with them as usual. All aspects of drama, historic tales and other legendary folklores are present. The description of all the four fold-Dharma, Artha, Kama and Mokshya are still present here, but one should be given priority than other theme. At the beginning it should be written as respective, blissful and subject aware with welfare of people being hatred towards evil and devotional towards sages/saints.[46] Kharavela gave his thirteen years short description about his administration in a poetic manner in Hâtigumphâ inscription which gives a true picture of its literary style. Contemporary to Kharavela, the brief description of various sacrifices made by Satabahana king Satakarni’s queen Nagagnika was written in poetic style. The poetic style of Hâtigumphâ inscription of Kharavela was followed by Nagagnika (Nanghat inscription-50 A.D.), Rudradaman (Girinar inscription-150 A.D.), Satru Bhanja (Asanapata inscription at Keonjhar 260 A.D.), Samudragupta (prayaga inscription-365 A.D), and Kumargupta (Mandasore inscription-473A.D).[47]

The earliest literature in Odia language can be traced to the Charyapadas composed in the 7th to 9th centuries.[48] Before Sarala Das, the most important works in Odia literature are the Shishu Veda, Saptanga, Amara Kosha, Rudrasudhanidhi, Kesaba Koili, Kalasha Chautisha etc.[34][35][36] In the 14th century, the poet Sarala Dasa's wrote the Sarala Mahabharata, Chandi Purana, and Vilanka Ramayana, in praise of the goddess Durga. Rama-bibaha, written by Arjuna Dasa, was the first long poem written in the Odia language.

The following era is termed the Panchasakha Age and stretches until the year 1700. The period begins with the writings of Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu whose Vaishnava influence brought in a new evolution in Odia literature. Notable religious works of the Panchasakha Age include those of Balarama Dasa, Jagannatha Dasa, Yasovanta, Ananta and Acyutananda. The authors of this period mainly translated, adapted, or imitated Sanskrit literature. Other prominent works of the period include the Usabhilasa of Sisu Sankara Dasa, the Rahasya-manjari of Deva-durlabha Dasa and the Rukmini-bibha of Kartikka Dasa. A new form of novels in verse evolved during the beginning of the 17th century when Ramachandra Pattanayaka wrote Haravali. Other poets like Madhusudana, Bhima Bhoi, Dhivara, Sadasiva and Sisu Isvara-dasa composed another form called kavyas (long poems) based on themes from Puranas, with an emphasis on plain, simple language.

However, during the Bhanja Age (also known as the Age of Riti Yuga) beginning with turn of the 18th century, verbally tricky Odia became the order of the day. Verbal jugglery, obscenity and eroticism characterise the period between 1700 and 1850, particularly in the works of the era's eponymous poet Upendra Bhanja (1670–1720). Bhanja's work inspired many imitators of which the most notable is Arakshita Das. Family chronicles in prose relating religious festivals and rituals are also characteristic of the period.

The first Odia printing typeset was cast in 1836 by Christian missionaries. Although the handwritten Odia script of the time closely resembled the Bengali and Assamese scripts, the one adopted for the printed typesets was significantly different, leaning more towards the Tamil script and Telugu script. Amos Sutton produced an Oriya Bible (1840), Oriya Dictionary (1841–43) and[49] An Introductory Grammar of Oriya (1844).[50]

Odia has a rich literary heritage dating back to the thirteenth century. Sarala Dasa who lived in the fourteenth century is known as the Vyasa of Odisha. He translated the Mahabharata into Odia. In fact, the language was initially standardised through a process of translating classical Sanskrit texts such as the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Srimad Bhagabata Gita. The translation of the Srimad Bhagabata Gita by Jagannatha Dasa was particularly influential on the written form of the language. Odia has had a strong tradition of poetry, especially devotional poetry.

Other eminent Odia poets include Kabi Samrat Upendra Bhanja and Kabisurya Baladev Ratha.

Prose in the language has had a late development.

Three great poets and prose writers, Kabibar Radhanath Ray (1849–1908), Fakir Mohan Senapati (1843–1918) and Madhusudan Rao (1853–1912) made Odia their own. They brought in a modern outlook and spirit into Odia literature. Around the same time the modern drama took birth in the works of Rama Sankara Ray beginning with Kanci-Kaveri (1880).

Among the contemporaries of Fakir Mohan, four novelists deserve special mention: Aparna Panda, Mrutyunjay Rath, Ram Chandra Acharya and Brajabandhu Mishra. Aparna Panda's Kalavati and Brajabandhu Mishra's Basanta Malati were both published in 1902, the year in which Chha Mana Atha Guntha came out in the book form. Brajabandhu Mishra's Basanta Malati, which came out from Bamanda, depicts the conflict between a poor but highly educated young man and a wealthy and highly egoistic young woman whose conjugal life is seriously affected by ego clashes. Through a story of union, separation and reunion, the novelist delineates the psychological state of a young woman in separation from her husband and examines the significance of marriage as a social institution in traditional Indian society. Ram Chandra Acharya wrote about seven novels during 1924-1936. All his novels are historical romances based on the historical events in Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Odisha. Mrutyunjay Rath's novel, Adbhuta Parinama, published in 1915, centres round a young Hindu who gets converted to Christianity to marry a Christian girl.

