Raqqa offensive (2016–present)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Raqqa offensive (November 2016–present)
Part of the Syrian Civil War,
the Syrian Kurdish–Islamist conflict (2013–present), and
the American-led intervention in Syria
Northern Raqqa Offensive (November 2016).svg
Map showing the SDF advances
Date 6 November 2016 – present
(3 months, 2 weeks and 6 days)
Location Raqqa Governorate, Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Syria
35°57′00″N 39°01′00″E / 35.9500°N 39.0167°E / 35.9500; 39.0167Coordinates: 35°57′00″N 39°01′00″E / 35.9500°N 39.0167°E / 35.9500; 39.0167
Status

Ongoing

  • The SDF capture more than 236 villages, hamlets and strategic hills, two water and power stations[8][9]
  • The SDF, after latest advances, are now at a distance of 5 km from the ISIL capital city of Ar-Raqqah[10]
Territorial
changes
The SDF capture more than 3,200 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) of territory from ISIL during the first and second phases of the offensive[11][12]
Belligerents

Syrian Democratic Forces
Self Defence Forces (HXP)[1]
Leftist/Anarchist volunteers[a]
CJTF–OIR


 Russia[7]
 Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Commanders and leaders

Rojda Felat[13]
(leading YPJ commander)[14][15]
Kino Gabriel[16]
(MFS commander)
Syrian opposition Fayad Ghanim[17]
(Raqqa Hawks Brigade commander)
Abu Issa
(Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa chief commander)
Syrian opposition Muhedi Jayila[18]
(Elite Forces commander)
Bandar al-Humaydi[16]
(Al-Sanadid Forces military chief commander)
Siyamend Welat[19]
(HXP chief commander)
United States Lt. Gen. Stephen J. Townsend
(CJTF–OIR chief commander)

For other anti-ISIL commanders, see order of battle

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (WIA)[20][21]
(Leader of ISIL)
Abu Jandal al-Kuwaiti [22]
(leading ISIL commander for Raqqa defenses, c. 11–26 December)[23]
Abu Saraqeb al-Maghribi[24]
(Head of security in Al-Thawrah)
Abu Jandal al-Masri[24]
(Chief of Information in Raqqa)
Abu Muhammad al-Jazrawi[24]
(Chief of Hisba)
Mahmoud al-Isawi [25]
(ISIL proganganda chief)
Abd al-Basit al-Iraqi [26]
(ISIL commander of Middle East external networks)
Zainuri Kamaruddin [27]
(Katibah Nusantara commander)

For other ISIL commanders, see order of battle
Units involved
See anti-ISIL forces order of battle See ISIL order of battle
Strength

30,000+ SDF fighters[28][29] (70% Arab acc. to the SDF)[30]

500 HXP volunteers[1]
United States 500 American special forces (support role)[39]


Russia Several Tupolev Tu-95 bombers[7]

"Tens of thousands of fighters"[33] (estimate by Western SDF volunteers)

Unknown number of UAVs (drones)[44]
Casualties and losses

112+ killed[45][c]

1 killed[49]
United States 1 killed[50]


232+ killed, 30+ wounded, 15 armored vehicles lost (ISIL claim)[51][52][23]
569 killed and 18 captured[53] (SDF claim)
62 civilians killed[54]
5,000+ displaced[55]

The Raqqa offensive (codenamed Operation Wrath of Euphrates), is an ongoing military operation launched by the Syrian Democratic Forces against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Raqqa Governorate, with the goal of isolating and eventually capturing the Islamic State's capital city, Raqqa.

The offensive is concurrent with the Turkish anti-ISIL Battle of al-Bab, the Iraqi Battle of Mosul in Iraq, the Battle of Sirte (2016) in Libya, and the Palmyra offensive (December 2016) launched by ISIL.

Background

In late October 2016, the United States Secretary of Defense Ash Carter called for an offensive on Raqqa to take place concurrent with the Battle of Mosul in Iraq. He stated that the US was cooperating with its allies in order to launch an "isolation operation" around Raqqa. On 26 October, the President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called the President of the United States Barack Obama and stated that he did not want the People's Protection Units (YPG) to participate in the planned operation, and instead planned to involve the Turkish Armed Forces. The United Kingdom's Secretary of State for Defence Michael Fallon rejected the idea of non-Arab forces taking part in the offensive and demanded a purely Arab force.[56]

On the same day, the commander of the Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve Lt. Gen. Stephen J. Townsend stressed that the YPG-led Syrian Democratic Forces was the only armed group capable of capturing Raqqa in the near future. Fewer US-led coalition troops were to be involved than in the Battle of Mosul.[57] On 3 November, the commander of the Seljuk Brigade and SDF spokesman Col. Talal Silo rejected the participation of Turkey in the operation.[58]

Announcement

The SDF officially announced the start of the operation on 6 November in the village of Ayn Issa.[59] The intention was to proceed in two phases, first seizing areas around Raqqa and isolating the city, advancing from three fronts, then taking control of the city itself.[60] The SDF general command called for the international coalition against ISIL to support the operation.[61] In response, Ash Carter welcomed the announcement and emphasized the importance of capturing Raqqa and defeating ISIL, while cautioning that "there is hard work ahead".[62]

The offensive

Phase One: isolating Raqqa from its northern hinterland

Tal Saman, ISIL headquarters in the northern Raqqa countryside, after being captured by the SDF.

