Notre-Dame de Paris

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Notre-Dame de Paris
Our Lady of Paris
  • Cathedral of Our Lady of Paris  (English)
  • Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris  (French)
Notre Dame de Paris from pont de la Tournelle, Paris 22 March 2014.jpg
View of the eastern facade from the Seine
48°51′11″N 2°20′59″E / 48.8530°N 2.3498°E / 48.8530; 2.3498Coordinates: 48°51′11″N 2°20′59″E / 48.8530°N 2.3498°E / 48.8530; 2.3498
Location Parvis Notre-Dame – place Jean-Paul-II, Paris, France
Denomination Roman Catholic
Status Cathedral
Functional status Active
Style French Gothic
Groundbreaking 1163 (1163)
Completed 1345 (1345)
Length 128 metres (420 ft)
Width 48 metres (157 ft)
Number of towers 2
Tower height 69 metres (226 ft)
Number of spires 1
Spire height 90 metres (300 ft)
Bells 10
Archdiocese Paris
Archbishop Michel Aupetit
Rector Patrick Jacquin
Dean Patrick Chauvet
Director of music Sylvain Dieudonné[1]
Official name: Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris
Type Cathédrale
Designated 1862[2]
Reference no. PA00086250

Notre-Dame de Paris (French: [nɔtʁə dam də paʁi] (About this sound listen); meaning "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.[3] The cathedral is widely considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture, and it is among the largest and best-known church buildings in the Catholic Church in France, and in the world. The naturalism of its sculptures and stained glass serve to contrast it with earlier Romanesque architecture.

As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame contains the cathedra of the Archbishop of Paris, currently Michel Aupetit. The cathedral treasury contains a reliquary, which houses some of Catholicism's most important relics, including the purported Crown of Thorns, a fragment of the True Cross, and one of the Holy Nails.

In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration in the radical phase of the French Revolution when much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. An extensive restoration supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc began in 1845. A project of further restoration and maintenance began in 1991.


The western facade illuminated at night
The spire and east side of the cathedral
The north rose window is a fine example of Gothic Rayonnant style.

Notre-Dame de Paris was among the first buildings in the world to use the flying buttress. The building was not originally designed to include the flying buttresses around the choir and nave but after the construction began, the thinner walls grew ever higher and stress fractures began to occur as the walls pushed outward. In response, the cathedral's architects built supports around the outside walls, and later additions continued the pattern. The total surface area is 5,500 m² (interior surface 4,800 m²).

Many small individually crafted statues were placed around the outside to serve as column supports and water spouts. Among these are the famous gargoyles, designed for water run-off, and chimeras. The statues were originally colored as was most of the exterior. The paint has worn off. The cathedral was essentially complete by 1345. The cathedral has a narrow climb of 387 steps at the top of several spiral staircases; along the climb it is possible to view its most famous bell and its gargoyles in close quarters, as well as having a spectacular view across Paris when reaching the top.

Contemporary critical reception

John of Jandun recognized the cathedral as one of Paris's three most important buildings [prominent structures] in his 1323 Treatise on the Praises of Paris:

Construction history

In 1160, because the church in Paris had become the "Parish church of the kings of Europe", Bishop Maurice de Sully deemed the previous Paris cathedral, Saint-Étienne (St Stephen's), which had been founded in the 4th century, unworthy of its lofty role, and had it demolished shortly after he assumed the title of Bishop of Paris. As with most foundation myths, this account needs to be taken with a grain of salt; archeological excavations in the 20th century suggested that the Merovingian cathedral replaced by Sully was itself a massive structure, with a five-aisled nave and a façade some 36m across. It is possible therefore that the faults with the previous structure were exaggerated by the Bishop to help justify the rebuilding in a newer style. According to legend, Sully had a vision of a glorious new cathedral for Paris, and sketched it on the ground outside the original church.