One of the great writers in the 19th century was Pandit Krushna Chandra Kar (1907-1995) from Cuttack, who wrote many books for children like Pari Raija, Kuhuka Raija, Panchatantra, Adi Jugara Galpa Mala, etc. He was last felicitated by the Sahitya Academy in the year 1971-72 for his contributions to Odia literature, development of children's fiction, and biographies.

One of the prominent writers of the 19th and 20th centuries was Muralidhar Mallick (1927–2002). His contribution to Historical novels is beyond words. He was last felicitated by the Sahitya Academy in the year 1998 for his contributions to Odia literature. His son Khagendranath Mallick (born 1951) is also a writer. His contribution towards poetry, criticism, essays, story and novels is commendable. He was the former President of Utkal Kala Parishad and also former President of Odisha Geeti Kabi Samaj. Presently he is a member of the Executive Committee of Utkal Sahitya Samaj. Another illustrious writer of the 20th century was Mr. Chintamani Das. A noted academician, he was written more than 40 books including fiction, short stories, biographies and storybooks for children. Born in 1903 in Sriramachandrapur village under Satyabadi block, Chintamani Das is the only writer who has written biographies on all the five 'Pancha Sakhas' of Satyabadi namely Pandit Gopabandhu Das, Acharya Harihara, Nilakantha Das, Krupasindhu Mishra and Pandit Godabarisha. Having served as the Head of the Odia department of Khallikote College, Berhampur, Chintamani Das was felicitated with the Sahitya Akademi Samman in 1970 for his outstanding contribution to Odia literature in general and Satyabadi Yuga literature in particular. Some of his well-known literary creations are 'Bhala Manisha Hua', 'Manishi Nilakantha', 'Kabi Godabarisha', 'Byasakabi Fakiramohan', 'Usha', 'Barabati'.

20th century writers in Odia include Pallikabi Nanda Kishore Bal (1875–1928), Gangadhar Meher (1862–1924), Chintamani Mahanti and Kuntala-Kumari Sabat Utkala-Bharati, besides Niladri Dasa and Gopabandhu Das (1877–1928). The most notable novelists were Umesa Sarakara, Divyasimha Panigrahi, Gopala Praharaja and Kalindi Charan Panigrahi. Sachi Kanta Rauta Ray is the great introducer of the ultra-modern style in modern Odia poetry. Others who took up this form were Godabarisha Mohapatra, Mayadhara Manasimha, Nityananda Mahapatra and Kunjabihari Dasa. Prabhasa Chandra Satpathi is known for his translations of some western classics apart from Udayanatha Shadangi, Sunanda Kara and Surendranatha Dwivedi. Criticism, essays and history also became major lines of writing in the Odia language. Esteemed writers in this field were Professor Girija Shankar Ray, Pandit Vinayaka Misra, Professor Gauri Kumara Brahma, Jagabandhu Simha and Harekrushna Mahatab. Odia literature mirrors the industrious, peaceful and artistic image of the Odia people who have offered and gifted much to the Indian civilization in the field of art and literature. Now Writers Manoj Das's creations motivated and inspired people towards a positive lifestyle .Distinguished prose writers of the modern period include Fakir Mohan Senapati, Madhusudan Das, Godabarisha Mohapatra, Kalindi Charan Panigrahi, Surendra Mohanty, Manoj Das, Kishori Charan Das, Gopinath Mohanty, Rabi Patnaik, Chandrasekhar Rath, Binapani Mohanty, Bhikari Rath, Jagadish Mohanty, Sarojini Sahoo, Yashodhara Mishra, Ramchandra Behera, Padmaja Pal. But it is poetry that makes modern Odia literature a force to reckon with. Poets like Kabibar Radhanath Ray, Sachidananda Routray, Guruprasad Mohanty, Soubhagya Misra, Ramakanta Rath, Sitakanta Mohapatra, Rajendra Kishore Panda, Pratibha Satpathy have made significant contributions towards Indian poetry.

Anita Desai's novella, Translator Translated, from her collection The Art of Disappearance, features a translator of a fictive Odian short story writer; the novella contains a discussion of the perils of translating works composed in regional Indian languages into English.

Four writers in Odia - Gopinath Mohanty, Sachidananda Routray, Sitakant Mahapatra and Pratibha Ray - have been awarded the Jnanpith, a prestigious Indian literary award.