On 6 November, the SDF captured six small villages,[28] including the villages of Wahid, Umm Safa, Wasita, Haran, al-Adriyah and Jurah south and southeast of Ayn Issa.[63] The Islamic State detonated four car bombs on the first day of the offensive.[64]

On 8 November, the SDF reported that they had taken control of 11 villages near Ain Issa. The SDF also claimed that ISIL used several car bombs against their forces.[65] By 11 November, the SDF had captured over a dozen villages and the strategically significant town of Al-Hisbah, which had served as a local headquarters and command center for ISIL.[66] On the next day, the SDF continued to advance against ISIL in the area around Tal Saman and Khnez, bringing the number of captured farms and villages to 26.[67]

As of 14 November, the SDF reported the completion of the initial phase of the operations, stating that 500 km2 has been captured: 34 villages, 31 hamlets and seven strategic hills, along with 167 Islamic State casualties.[16] The SDF had also begun to besiege Tal Saman, the largest village and ISIL headquarters north of Raqqa,[68] while ISIL launched a counter-attack near Salok in the eastern countryside of Raqqa Governorate in order to force the SDF to split its forces and open a new front.[69] On the next day, the SDF advanced into Tal Saman, resulting in a fierce battle with its ISIL defenders.[70] At the same time, the SDF also captured 10 more villages and farms.[71][72] By 19 November, the SDF had fully captured Tal Saman and had driven ISIL completely from the surrounding countryside.[73][74] With this, the first phase of the offensive was considered completed.[75]

Stalemate and preparation for the second phase

A United States Air Force airstrike on an ISIL position to the north of Raqqa

The second phase of the offensive aimed to enforce a full blockade of the city of Raqqa.[75] On 21 November, the SDF captured two more villages,[76] while ISIL launched a counter-attack near Tal Saman.[77] Over the next days, the SDF attempted to further advance, such as at al-Qalita,[78] but was unable to break through ISIL's defense line south of Tal Saman.[79] On 24 November, a US serviceman died from wounds he suffered when stepping on an improvised explosive device near the town of Ayn Issa, north of Raqqa.[80]

On 25 November, ISIL received reinforcements from Iraq, among them explosive experts and defected Iraqi Army personnel.[81] On the next day, ISIL launched a counter-attack, retaking parts of Qaltah village and a nearby water pump station, while the SDF managed to advance in the village's vicinity.[82][83] Boubaker Al-Hakim, an ISIL commander who was linked to the Charlie Hebdo shooting, was killed in an American airstrike at Raqqa on 26 November.[84][85]

On 27 November, the SDF announced the offensive's second phase was due to start,[86] though this was then delayed. At least five SDF fighters were killed in renewed clashes north of Raqqa on 29 November.[87] Meanwhile, ISIL suffered from the defection of two senior commanders, who fled from Raqqa to join Jabhat Fateh al-Sham in Idlib.[88] On 4 December, a coalition drone strike in Raqqa killed two ISIL leaders who had helped facilitate the November 2015 Paris attacks and another who was involved in a foiled suicide attack in Belgium in 2015.[84][89] Three days later, co-Chair of the Democratic Union Party (PYD) Salih Muslim said that the first phase to surround Raqqa was almost over, while a new Arab brigade consisting of more than 1,000 men and women from the al-Raqqa area had joined the SDF as part of the second phase which was slated to be launched on 10 December.[90] More than 1,500 Arab fighters who were trained and equipped by the anti-ISIL coalition joined the SDF for the second phase on its launch day.[91]

Phase Two: isolation of Raqqa from its western countryside

Initial advances

SDF fighters advance northwest of Raqqa after the start of the offensive's second phase.

The SDF launched the second phase on 10 December, with the aim of capturing the northwestern and western countrysides of al-Raqqa and ultimately reaching and securing the Tabqa Dam. The same day, it was announced that Arab SDF groups, consisting of the Elite Forces, Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa and the newly formed Deir Ezzor Military Council would be taking part. During the first day, the SDF began to advance south of the Tishrin Dam and captured al-Kiradi village.[92][93] The United States announced that it would send 200 more troops to assist the SDF.[39] The next day, the SDF captured seven more villages from ISIL.[94][95] On 12 December, the SDF captured four villages as well as many hamlets south of Tishrin Dam.[96][97][95] The SDF captured five villages during the next two days.[98][99][100] On 15 December, the SDF captured three villages, taking the total number of villages captured by them in the second phase to 20.[101]

Over the next four days, the SDF captured 20 more villages, while finally reaching Lake Assad's shore, thereby cutting off and besieging 54 ISIL-held villages to the west. In response to these territorial losses, ISIL began to carry out more suicide attacks against both the SDF as well as civilian targets within SDF-controlled areas in an attempt to hinder the offensive.[102][103][104][105][106] On 19 December, ISIL launched a counter-attack to regain four villages in the northwestern countryside,[107] but the attack was repelled after a few hours.[108] The following night, ISIL forces retreated largely unopposed from the besieged 54 villages, leaving them to be captured by the SDF.[109][110] The SDF declared that they had captured 97 villages overall during the second phase, and had begun to advance against Qal'at Ja'bar.[111]

Battle of Jabar

On 21 December, the SDF seized five villages near Qal'at Ja'bar, including Jabar,[110] which served as the main weaponry storage and supply centre for ISIL in the northwestern countryside.[112] The coalition then began to move toward Suwaydiya Saghirah and Suwaydiya Kabir, the last villages before Tabqa Dam.[110][113][114] Even though an ISIL counter-attack managed to retake Jabar village soon after,[115] the SDF attacked again on 23 December, and once again took control of it, while also capturing another village.[116][117] This prompted ISIL to launch yet another counter-attack later that day, which was accompanied by several suicide car bombs.[118][119][120] As result, heavy clashes took place between them and SDF fighters in several villages along the frontline that lasted until early morning of 24 December. The ISIL forces were eventually forced to withdraw after the SDF first shelled and then stormed their positions, whereupon the latter took control of most of Jabar as well as two more villages,[121][122][123] though some ISIL holdouts persisted in Jabar.[112] ISIL was pushed out of the neighboring, strategic village of Eastern Jabar on the next day, bringing SDF within 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) of Tabqa Dam,[124][125] and by 26 December, the SDF had finally fully secured the main Jabar village, with the last ISIL defenders being expelled after heavy fighting.[112] An ISIL counterattack on the village later that day failed,[23][126] with a US airstrike killing Abu Jandal al-Kuwaiti as he commanded the assault. Al-Kuwaiti, also known as Abdulmuhsin al-Zaghelan al-Tarish, was a high-ranking ISIL commander leading the defense of the whole Raqqa region against the SDF.[23][22] Meanwhile, the Amaq News Agency declared that Iman Na'im Tandil (nom de guerre: Abu 'Umar Al-Hindi), one of the few Indian ISIL fighters active in Syria, had also been killed during the fighting near Jabar. The Islamic State's official media wing later also officially paid tribute to Iman.[127]

Battle for Jabar's surroundings, attack on Al-Tabqa Dam and further SDF advances in the north

A YPG BMP, loaded on a truck, being transported to the frontline near Mahmudli on 4 January.