To begin the construction, the bishop had several houses demolished and had a new road built to transport materials for the rest of the cathedral. Construction began in 1163 during the reign of Louis VII, and opinion differs as to whether Sully or Pope Alexander III laid the foundation stone of the cathedral. However, both were at the ceremony. Bishop de Sully went on to devote most of his life and wealth to the cathedral's construction. Construction of the choir took from 1163 until around 1177 and the new High Altar was consecrated in 1182 (it was normal practice for the eastern end of a new church to be completed first, so that a temporary wall could be erected at the west of the choir, allowing the chapter to use it without interruption while the rest of the building slowly took shape). After Bishop Maurice de Sully's death in 1196, his successor, Eudes de Sully (no relation) oversaw the completion of the transepts and pressed ahead with the nave, which was nearing completion at the time of his own death in 1208. By this stage, the western facade had also been laid out, though it was not completed until around the mid-1240s.[5]

Numerous architects worked on the site over the period of construction, which is evident from the differing styles at different heights of the west front and towers.[citation needed] Between 1210 and 1220, the fourth architect oversaw the construction of the level with the rose window and the great halls beneath the towers.

The most significant change in design came in the mid 13th century, when the transepts were remodeled in the latest Rayonnant style; in the late 1240s Jean de Chelles added a gabled portal to the north transept topped off by a spectacular rose window. Shortly afterwards (from 1258) Pierre de Montreuil executed a similar scheme on the southern transept. Both these transept portals were richly embellished with sculpture; the south portal features scenes from the lives of St Stephen and of various local saints, while the north portal featured the infancy of Christ and the story of Theophilus in the tympanum, with a highly influential statue of the Virgin and Child in the trumeau.[6]

Timeline of construction

  • 1160 Maurice de Sully (named Bishop of Paris) orders the original cathedral demolished.
  • 1163 Cornerstone laid for Notre-Dame de Paris; construction begins.
  • 1182 Apse and choir completed.
  • 1196 Bishop Maurice de Sully dies.
  • c.1200 Work begins on western facade.
  • 1208 Bishop Eudes de Sully dies. Nave vaults nearing completion.
  • 1225 Western facade completed.
  • 1250 Western towers and north rose window completed.
  • c.1245–1260s Transepts remodelled in the Rayonnant style by Jean de Chelles then Pierre de Montreuil
  • 1250–1345 Remaining elements completed.


The Archaeological Crypt of Notre-Dame de Paris.

The Archaeological Crypt of the Paris Notre-Dame (La crypte archéologique du Parvis de Notre-Dame) was created in 1965 to protect a range of historical ruins, discovered during construction work and spanning from the earliest settlement in Paris to the modern day. The crypts are managed by the Musée Carnavalet and contain a large exhibit, detailed models of the architecture of different time periods, and how they can be viewed within the ruins. The main feature still visible is the under-floor heating installed during the Roman occupation.[7]

Alterations, vandalism, and restorations

In 1548, rioting Huguenots damaged features of Notre-Dame, considering them idolatrous.[8] During the reigns of Louis XIV and Louis XV, the cathedral underwent major alterations as part of an ongoing attempt to modernize cathedrals throughout Europe. A colossal statue of St Christopher, standing against a pillar near the western entrance and dating from 1413, was destroyed in 1786. Tombs and stained glass windows were destroyed. The north and south rose windows were spared this fate, however.

An 1853 photo by Charles Nègre of Henri Le Secq next to Le Stryge

In 1793, during the French Revolution, the cathedral was rededicated to the Cult of Reason, and then to the Cult of the Supreme Being. During this time, many of the treasures of the cathedral were either destroyed or plundered. The 13th century spire was torn down[9] and the statues located at the west facade were beheaded.[10] Many of the heads were found during a 1977 excavation nearby and are on display at the Musée de Cluny. For a time the Goddess of Liberty replaced the Virgin Mary on several altars.[11] The cathedral's great bells managed to avoid being melted down. The cathedral came to be used as a warehouse for the storage of food.[8]

A controversial restoration programme was initiated in 1845, overseen by architects Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. Viollet Le Duc was responsible for the restorations of several dozen castles, palaces and cathedrals across France. The restoration lasted twenty five years[8] and included a taller and more ornate reconstruction of the flèche (a type of spire),[9] as well as the addition of the chimeras on the Galerie des Chimères. Viollet le Duc always signed his work with a bat, the wing structure of which most resembles the Gothic vault (see Château de Roquetaillade).

The Second World War caused more damage. Several of the stained glass windows on the lower tier were hit by stray bullets. These were remade after the war, but now sport a modern geometrical pattern, not the old scenes of the Bible.

