Nuclear energy in Argentina

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Nuclear power stations in Argentina (view)
Location dot red.svg Active plants

In Argentina, about 10% [1] of the electricity comes from 3 operational nuclear reactors: The Embalse Nuclear Power Station, a CANDU reactor, and the Atucha 1 plant in 1974, a PHWR German design. In 2001, the plant was modified to burn Slightly Enriched Uranium, making it the first PHWR reactor to burn that fuel worldwide.[citation needed] Atucha originally was planned to be a complex with various reactors. Atucha 2 (similar to Atucha1 but more powerful) began to produce energy on June 3, 2014, is expected to produce 745MWh. Plans for Atucha III, a third reactor in the Atucha complex, have been announced.[2]

Argentina also has some other research reactors, and exports nuclear technology. Nucleoeléctrica of Argentina and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are negotiating over the contracts and project delivery model for a new 740 MWe CANDU  nuclear power plant.[3]

In July 2014, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a nuclear energy cooperation agreement with Argentine President Cristina Fernández Kirchner, during a visit to the country.[4]

In February 2015, Argentine president Cristina Kirchner and Chinese president Xi Jinping signed a cooperation agreement, and the build of a Hualong One design power station has been proposed.[5][6]

In December 2015 a new uranium enrichment plant to manufacture fuel for Argentina's nuclear plants, located in Pilcaniyeu, was inaugurated. The plant will use both gaseous diffusion and more modern laser techniques.[7]

China and Argentina had agreed a contract to build a 700 MWe CANDU 6 derived reactor. Its construction was planned to start in 2018 at Atucha,[8][9] but it was indefinitely suspended by Mauricio Macri's government due to financial issues.[10][11] The building of a 1000 MWe Hualong One plant is planned to start in 2020.[9]

Reactors

Commercial

Name Unit
No.
Reactor Status Capacity in MW Construction start Commercial operation Closure
Type Model Net Gross
Atucha I 1 PHWR PHWR KWU Operational 335 362 1 June 1968 24 June 1974
Atucha II 1 PHWR PHWR KWU Operational 692 745 14 July 1981
(mothballed between 1994 and 2007)
27 June 2014
Atucha III 1 PHWR CANDU-6 Planned 800 (undefined) (undefined)
5th Plant 1 PWR Hualong-1 Planned 1000 (2020) (2026)
Embalse 1 PHWR CANDU-6 Operation suspended for maintenance 600 648 1 April 1974 20 January 1984
CAREM 1 PWR CAREM25 Under construction 25 29 8 February 2014

Research reactors

Name Reactor Status Capacity in kWt Construction start date Operation date Closure Operator and owner
RA-0 Tank type Operational 0.001 1958 Universidad Nacional de Córdoba
RA-1 Enrico Fermi Tank type Operational 40 May 1957 17 January 1958 National Atomic Energy Commission
RA-2 Critical assembly type Shut down 0.03 19 July 1966 September 1983 National Atomic Energy Commission
RA-3 Pool type Operational 10,000 20 December 1967 National Atomic Energy Commission
RA-4 HOMOG type Operational 0.001 September 1971 Universidad Nacional de Rosario
RA-6 Pool type Operational 3,000 1 September 1978 23 September 1982 National Atomic Energy Commission
RA-8 Critical assembly type Operation suspended 0.01 16 June 1997 2001 National Atomic Energy Commission
RA-10 Under construction 30,000 March 2016 National Atomic Energy Commission

[12]

Legislation

Provinces that ban the construction of nuclear power plants are:[13]

Chaco

  • Provincial Law, Nº 3902
    • Article 1: Declare the territory of the Chaco Province nuclear-free zone.

Corrientes

  • Provincial Law, Nº 4207
    • Article 1: Prohibits throughout the territory of the Corrientes Province, installing nuclear plants.

Entre Ríos

  • Provincial Law, Nº 8785
    • Article 3: It is forbidden the installation of nuclear power plants

La Pampa

  • Provincial Constitution
    • Article 18: La Pampa is declared a nuclear-free zone, to the extent determined by a special law in order to preserve the environment. Any damage it causes to the environment will generate liability under the applicable legal regulations or as may be provided.[14]

Río Negro

  • Provincial Law, Nº 5227
    • Article 1: It is forbidden in the territory of the Province of Río Negro the installation of nuclear power generation plants.

San Luis

  • Provincial Law, Nº 5567
    • Article 1: Declare the territory of the San Luis Province nuclear-free zone.

Santa Fe

  • Provincial Law, Nº 10753
    • Article 1: It is forbidden in the Santa Fe Province, the installation of plants and/or temporary or permanent nuclear deposits.
    • Article 3: Declare the Santa Fe Province nuclear-free zone.

Tierra del Fuego

  • Provincial Constitution
    • Article 56: It is forbidden in the Province. 1 - Conducting tests or nuclear tests of any kind for military purposes. 2 - Generation of energy from nuclear sources. 3 - Introduction and disposal of nuclear, chemical, biological waste or any other type or nature proven to be toxic, hazardous or potentially in the future.[15]

Tucumán

  • Provincial Law, Nº 5253
    • Article 47: It is forbidden in the province: b) Generate energy from nuclear sources.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Atucha-2-reaches-100-percent-rated-power-19021502.html
  2. ^ "Una nueva central nuclear, 30 años después". 2011-09-29. Retrieved 2011-09-29. 
  3. ^ "Canada, Argentina and China to cooperate on Candu projects". World Nuclear News. 2007-09-05. Retrieved 2010-06-20. 
  4. ^ "Russia moves to support Argentina through new debt crisis". Argentina News.Net. Retrieved 13 July 2014. 
  5. ^ "Hualong One selected for Argentina". World Nuclear News. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  6. ^ Charlie Zhu and David Stanway (6 March 2015). "'Made in China' nuclear reactors a tough sell in global market". Reuters. Retrieved 9 March 2015. 
  7. ^ "Argentina resumes uranium enrichment". Nuclear Engineering International. 2 December 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  8. ^ "Argentina-China talks on new nuclear plants". World Nuclear News. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Argentina and China sign contract for two reactors". World Nuclear News. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2017. 
  10. ^ "Stopping Nuclear Plant Construction 'Cancels Part of Argentina's Present and Future". www.larouchepub.com. Retrieved 2018-06-25. 
  11. ^ Cronista.com. "Suspenden la construcción las centrales nucleares financiadas por China 'hasta un mejor momento fiscal'". El Cronista (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-06-25. 
  12. ^ http://www.cienciayenergia.com/Contenido/pdf/020513_rad_tn.pdf
  13. ^ Legislation map
  14. ^ La Pampa Constitution
  15. ^ Tierra del Fuego Constitution
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