On 27 December, ISIL launched an attack on the village of Secol in the northern countryside, reportedly breaching the local SDF defences.[128] On the next day, the SDF reportedly captured Hadaj village after two days of heavy fighting, while another ISIL counter-attack against Jabar was repelled.[129] Mahmud al-Isawi, a senior ISIL facilitator who was also a manager of instructions and finances for the group's leaders as well as a provider of propaganda and intelligence support, was killed on 31 December in a US-led coalition airstrike on Raqqa.[130] After three days of heavy fighting, the SDF captured all or most of Mahmudli, the largest town of Al-Jarniyah Subdistrict, on 1 January 2017. ISIL counterattacked later in an attempt to regain the town.[131][132] The SDF leadership said that in the clashes since the launch of the second phase they had captured 110 villages, killed 277 ISIL fighters, and captured 13.[133]

Also on January 1, the SDF resumed its offensive on the northern front, reportedly advancing 6 km south of Tal Saman against ISIL positions.[9][134] The SDF reportedly captured nine more villages in this area in course of the next three days.[135][136][137][138][139] Meanwhile, with the SDF edging closer to Raqqa, ISIL further restricted Internet access and increased surveillance over Internet users in Raqqa. There were harsh punishments for accessing anti-ISIL websites, with a new special unit within the ISIL's security office searching for offenders. Several online activists in Raqqa were captured and tortured or executed.[140] Another two villages and hamlets were captured by the SDF on 5 January.[141]

SDF fighters examine Qal'at Ja'bar. ISIL had built tunnels and weapons depots into the medieval castle.[142]

The SDF captured Qal'at Ja'bar (Ja'bar Castle) from ISIL on 6 January.[143][144] The same day, ISIL was reported to have moved its 150 prisoners from Tabqa city due to the offensive.[145] The SDF later captured eight villages and five hamlets at the Ayn Issa front.[146] On 7 January, the SDF captured five villages including the strategic Suwaydiya Gharbi[147][148] and Suwaydiya Saghirah, reaching the outskirts of Tabqa Dam.[149] ISIL reportedly recaptured Suwaydiya Saghirah by the next day after a counterattack, while a local leader of the group was killed in clashes.[150] Meanwhile, ISIL was reported to have withdrawn 150 of its fighters towards Raqqa city.[151] On 9 January, SDF captured another village along with three hamlets.[152]

On 10 January, ISIL launched a large-scale counter-attack at the Jabar frontline and reportedly recaptured several sites;[153] with pro-Free Syrian Army sources claiming Qal'at Ja'bar and the village of Jabar were among these.[154] ISIL consequently released photos of dead SDF fighters, while claiming that over 70 of them had been killed in the counter-attack.[155] However, the SDF was reported to still be in control of Jabar village and Qalat Jabar a few days later.[156][157]

An ISIL attack on Jib Shair village, trying to resist SDF advances from the north, was repelled on the next day, after which the SDF advanced and captured six hamlets around it.[158] The SDF later announced that their forces advancing from the Ayn Issa front and on the Qadiriya front linked up in Kurmanju village after capturing several villages over the past few days,[159] besieging a large pocket of about 45 villages and 20 hamlets.[160] All of them were captured by the next day, resulting in the alliance gaining about 460 square kilometres (180 sq mi) of land.[161] Another village was captured by the SDF on 13 January.[162][163] On 15 January, the SDF progressed to Suwaydiya Kabir village,[164] while ISIL launched a large-scale counter-attack against Mahmudli and a nearby village, resulting in clashes within these settlements.[165] The attack was repelled after several hours of fighting.[166] The SDF captured three villages during the day,[167] while Suwaydiya Saghirah was also reported to be under its control again.[168] On 17 January 2017, 28 Arab tribes from Raqqa announced their support for the offensive and encouraged locals to join the SDF.[169][170]

The SDF attacked Suwaydiya Kabir on the next day, leading to heavy clashes in the village.[171] Meanwhile, it was announced that about 2,500 local fighters had joined the offensive since it began.[172] On 19 January, ISIL launched a counter-attack against Suwaydiya Saghirah, supported by mortars and heavy machine guns, killing or wounding several YPG fighters.[173][174] Despite this, the SDF made further progress on the next day, capturing a village and advancing against many other ISIL-held villages.[175] The SDF again attacked Suwaydiya Kabir on 20 January, reaching the outskirts of the village, and captured it on 22 January after heavy clashes, with the support of U.S. special forces.[176][177]

On 23 January, the SDF began to advance on the Tabqa Dam, spurring ISIL to open its turbines to raise the Euphrates' water levels, which was seen as an attempt to hinder the progress of the Kurdish-led forces and a scare tactic.[178] Coinciding with this, pro-SDF sources reported that US special forces and SDF units had launched a raid against Al-Thawrah across the river with unknown results.[179]

Over the next three days, ISIL repeatedly launched fierce counter-attacks against SDF positions in the western and northern countryside.[180][181][182] ISIL managed to retake ground in the area around the dam,[183] but the attack was later repelled.[184]

Preparation for the third phase

An SDF IAG Guardian armoured personnel carrier in February 2017, one of several APCs that were supplied by the United States to the SDF.

On 31 January 2017, the SDF received a number of armoured personnel carriers supplied by the US. The SDF spokesman stated that preparations for a new phase of the operation were continuing and the operation will begin in "a few days". The next phase will reportedly involve capturing the road between Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor.[185] Meanwhile, the leader of the SDF-aligned Syria's Tomorrow Movement and its paramilitary wing, Ahmad Jarba, announced that 3,000 Arab fighters under his command were training with US special forces to be deployed in the battle for Raqqa against ISIL.[36]

In the night of 2–3 February, intense CJTF–OIR airstrikes targeted several bridges in or near Raqqa city, destroying them as well as the local water pipelines, leaving the city without drinking water. Meanwhile, the SDF advanced against the village of Qaltah in the northern countryside,[186] which the coalition had already unsuccessfully attacked in November.[82] ISIL maintenance crews managed to fix the pipelines during 3 February, restoring Raqqa's water supply.[187][188] On 3 February, 251 Arab fighters in Hasaka completed their training and joined the SDF.[189]

Phase Three: Isolating Raqqa from its eastern countryside

On 4 February, the SDF announced the offensive's third phase, aiming at conquering Raqqa's eastern countryside, though operations in the west and north would continue simultaneously.[190] The SDF captured a village and three hamlets to the northeast of Raqqa later that day, with clashes being reported at al-Qaltah and Bir Said.[191] On the next day, the Kurdish-led forces captured another two villages along with a hamlet and two farms, and besieged Bir Said,[192][193] while especially intense airstrikes hit several ISIL targets in Al-Thawrah.[194] Bir Said, along with another village, was eventually captured by the SDF on 6 February.[195][196][197] In addition to these villages, the SDF also captured another five villages on two fronts.[198] The SDF made further progress, capturing three more villages on 7 February.[199]

YPG and YPJ fighters in combat.