In 1991, a major programme of maintenance and restoration was initiated, which was intended to last ten years, but was still in progress as of 2010,[8] the cleaning and restoration of old sculptures being an exceedingly delicate matter. Circa 2014, much of the lighting was upgraded to LED lighting.[12]

Organ and organists

The organ of Notre-Dame de Paris


One of the earliest organs at Notre-Dame, built in 1403 by Friedrich Schambantz, was replaced between 1730-1738 by Francois Thierry. During the restoration of the cathedral by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, Aristide Cavaillé-Coll built a new organ, using pipe work of the former instruments. The organ was dedicated in 1868. In 1904, Charles Mutin modified and added several stops; in 1924, an electric blower was installed. An extensive restoration and cleaning took place in 1932 by Joseph Beuchet. Between 1959 and 1963, the mechanical action with barker machines was replaced by an electric action by Jean Hermann, and a new organ console was installed. During the following years, the stoplist was gradually modified by Robert Boisseau (who added three chamade stops 8', 4', and 2'/16' in 1968) and Jean-Loup Boisseau after 1975, respectively. In fall 1983, the electric combination system was disconnected due to short-circuit risk. Between 1990 and 1992, Jean-Loup Boisseau, Bertrand Cattiaux, Philippe Émeriau, Michel Giroud, and the Société Synaptel throughoutly revised and augmented the instrument. A new console was installed, using the stop knobs, pedal and manual keyboards, foot pistons and balance pedals from the Jean Hermann console. Between 2012 and 2014, Bertrand Cattiaux and Pascal Quoirin restored, cleaned, and modified the organ. The stop and key action was upgraded, a new console was built, (again using the stop keys, pedal board, foot pistons and balance pedals of the 1992 console), a new enclosed division ("Résonnance expressive", using pipework from the former "Petite Pédale" by Boisseau, which now can be used as a floating division), the organ case and the facade pipes were restored, and a general tuning was made. The current organ has 115 stops (156 ranks) on five manuals and pedal, and more than 8,000 pipes.

I. Grand-Orgue
II. Positif
III. Récit
IV. Solo
V. Grand-Chœur
Résonnance expressive

Violon Basse 16
Bourdon 16
Montre 8
Viole de Gambe 8
Flûte harmonique 8
Bourdon 8
Prestant 4
Octave 4
Doublette 2
Fourniture harmonique II-V
Cymbale harmonique II-V
Bombarde 16
Trompette 8
Clairon 4

Chamade 8
Chamade 4

Chamade REC 8
Cornet REC

Montre 16
Bourdon 16
Salicional 8
Flûte harmonique 8
Bourdon 8
Unda maris 8
Prestant 4
Flûte douce 4
Nazard 2 2/3
Doublette 2
Tierce 1 3/5
Fourniture V
Cymbale V
Clarinette basse 16
Clarinette 8
Clarinette aiguë 4

Récit expressif:
Quintaton 16
Diapason 8
Flûte traversière 8
Viole de Gambe 8
Bourdon céleste 8
Voix céleste 8
Octave 4
Flûte Octaviante 4
Quinte 2 2/3
Octavin 2
Bombarde 16
Trompette 8
Basson Hautbois 8
Clarinette 8
Voix humaine 8
Clairon 4

Récit classique:
Cornet V
Hautbois 8

Basse Chamade 8
Dessus Chamade 8
Chamade 4
Chamade Régale 8

Basse Chamade GO 8
Dessus Chamade GO 8
Chamade GO 4


Bourdon 32
Principal 16
Montre 8
Flûte harmonique 8
Quinte 5 1/3
Prestant 4
Tierce 3 1/5
Nazard 2 2/3
Septième 2 2/7
Doublette 2
Cornet II-V
Grande Fourniture II
Fourniture V
Cymbale V
Cromorne 8

Chamade GO 8
Chamade GO 4

Cornet REC
Hautbois REC 8

Principal 8
Bourdon 8 *
Prestant 4 *
Quinte 2 2/3 *
Doublette 2 *
Tierce 1 3/5 *
Larigot 1 1/3
Septième 1 1/7
Piccolo 1
Plein jeu III-V
Cornet V (= *)
Tuba magna 16
Trompette 8
Clairon 4

Principal 32
Contrebasse 16
Soubasse 16
Quinte 10 2/3
Flûte 8
Violoncelle 8
Tierce 6 2/5
Quinte 5 1/3
Septième 4 4/7
Octave 4
Contre Bombarde 32
Bombarde 16
Basson 16
Trompette 8
Basson 8
Clairon 4