Language sample

The first article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Odia:

ସବୁ ମନୁଷ୍ଯ ଜନ୍ମକାଳରୁ ସ୍ୱାଧୀନ । ସେମାନଙ୍କର ମର୍ଯ୍ୟାଦା ଓ ଅଧିକାର ସମାନ । ସେମାନଙ୍କଠାରେ ପ୍ରଜ୍ଞା ଓ ବିବେକ ନିହିତ ଅଛି । ସେମାନେ ପରସ୍ପର ପ୍ରତି ଭାତୃଭାବ ପୋଷଣ କରି କାର୍ଯ୍ୟ କରିବା ଦରକାର।
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

See also

References

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  32. ^ Debi Prasanna Pattanayak; Subrat Kumar Prusty (2013). A Report on classical status of Odia Language (1st ed.). Bhubaneswar, Odisha: Department of Culture, Govt. Of Odisha. p. 90. 
  33. ^ Debi Prasanna Pattanayak; Subrat Kumar Prusty (2013). CLASSICAL ODIA (1st ed.). D-82, Maitri Vihar, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 755001: KIIS Foundation, New Delhi,. p. 33. ISBN 978-81-925616-3-9. 
  34. ^ a b Patnaik, Durga (1989). Palm Leaf Etchings of Orissa. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. p. 11. ISBN 978-8170172482. 
  35. ^ a b Panda, Shishir (1991). Medieval Orissa: A Socio-economic Study. New Delhi: Mittal Publications. p. 106. ISBN 978-8170992615. 
  36. ^ a b Patnaik, Nihar (1997). Economic History of Orissa. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. p. 149. ISBN 978-8173870750. 
  37. ^ Sukhdeva (2002). Living Thoughts of the Ramayana. Jaico Publishing House. p. 7. ISBN 978-81-7992-002-2. 
  38. ^ Sujit Mukherjee (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. p. 420. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9. 
  39. ^ Beames, Comparative Grammar of Four Languages Vol I, p. 119
  40. ^ Bondyopadhyay, Asit kumar (1959). Bangla Sahityer Itibritwwo. Kolkata: Morden Book Agency Pvt, Limited. 
  41. ^ Beames, Comparative Grammar of Four Languages, Vol I, p.120
  42. ^ Ray (2003:488–489)
  43. ^ Masica (1991:97)
  44. ^ Ray (2003:490–491)
  45. ^ Prusty, Subrat Kumar (March 2014). "Classical Language: Odia". Odisha Review. Bhubaneswar: I&PR Department, Government of Odisha. LXX (8): 7. ISSN 0970-8669. 
  46. ^ Classical Odia (1st ed.). Bhubaneswar: KIS Foundation. 2013. p. XXI. ISBN 9788192561639. 
  47. ^ Classical Odia (1st ed.). Bhubaneswar: KIS foundation. 2013. p. 33. ISBN 9788192561639. 
  48. ^ Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. 1997-01-01. ISBN 9788126003655. 
  49. ^ Biswamoy Pati Situating social history: Orissa, 1800-1997 p30
  50. ^ The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature (Volume Two) (Devraj To Jyoti): 2 p1030 ed. Amaresh Datta - 2006 "Amos Sutton also prepared a dictionary named Sadhu bhasharthabhidhan, a vocabulary of current Sanskrit terms with Odia definitions which was also printed in Odisha Mission Press in 1844."

Further reading

  • Tripathi, Kunjabihari (1962). The Evolution of Oriya Language and Script (PDF). Cuttack: Utkal University. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. 
  • Masica, Colin (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2. 
  • Neukom, Lukas; Patnaik, Manideepa (2003). A Grammar of Oriya. Arbeiten des Seminars für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Zürich. Zurich: University of Zurich. ISBN 9783952101094. 
  • Ray, Tapas S. (2003). "Oriya". In Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 485–522. ISBN 978-0-7007-1130-7. 
  • Rabindra Nath Pati, Jagannatha Dash (2002). Tribal and Indigenous People of India: Problems and Prospects. India: APH PUBLISHING CORPORATION. pp. 51–59. ISBN 81-7648-322-2. 
  • Ghosh, A. (2003). An ethnolinguistic profile of Eastern India: a case of South Orissa. Burdwan: Dept. of Bengali (D.S.A.), University of Burdwan.
  • Mohanty, Prasanna Kumar (2007). The History of: History of Oriya Literature (Oriya Sahityara Adya Aitihasika Gana).
  • "Oriya Language and Literature" (PDF). Odia.org. Retrieved 2012-11-29. 

External links

  • Media related to Odia language at Wikimedia Commons
  • Odia phrasebook travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Odia Wikipedia
  • Praharaj, G.C. Purnnachandra Ordia Bhashakosha. Cuttack: Utkal Sahitya Press, 1931-1940.
  • A Comprehensive English-Oriya Dictionary (1916–1922)

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