As these advances continued, ISIL responded by launching several unsuccessful counter-attacks against Suwaydiya Kabir and other strategic territories captured by SDF.[200][201] On 8 and 9 February, the SDF further advanced at the northern and northeastern frontline, capturing several villages and besieging Mizella, a major strategic ISIL stronghold in the northern countryside. The advance put them within 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) of Raqqa.[202][203][204][205][206] The SDF captured Mizella on the next day.[30][207] The two fronts of the alliance converged on 11 February as it also captured two villages and wheat silos to the north of Raqqa during the day;[208][209] the next day, the SDF attempted to cross the Balikh River northeast of Raqqa, leading to heavy fighting with local ISIL defenders.[210] On 12 February, a large-scale counter-attack by ISIL reportedly succeeded in retaking Suwaydiya Kabir and four other nearby villages.[211][212] However, pro-YPG sources denied these reports.[213] Another counterattack was carried out by ISIL to the northeast of Raqqa where the SDF had advanced to, leading to heavy clashes between both sides.[214] Clashes continued over the next few days.[215] On 16 February, 165 more SDF fighters joined the offensive.[216]

On 17 February 2017, the SDF announced the launch of the second stage of the third phase, aimed at capturing the eastern countryside of Raqqa near Deir ez-Zor, with the Deir Ezzor Military Council leading the operation.[217] On the same day the SDF captured two villages from ISIL to the north of Deir ez-Zor and came within 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) of the northeast of Raqqa,[218] while the Russian Air Force conducted airstrikes on ISIL forces in Raqqa city for the second time since its entry into the war.[7] The next day, the SDF captured another village to the southwest of the Makman front (north of Deir ez-Zor) as well as another near Raqqa.[219][220] On 18 February the SDF stormed a prison a few kilometres northeast of Raqqah, freeing some of the inmates.[221] They later captured three villages in Deir ez-Zor's northern countryside.[222] On the next day, they captured five villages to the east of Raqqa.[223] On 20 February, they captured four villages in the Makmen front including the strategic Sebah al-Xêr as well as a base station of Syriatel. They also cut off the road between Makman and Raqqa, besieging three ISIL-held villages.[224][225][226][227]

On 21 February, SDF captured two villages on the Makman front and another near Raqqa.[228][229][230] ISIL later again assaulted Suwaydiya Kabir, attacking it from three fronts and leading to heavy fighting around it.[231] Later, SDF reportedly reached the northern bank of Euphrates in east of Raqqa after capturing five villages as well as grain silos.[232] SDF continued advancing in east of Raqqa, capturing three villages its two fronts of Makman and Bir Hebe meeting each other. A YPJ commander declared that SDF had cut the road to Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor.[233][234][235] SDF also stated that it had entered Deir ez-Zor Governorate for the first time in the offensive.[236] On the next day, they captured six villages and sixteen hamlets.[237]

On 24 February, they captured four villages in the Makman front and another three in a fourth front to the northeast of Deir ez-Zor.[238][239] Later, they captured the strategic Abu Khashab village later on 24 February.[240] On 25 February, they captured another 3 villages in the fourth front.[241]

Civil administration of SDF captured territory

On 14 November, the SDF's civilian sister institution, the Syrian Democratic Council (SDC), started working on the establishment of a civilian administration to run the city of Raqqa after the expulsion of Islamic State. SDC co-chair Îlham Ehmed was quoted saying that "such an administration could provide a good example for democratic change in Raqqa, especially that the city has been for years a de facto capital for the ISIS terrorist group. This accomplishment would be a major change in the overall situation in Syria, and would help the country move towards stability, democratic change. Raqqa will be an example for the whole country."[242]

On 8 December, Col. John Dorrian, the Operation Inherent Resolve spokesman, stated that "a governance structure representative of the local population" similar to that in Manbij is planned for Raqqa.[243] On 10 December, Cihan Shekh Ehmed, the spokesman of the SDF-led operation, said that Raqqa would be run by a local elected civilian council after it was liberated.[91]