Chamade GO 8
Chamade GO 4
Chamade Régale 8
Chamade REC 8
Chamade REC 4

Bourdon 16
Principal 8
Bourdon 8
Prestant 4
Flûte 4
Neuvième 3 5/9
Tierce 3 1/5
Onzième 2 10/11
Nazard 2 2/3
Flûte 2
Tierce 1 3/5
Larigot 1 1/3
Flageolet 1
Fourniture III
Cymbale III
Basson 16
Basson 8
Voix humaine 8


Couplers: II/I, III/I, IV/I, V/I; III/II, IV/II, V/II; IV/III, V/III; V/IV, Octave grave général, inversion Positif/Grand-orgue, Tirasses (Grand-orgue, Positif, Récit, Solo, Grand-Chœur en 8; Grand-Orgue en 4, Positif en 4, Récit en 4, Solo en 4, Grand-Chœur en 4), Sub- und Super octave couplers and Unison Off for all manuals (Octaves graves, octaves aiguës, annulation 8'). Octaves aiguës Pédalier. Additional features: Coupure Pédalier. Coupure Chamade. Appel Résonnance. Sostenuto for all manuals and the pedal. Cancel buttons for each division. 50,000 combinations (5,000 groups each). Replay system.


The position of titular organist ("head" or "chief" organist; French: titulaires des grands orgues) at Notre-Dame is considered one of the most prestigious organist posts in France, along with the post of titular organist of Saint Sulpice in Paris, Cavaillé-Coll's largest instrument.

  • Guillaume Maingot (1600–1609)
  • Jean-Jacques Petitjean (1609–1610)
  • Charles Thibault (1610–1616)
  • Charles Racquet (1618–1643)
  • Jean Racquet (ca. 1643–1689)
  • Médéric Corneille (1689–1730)
  • Guillaume-Antoine Calvière (1730–1755)
  • René Drouard de Bousset (1755–1760)
  • Charles Alexandre Jolage (1755–1761)
  • Louis-Claude Daquin (1755–1772)
  • Armand-Louis Couperin (1755–1789)
  • Claude Balbastre (1760–1793)
  • Pierre-Claude Fouquet (1761–1772)
  • Nicholas Séjan (1772–1793)
  • Claude-Etienne Luce (1772–1783)
  • Jean-Jacques Beauvarlet-Charpentier (1783–1793)
  • Antoine Desprez (1802–1806)
  • M.-S. Blin (1806–1834)
  • Joseph Pollet (1834–1840)
  • Félix Danjou (1840–1847)
  • Eugène Sergent (1847–1900)
  • Louis Vierne (1900–1937)
  • Léonce de Saint-Martin (1937–1954)
  • Pierre Cochereau (1955–1984)
  • Yves Devernay (1985–1990)
  • Jean-Pierre Leguay (1985–2015)
  • Philippe Lefebvre (fr) (since 1985)
  • Olivier Latry (since 1985)
  • Vincent Dubois (since 2016)


The new bell, Marie, ringing in the nave
The new bells of Notre-Dame de Paris Cathedral on public display in the nave in February 2013
The treasure consists of important ornaments of the Fourteenth Century.

The cathedral has 10 bells. The largest, Emmanuel, original to 1681, is located in the south tower and weighs just over 13 tons and is tolled to mark the hours of the day and for various occasions and services. This bell is always rung first, at least 5 seconds before the rest. Until recently, there were four additional 19th-century bells on wheels in the north tower, which were swing chimed. These bells were meant to replace nine which were removed from the cathedral during the Revolution and were rung for various services and festivals. The bells were once rung by hand before electric motors allowed them to be rung without manual labor. When it was discovered that the size of the bells could cause the entire building to vibrate, threatening its structural integrity, they were taken out of use. The bells also had external hammers for tune playing from a small clavier.

On the night of 24 August 1944 as the Île de la Cité was taken by an advance column of French and Allied armoured troops and elements of the Resistance, it was the tolling of the Emmanuel that announced to the city that its liberation was under way.