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Most Leftist Western volunteers fight as part of the YPG,[2] though some have also formed an independent unit, the Antifascist International Tabur,[3] or joined the International Freedom Battalion. The latter is a larger unit, mostly composed of Kurdish and Turkish communists.[4]
  2. ^ 1,500 volunteers from villages captured by the SDF during phase one;[38] 1,000 volunteers from villages captured during phase two,[11] 750 volunteers from villages captured during phase three[19]
  3. ^ According to SOHR, 8 SDF casualties were Western volunteers; among these were 4 Americans (one of which fought for the MFS), 1 British, 1 Canadian, and 1 German.[46] ARA News, on the other side, reported that only 5 Western volunteers had been killed.[47]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b J.O (5 February 2017). "Self-defense fighters join Wrath of Euphrates". Hawar News Agency. 
  2. ^ Harp (2017), pp. 43-49.
  3. ^ Harp (2017), p. 49.
  4. ^ Sinan Deniz (13 November 2016). "'Raqqa's fall will bring the end of Erdoğan'". ANF News. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  5. ^ Sirwan Kajjo (21 December 2016). "Kurdish-Arab Forces in Syria Make Gains in Raqqa Province". Voice of America. 
  6. ^ Steven Swinford (25 December 2016). "Operation Raqqa: British RAF pilots to switch bombing raids to 'the heart' of Isil". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 16 January 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c Hozan Mamo (18 February 2017). "Russia bombs ISIS positions in Raqqa". ARA News. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
  8. ^ قوات سوريا الديمقراطية تحرز تقدماً جديداً وترفع إلى 48 عدد القرى والمزارع المسيطر عليها
  9. ^ a b "Wrath of Euphrates progressing, 110 villages liberated till now". Hawar News Agency. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  10. ^ Antonopoulos, Paul (10 February 2017). "Video: Kurdish-led forces only 5km from the ISIS capital of Raqqa after rapid offensive". 
  11. ^ a b c "SDF: 2480 square kilometers liberated during Phase II of Raqqa Campaign". YPG Rojava. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "Islamic State replaces Syrian officials by foreign jihadists in Raqqa".  First phase: 560 km² captured
  13. ^ "SDF commander: The Ayn Issa front advanced to Raqqa by 10km". Hawar News Agency. 6 November 2016. 
  14. ^ Enwer Omar (26 December 2016). "Kurdish female fighters playing key role in battle for Raqqa". ARA News. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  15. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates Operations Room, commandant Rojda Felat, Northern Raqqa". YPG. 10 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  16. ^ a b c "550 km2 liberated, Wrath of Euphrates reveals outcomes". Hawar News Agency. 14 November 2016. 
  17. ^ "A military commander" we will besiege gangs on all sides"". Hawar News Agency. 7 November 2016. 
  18. ^ Heysem Haci (5 February 2017). "More Arab fighters join Kurdish-led SDF in fight for Raqqa". ARA News. 
  19. ^ a b "Wrath of Euphrates: campaign successfully advances, 98 villages, hamlets liberated". Hawar News Agency. 12 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017. 
  20. ^ Correspondent, Barbara Starr, CNN Pentagon. "US aware of recent Baghdadi movements". 
  21. ^ "Iraqi airstrikes hit ISIS leaders, al-Baghdadi's fate unknown". ARA News. 14 February 2017. 
  22. ^ a b Sadredin Kino (27 December 2016). "ISIS commander of Raqqa killed in US airstrike". ARA News. 
  23. ^ a b c d "U.S.-backed force in Syria advances towards IS-held dam". Reuters. 27 December 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  24. ^ a b c Haytham Mustafa (31 December 2016). "Islamic State replaces Syrian officials by foreign jihadists in Raqqa". ARA News. Retrieved 31 December 2016. 
  25. ^ "US airstrike kills ISIS propaganda chief in Raqqa". ARA News. Retrieved 7 January 2017. 
  26. ^ Thomas Joscelyn (17 November 2016). "US-led coalition killed emir of Islamic State's 'Middle East external networks'". The Long War Journal. Retrieved 17 November 2016. 
  27. ^ Amy Chew (15 January 2017). "Three Malaysian ISIS jihadists killed in Raqqa airstrike". Channel NewsAsia. 
  28. ^ a b Tomson, Chris (6 November 2016). "Kurdish forces capture first batch of villages from ISIS in campaign to liberate Raqqa". Retrieved 8 November 2016. 
  29. ^ 30,000 militants to isolate Raqqa city from its northern countryside
  30. ^ a b Enwer Omar (12 February 2017). "Syrian Democratic Forces seize more ground east Raqqa amid ISIS retreat". ARA News. Retrieved 12 February 2017. 
  31. ^ "Rebel force targets IS 'capital' Raqqa". Zaman Alwsl. 6 November 2016. 
  32. ^ "Syrian Arab women battle IS, social stigma". Zaman Alwsl. 10 January 2017. 
  33. ^ a b Harp (2017), p. 44.
  34. ^ "Syrian rebels announce offensive to retake Raqqa". Al Jazeera. 6 November 2016. 
  35. ^ "Shams al-Shamal fighters participating in Wrath of Euphrates". Hawar News Agency. 2 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  36. ^ a b "3,000 Arab fighters to be deployed under SDF banner for Raqqa battle". Rudaw. 2 February 2017. 
  37. ^ "Al-Sanadid Forces join the Operation Wrath of Euphrates". ANF News. 14 November 2016. 
  38. ^ "Another group of liberated villages citizens joined SDF". Hawar News Agency. 12 January 2017. 
  39. ^ a b "US to deploy 200 more troops for Raqqa offensive". Al Jazeera. 10 December 2016. 
  40. ^ a b Jeff Seldin (27 January 2017). "Islamic State Losing Ground, Still Using Key Supply Routes". Voice of America. 
  41. ^ "In the first response from the leadership to "the Military Amir of Raqqa", about 200 Syrian fighters arrive from Iraq to Raqqa". SOHR. 25 November 2016. 
  42. ^ "SDF fighters liberated children exploited by ISIS". Hawar News Agency. 18 January 2017. 
  43. ^ Paul Antonopoulos (18 January 2017). "Video: Kurdish-led forces capture ISIS child soldiers near Raqqa". al-Masdar News. 
  44. ^ "Strong clashes in Makmen and Khanez fronts". Hawar News Agency. 7 February 2017. 
  45. ^ 6 killed (7 Nov.),[1] 7 killed (10 Nov.),[2] 5 killed (29 Nov.),[3] 42 killed (10 Dec.-16 Jan.), [4] 4 killed (21 Jan.),[5], 7 killed (24 Jan.) [6] 2 killed (25 Jan.),[7] 23 killed (27/28 Jan.),[8] 13 killed (4-12 Feb.),[9] 1 killed (13 Feb.),[10] 4 killed (14 Feb.),[11]
  46. ^ "8 Non-Syrian militants between 11 killed by clashes against IS in Raqqa countryside". SOHR. 27 January 2017. 
  47. ^ a b "Kurds confirm death of third US volunteer as part of Raqqa campaign". ARA News. 27 January 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2017. 
  48. ^ "FIVE FIGHTERS OF THE SYRIAC MILITARY COUNCIL HAVE FALLEN AS MARTYRS IN RAQQA". Syriac International News Agency. 19 January 2017. 
  49. ^ "BÖG fighter Kandemir martyred in the Operation Wrath of Euphrates". ANF News. 7 January 2017. 
  50. ^ US service member killed in blast in Syria
  51. ^ "ISIS claims 198 Kurdish fighters killed in northern Raqqa". 
  52. ^ "ISIS takes 4 villages from US-backed Kurdish forces near Raqqa". Zaman Alwasl. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
  53. ^ First Phase: 185 killed;[12] Second Phase: 260 killed, 18 captured;[13] Third Phase: 124 killed[14]
  54. ^ التحالف الدولي يزهق أرواح أكثر من 60 مدني سوري خلال تغطيته لعملية “غضب الفرات” الهادفة لـ “عزل مدينة الرقة”
  55. ^ "5,000 displaced since start of Raqqa offensive: SDF". 
  56. ^ "Allies Resist US Plan to Attack Raqqa". Voice of America. 28 October 2016. 
  57. ^ "Raqqa Fight Starting 'Soon,' Isolation Operation to Include YPG". Voice of America. 27 October 2016. 
  58. ^ "Syria's U.S.-backed SDF says no to Turkish role in Raqqa operation". Reuters. 3 November 2016. 
  59. ^ "US-backed Syrian forces begin Raqqa offensive". Al-Arabiya. 6 November 2016. 
  60. ^ "US-backed forces launch bid to capture IS Syria 'capital'". Al Monitor. 6 November 2016. 
  61. ^ General Command of the Democratic Forces of Syria (SDF) (6 November 2016). "Democratic Forces of Syria launch Operation Wrath of Euphrates to liberate Raqqa". 
  62. ^ "Statement by Secretary of Defense Ash Carter on Raqqa". U.S. Department of Defense. 6 November 2016. 
  63. ^ "Kurdish forces capture first batch of villages from ISIS in campaign to liberate Raqqa". Almasdar News. 6 November 2016. 
  64. ^ "Morale is high among anti-Islamic State fighters marching on Raqqa". MiddleEastEye. 6 November 2016. 
  65. ^ "Syrian Democratic Forces report first gains in Raqqa operation, capture 11 villages". ARA News. 8 November 2016. 
  66. ^ Tomson, Chris (11 November 2016). "Syrian Democratic Forces overrun ISIS bastion north of Raqqa". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 12 November 2016. 
  67. ^ "Continued clashes in Raqqa countryside". SOHR. 12 November 2016. 
  68. ^ "Continued clashes and SDF advance in 33 villages". SOHR. 14 November 2016. 
  69. ^ "IS attacks SDF in Raqqa countryside". SOHR. 14 November 2016. 
  70. ^ Chris Tomson (16 November 2016). "Kurdish forces capture another village in push towards Raqqa city". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 17 November 2016. 
  71. ^ "An explosion in Tal Abyad town and clashes in the vicinity of Tal al-Samn". SOHR. 15 November 2016. 
  72. ^ "YPG sdf us forces New advancement in about 10 areas in the countryside of Raqqa within the operation of isolating the city from its countryside". SOHR. 15 November 2016. 
  73. ^ "Controlling Tal al-Samn area north of Raqqa raises the number of areas controlled by The Syria Democratic Forces of "Euphrates Wrath" to 47". SOHR. 19 November 2016. 
  74. ^ "SDF fighters completely liberate Tal Saman". Hawar News Agency. 19 November 2016. 
  75. ^ a b "Raqqa will mark Islamic State's downfall". Asia Times. 20 November 2016. 
  76. ^ "The Syria Democratic Forces raise the number of villages and farms controlled to 48, Coalition bombards north of Raqqa". SOHR. 21 November 2016. 
  77. ^ "School students demonstrate against imposing Kurdish books in Hasakah". SOHR. 21 November 2016. 
  78. ^ "Continued clashes between IS and SDF in Raqqa". SOHR. 23 November 2016. 
  79. ^ Chris Tomson (24 November 2016). "Breaking: US soldier dies due to ISIS booby trap in northern Syria". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 25 November 2016. 
  80. ^ "U.S. soldier fighting ISIS is killed in northern Syria after stepping on an explosive near Raqqa". 
  81. ^ "200 ISIS members arrive to Syria's Raqqa: rights group". 
  82. ^ a b "Violent clashes in the vicinity of Tal Sawwanah area and in the northern countryside of Raqqa". SOHR. 26 November 2016. 
  83. ^ "IS regained control of water pump/station near Kaltah in north Raqqa countryside following clashes with SDF yesterday". Syria Live Map. 27 November 2016. 
  84. ^ a b Thomas Joscelyn (13 December 2016). "Pentagon: 2 Paris attack facilitators killed in US airstrike in Raqqa, Syria". Long War Journal. 
  85. ^ "US airstrike killed militant linked to Charlie Hebdo attack". Business Standard. 10 December 2016. 
  86. ^ "Jihan Ahmad: Second phase of the Raqqa campaign due to start". Hawar News Agency. 27 November 2016. 
  87. ^ "Five Kurdish fighters killed by ISIS fire north Raqqa". ARA News. 30 November 2016. 
  88. ^ Sirwan Kajjo (20 November 2016). "2 Top IS Commanders Reportedly Flee Raqqa". VOA News. 
  89. ^ "Paris attack planners among 3 ISIS fighters killed in drone strike, Pentagon says". 4 December 2016. 
  90. ^ "Over 1,000 new fighters join Syrian Democratic Forces in fight for Raqqa". ARA News. 10 December 2016. 
  91. ^ a b "Syrian Democratic Forces launch second phase of Raqqa Operation". ARA News. 10 December 2016. 
  92. ^ "Coalition warplanes target the northern countryside again, and the regime forces shell al-Vgeh in the countryside of Daraa after advancement of the factions". SOHR. 10 December 2016. 
  93. ^ "SDF: Phase 2 of Raqqa campaign begins, sights set on al-Tabqa dam". Rudaw. 10 December 2016. 
  94. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates liberates 6 villages". Hawar News Agency. 11 December 2016. 
  95. ^ a b "Kurdish-Arab alliance captures new areas in Raqqa, tells ISIS jihadists: "Surrender or Die"". ARA News. 13 December 2016. 
  96. ^ "Two villages liberated in al-Raqqa". Hawar News Agency. 12 December 2016. 
  97. ^ "Ajaj and Safakhir villages freed". Hawar News Agency. 12 December 2016. 
  98. ^ SDF advances in 2 villages over IS in Raqqa countryside
  99. ^ Casualties and injuries in Deir Ezzor city and Syria Democratic Forces advance in the countryside of Raqqa
  100. ^ Clashes in Deir Ezzor city and new advancement for the Syria Democratic Forces at the northern countryside of Raqqa
  101. ^ SDF advances in 20 areas in Raqqa countryside