In early 2012, as part of a €2 million project, the four old bells in the north tower were deemed unsatisfactory and removed. The plan originally was to melt them down and recast new bells from the material. However, a legal challenge resulted in the bells being saved in extremis at the foundry.[13] As of early 2013, they are still merely set aside until their fate is decided. A set of 8 new bells was cast by the same foundry, Cornille-Havard, in Normandy that had cast the four in 1856. At the same time, a much larger bell called Marie was cast in Asten, Netherlands by Royal Eijsbouts — it now hangs with Emmanuel in the south tower. The 9 new bells, which were delivered to the cathedral at the same time (31 January 2013),[14] are designed to replicate the quality and tone of the cathedral's original bells.

Bells of Notre-Dame de Paris[15]
Name Mass Diameter Note
Emmanuel 13271 kg 261 cm F2
Marie 6023 kg 206.5 cm G2
Gabriel 4162 kg 182.8 cm A2
Anne Geneviève 3477 kg 172.5 cm B2
Denis 2502 kg 153.6 cm C3
Marcel 1925 kg 139.3 cm D3
Étienne 1494 kg 126.7 cm E3
Benoît-Joseph 1309 kg 120.7 cm F3
Maurice 1011 kg 109.7 cm G3
Jean-Marie 782 kg 99.7 cm A3


Under a 1905 law, Notre-Dame de Paris is among seventy churches in Paris built before that year that are owned by the French State. While the building itself is owned by the state, the Catholic Church is the designated beneficiary, having the exclusive right to use it for religious purpose in perpetuity. The archdiocese is responsible for paying the employees, security, heating and cleaning, and assuring that the cathedral is open free to visitors. The archdiocese does not receive subsidies from the French State.[16]

Significant events

The coronation of Napoleon I, on 2 December 1804 at Notre-Dame, as portrayed in the 1807 painting The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David
  • 2 December 1804: the coronation ceremony of Napoleon I and his wife Joséphine, with Pope Pius VII officiating.
  • 1831: The novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame was published by French author Victor Hugo.
  • 1900: Louis Vierne is appointed organist of Notre-Dame de Paris after a heavy competition (with judges including Charles-Marie Widor) against the 500 most talented organ players of the era. On 2 June 1937 Louis Vierne dies at the cathedral organ (as was his lifelong wish) near the end of his 1750th concert.
  • 11 February 1931: Antonieta Rivas Mercado shot herself at the altar with a pistol that was the property of her lover Jose Vasconcelos. She died instantly.
  • 26 August 1944: The Te Deum Mass takes place in the cathedral to celebrate the liberation of Paris. (According to some accounts the Mass was interrupted by sniper fire from both the internal and external galleries.)
  • 12 November 1970: The Requiem Mass of General Charles de Gaulle is held.
  • 26 June 1971: Philippe Petit surreptitiously strings a wire between the two towers of Notre-Dame and tight-rope walks across it. Petit later performed a similar act between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center.
  • 31 May 1980: After the Magnificat of this day, Pope John Paul II celebrates Mass on the parvis of the cathedral.
  • January 1996: The Requiem Mass of François Mitterrand is held.
  • 10 August 2007: The Requiem Mass of Cardinal Jean-Marie Lustiger, former Archbishop of Paris and famous Jewish convert to Catholicism, is held.
  • 12 December 2012:The Notre-Dame Cathedral begins a year long celebration of the 850th anniversary of the laying of the first building block for the cathedral.[20]
  • 21 May 2013: Around 1,500 visitors were evacuated from Notre-Dame Cathedral after Dominique Venner, a historian, placed a letter on the Church altar and shot himself. He died immediately.[21][22]
  • 8 September 2016: Notre Dame Cathedral bombing attempt. Arrests made after an explosives-filled car was discovered parked alongside the cathedral.
  • 10 February 2017 Police arrested 4 people in Montpellier, France, including a 16-year-old girl and a 20-year-old man already known by authorities to have ties to extremist Islamist organizations, on charges of plotting to travel to Paris and attack the cathedral.[23]

The cathedral is renowned for its Lent sermons founded by the famous Dominican Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire in the 1860s. In recent years, however, an increasing number have been given by leading public figures and state employed academics.