  102. ^ Ivan Yakovlev (19 December 2016). "Syrian Democratic Forces reach Euphrates, besiege ISIS-held area". al-Masdar News. 
  103. ^ Clashes continue in Raqqa countryside between IS and SDF
  104. ^ "Syrian Democratic Forces capture new areas west Raqqa amid ISIS retreat". ARA News. 18 December 2016. 
  105. ^ "Kurd-led forces press Islamic State near Syria's Raqqa". Reuters. 19 December 2016. 
  106. ^ SDF advance in 40 villages in Raqqa countryside
  107. ^ "ISIL launched counter-offensive west to Raqqa and regained several villages: Sayqul(صايقول), Khirbat Al Jahsha(خربة الجحشة), Al Majibina(المجيبنة), Khirbat Al Baqra(خربة البقرة)". Syria Live Map. 19 December 2016. 
  108. ^ "ISIS attack thwarted, 9 mercenaries killed". Hawar News Agency. 19 December 2016. 
  109. ^ "Kurdish YPG Forces Liberate 54 Villages From ISIS In Province Of Raqqa". South Front. 20 December 2016. 
  110. ^ a b c "YPG FORCES SEIZE JABAR, DEPLOY CLOSER TO AL-TABQA DAM". South Front. 21 December 2016. 
  111. ^ "US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces expel ISIS from 97 villages west Raqqa". ARA News. 21 December 2016. 
  112. ^ a b c Ahmed Shiwesh (27 December 2016). "Kurdish-led SDF forces expel ISIS from key town west Raqqa, kill over 50 jihadists". ARA News. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  113. ^ "KURDISH YPG SEIZES 3 MORE VILLAGES IN RAQQA PROVINCE, ADVANCING TOWARDS TABQA DAMN". South Front. 21 December 2016. 
  114. ^ Warplanes raid on Deir Ezzor and its western countryside and clashes continue in the western countryside of Raqqa
  115. ^ "SDF Kurds have captured Jabah, Bir Shallal and Ghadban, but were pushed back by IS at Jabar in West Raqqa governate". Sytia Live Map. 22 December 2016. 
  116. ^ "Kurdish YPG forces capture Suwaydiya Saghirah in Syria's Raqqa province (map, video)". South Front. 23 December 2016. 
  117. ^ "SDF captured Jedi, Jabar villages and control Suwaydiya Saghirah. West Raqqa". Syria Live Map. 23 December 2016. 
  118. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates: 16 ISIS militants killed in heavy clashes". Hawar News Agency. 23 December 2016. 
  119. ^ "IS detonates 3 suicide cars in Raqqa countryside". SOHR. 23 December 2016. 
  120. ^ "Raqqa Campaign: Seven bomb-laden vehicles destroyed". Hawar News Agency. 23 December 2016. 
  121. ^ "The Syria Democratic Forces advance in the northern banks of the Euphrates River". SOHR. 24 December 2016. 
  122. ^ "At least 16 ISIS militants killed by SDF fire near Raqqa". ARA News. 24 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016. 
  123. ^ "Two more villages liberated in Raqqa following heavy clashes". ANF News. 24 December 2016. 
  124. ^ "SDF 5km from strategic Tabqa dam west of Raqqa". Rudaw. 25 December 2016. 
  125. ^ "The Syria Democratic Forces and US Special Forces are 5 km away from the Euphrates Dam, kill 25 members of the "Islamic State" at least". SOHR. 25 December 2016. 
  126. ^ "38 ISIS members killed amid severe clashes in Jabar and Hadaj villages". ANF News. 27 December 2016. 
  127. ^ "Indian national killed in Syria while fighting for ISIS". al-Masdar News. 28 December 2016. 
  128. ^ Paul Antonopoulos (27 December 2016). "ISIS attacks Kurdish positions south of Kobani". al-Masdar News. 
  129. ^ "A village liberated and 38 mercenaries killed". Hawar News Agency. 28 December 2016. 
  130. ^ "Coalition strike kills senior ISIS leader in Syria: US". The Daily Star. 6 January 2017. 
  131. ^ J.O (1 January 2017). "Wrath of Euphrates advances 6 km towards Til Samin". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  132. ^ Syria Democratic Forces advance in the countryside of al-Tabaqa within “Euphrates Wrath” operation
  133. ^ "Kurdish-led SDF announces liberation of 110 villages, death of 277 ISIS militants in fresh operations near Raqqa". ARA News. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017. 
  134. ^ "Another strategic step in the Operation Wrath of Euphrates". ANF News. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  135. ^ "SDF fighters liberate three more Raqqa villages". Hawar News Agency. 3 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  136. ^ "Report: On Ayn Issa front SDF captured Nediye village from ISIL". Syria Live Map. 3 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  137. ^ "On Ayn Issa front SDF recaptured Mayan village from ISIL". Syria Live Map. 3 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  138. ^ Ahmed Shiwesh (4 January 2017). "Syrian Democratic Forces seize more ground west Raqqa, push to ISIS capital". ARA News. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  139. ^ "Ain Issa front: SDF captured villages Erbo, Dehlan, Arir, Swwillam, Khirbi Shekh Jiddi". Syria Live Map. 4 January 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  140. ^ Sirwan Kajjo (3 January 2017). "IS Tightens Internet Restrictions in Raqqa". Voice of America. Retrieved 4 January 2017. 
  141. ^ "Two villages and two hamlets liberated". Hawar News Agency. 5 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  142. ^ "US-backed Kurdish Forces Capture Historic Castle From IS Near Raqqa". Voice of America. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017. 
  143. ^ Sirwan Kajjo (6 January 2017). "US-backed Forces in Syria Target Strategic IS-held Dam". Voice of America. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  144. ^ "Kurdish-Arab forces seize strategic Syria citadel from IS". Agnce France-Presse. Yahoo! News. 6 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  145. ^ "IS moves prisoners as forces advance on Raqqa". Business Standard. 6 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  146. ^ "Eight villages, five hamlets liberated in Raqqa". Hawar News Agency. 6 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  147. ^ Helicopters bomb Morek and continuous clashes in the countryside Ain Issa and the Syria Democratic Forces advance in the area
  148. ^ "ISIS strategic stronghold was liberated". Hawar News Agency. 6 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017. 
  149. ^ The Syria Democratic Forces and US Special forces control a village north of al-Tabaqa and reach the outskirts of the strategic Dam of Euphrates
  150. ^ Violent clashes in several areas near the Euphrates dam in the northern countryside of Raqqa