See also


  1. ^ Les chefs de chœurs & organistes de Notre-Dame de Paris (Choir directors & organists)
  2. ^ Mérimée database 1993
  3. ^ Notre Dame, meaning "Our Lady" in French, is frequently used in the names of churches including the cathedrals of Chartres, Rheims and Rouen.
  4. ^ Erik Inglis, "Gothic Architecture and a Scholastic: Jean de Jandun's Tractatus de laudibus Parisius (1323)," Gesta, XLII/1 (2003), 63–85.
  5. ^ Caroline Bruzelius, The Construction of Notre-Dame in Paris, in The Art Bulletin, Vol. 69, No. 69 (Dec. 1987), pp. 540–569.
  6. ^ Paul Williamson (10 April 1995). Gothic Sculpture, 1140–1300. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-030006-338-7. 
  7. ^ Crypte archéologique du parvis Notre-Dame website Retrieved 15 June 2012.
  8. ^ a b c d Jason Chavis. "Facts on the Notre Dame Cathedral in France". USA Today. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  9. ^ a b[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ "Visiting the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris: Attractions, Tips & Tours". planetware. Retrieved 21 April 2017. 
  11. ^ James A. Herrick, The Making of the New Spirituality, InterVarsity Press, 2004 ISBN 0-8308-3279-3, p. 75-76
  12. ^ Metcalfe, John. "Notre Dame Cathedral Just Got an LED Makeover." The Atlantic Cities. The Atlantic Monthly Group, 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
  13. ^ "Le Figaro article from 9 November 2012 (in French)". Le Figaro. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  14. ^ "Les Neuf Cloches Geantes Sont Arrivees A Notre Dame De Paris". L'Express (in French). 31 January 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  15. ^ Sonnerie des nouvelles cloches de Notre-Dame de Paris Archived 28 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (
  16. ^ Communique of the Press and Communication Service of the Cathedral of Notre-Dame-de-Paris, November 2014.
  17. ^ Jean-Baptiste Lebigue, "L'ordo du sacre d'Henri VI à Notre-Dame de Paris (16 décembre 1431)", Notre-Dame de Paris 1163–2013, ed. Cédric Giraud, Turnhout : Brepols, 2013, p. 319-363. Archived 4 April 2014 at
  18. ^ Hiatt, Charles, Notre Dame de Paris: a short history & description of the cathedral, (George Bell & Sons, 1902), 12.
  19. ^ Daniel Stone (2001). The Polish–Lithuanian State, 1386–1795. Warsaw: University of Washington Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-295-98093-1. Retrieved 23 July 2008. 
  20. ^ "Paris's Notre Dame cathedral celebrates 850 years". GIE ATOUT FRANCE. Retrieved 7 January 2015. 
  21. ^ "Notre-Dame Cathedral evacuated after man commits suicide". Fox News Channel. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  22. ^ Frémont, Anne-Laure. "Un historien d'extrême droite se suicide à Notre-Dame". Le Figaro (in French). Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  23. ^ McAuley, James (10 February 2016). "After Louvre attack, France foils another terrorist plot". Washington Post. Retrieved 14 February 2017. 


  • Bruzelius, Caroline. "The Construction of Notre-Dame in Paris." Art Bulletin (1987): 540–569 in JSTOR.
  • Davis, Michael T. "Splendor and Peril: The Cathedral of Paris, 1290–1350." The Art Bulletin (1998) 80#1 pp: 34–66.
  • Jacobs, Jay, ed. The Horizon Book of Great Cathedrals. New York City: American Heritage Publishing, 1968
  • Janson, H.W. History of Art. 3rd Edition. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1986
  • Myers, Bernard S. Art and Civilization. New York City: McGraw-Hill, 1957
  • Michelin Travel Publications. The Green Guide Paris. Hertfordshire, UK: Michelin Travel Publications, 2003
  • Temko, Allan. Notre-Dame of Paris (Viking Press, 1955)
  • Tonazzi, Pascal. Florilège de Notre-Dame de Paris (anthologie), Editions Arléa, Paris, 2007, ISBN 2-86959-795-9
  • Wright, Craig. Music and ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris, 500–1550 (Cambridge University Press, 2008)

External links

  • "Monument historique – PA00086250". Mérimée database of Monuments Historiques (in French). France: Ministère de la Culture. 1993. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  • Official website of Notre-Dame de Paris (in French) (in English)
  • List of Facts about the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris
  • Notre-Dame de Paris's Singers
  • Official site of Music at Notre-Dame de Paris
  • Panoramic view
  • Further information on the Organ with specifications of the Grandes Orgues and the Orgue de Choeur
  • Photos: Notre-Dame de Paris - The Gothic Cathedral, Flickr
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