  151. ^ Although the arrival of Turkish reinforcements to al-Bab and the “Euphrates Wrath” to the outskirts of Euphrates Dam… the “Islamic State” pulls more than 150 of its members towards the “Euphrates State”
  152. ^ "SDF fighters liberate one village, three hamlets in Raqqa campaign". Hawar News Agency. 9 January 2017. Retrieved 10 January 2017. 
  153. ^ "The "Islamic State" renews the counterattacks at the northern banks of Euphrates River". SOHR. 10 January 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2017. 
  154. ^ Zen Adra (10 January 2017). "Isis fights back US-backed fighters in northern Syria, captures historical castle". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 January 2017. 
  155. ^ Leith Fadel (10 January 2017). "[Graphic 18+] ISIS claims to have killed 70+ Kurdish fighters in west Raqqa". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 11 January 2017. 
  156. ^ "Raqqa offensive: Flood fears as SDF forces near Islamic State-held dam". Middle East Eye. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  157. ^ "Third phase of Raqqa campaign announced". Rudaw. 4 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017. 
  158. ^ "ISIS attack repelled, 6 hamlets liberated". Hawar News Agency. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 11 January 2017. 
  159. ^ "Two SDF fronts meet northwest of Raqqa, continue push for city". Rudaw. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2017. 
  160. ^ "التقاء المحورين يمهّد لتحرير الطبقة" (in Arabic). Hawar News Agency. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  161. ^ "45 villages, 20 hamlets liberated in Raqqa campaign". Hawar News Agency. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017. 
  162. ^ "SDF fighters liberate Odyan village in Raqqa campaign". Hawar News Agency. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2017. 
  163. ^ Clashes in several areas in the countryside of Raqqa and aerial bombing on the countryside of Hama
  164. ^ SDF progressing to Big Suaydiya village near Tabqa Dam Syria Live Map. 15 January 2017
  165. ^ "The "Islamic State" organization is trying to regain areas they lost within the "Euphrates Wrath" operations". SOHR. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  166. ^ "ISIS attack thwarted in al-Raqqa". Hawar News Agency. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  167. ^ "Syria Democratic Forces advance in the countryside of Raqqa and continuous clashes in several areas". SOHR. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  168. ^ "قصف جوي يستهدف الباب واشتباكات عند الضفاف الشمالية لنهر الفرات" (in Arabic). SOHR. 15 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  169. ^ "Raqqa tribes declare support for SDF - ANHA". 
  170. ^ "Afarin Mamosta on Twitter". 
  171. ^ "Violent clashes in the northern countryside of al-Tabaqa and shells target al-Fu'aa". SOHR. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  172. ^ "Kurdish-led SDF repel aggressive ISIS attack". Rudaw. 17 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  173. ^ Siber Haci (20 January 2017). "ISIS attacks YPG security centre west Raqqa, scores of Kurdish fighters killed". ARA News. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  174. ^ Paul Antonopoulos (19 January 2017). "ISIS attacks YPG security center near Raqqa, many casualties reported". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  175. ^ "The Syria Democratic Forces achieve a new advancement in the countryside of Raqqa and shelling renewed on the Eastern Ghouta". SOHR. 20 January 2017. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  176. ^ "SDF forces expel ISIS from strategic town near Raqqa, advance towards Tabqa Dam". ARA News. 23 January 2017. 
  177. ^ "The Syria Democratic Forces and US Special Forces are making a significant advancement towards the Euphrates Dam and near it, and seek to secure their way towards it". SOHR. 22 January 2017. 
  178. ^ Mohammad Abdulssattar Ibrahim; Tariq Adely (23 January 2017). "'If the Euphrates River rises any more, it will submerge huge swathes of agricultural land': Islamic State opens turbines of Syria's largest dam". SYRIA:direct. 
  179. ^ "US Special Forces & YPG Units Conduct Saboteur Raid Against ISIS In Tabqa". South Front. 23 January 2017. 
  180. ^ "7 SDF fighters were killed in battles at the western and northern countryside of Raqqa". SOHR. 24 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  181. ^ "Casualties in violent counter attacks in the western countryside of Raqqa". SOHR. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  182. ^ "Clashes continue in Raqqa and Aerial bombardment targets Der-Ezzor". SOHR. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  183. ^ "IS advances in Tabaqa countryside". SOHR. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  184. ^ "SDF fighters seize ammunition amid foiling attacks". Hawar News Agency. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  185. ^ "Kurd-led Syrian militia says Trump sent it armoured vehicles". Middle East Eye. 31 January 2017. 
  186. ^ "Intense raids target bridges in Raqqa and information about cutting off the water of the "Islamic State" organization's stronghold in Syria". SOHR. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  187. ^ "Raqqa water supply restored after air strike". Zaman al Wasl. 3 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  188. ^ D.H. (3 February 2017). "Coalition warplanes target areas of Raqqa Countryside". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  189. ^ "251 fighters join the SDF ranks after training". Hawar News Agency. 3 February 2017. 
  190. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates declares 3th stage of al-Raqqa liberation". Hawar News Agency. 4 February 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  191. ^ "SDF make advance northeast of Raqqa, airstrikes destroy bridges south of the city". Rudaw. 4 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  192. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates advancing 19 km, 2 villages and a hamlet liberated". Hawar News Agency. 5 February 2017. Retrieved 5 February 2017. 
  193. ^ Fighting operations of “Euphrates Wrath” continue in the northeastern countryside of Raqqa and more advancement for the Syria Democratic Forces
  194. ^ "US coalition jets blast IS-held Syrian town near Euphrates dam". Middle East Eye. 5 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  195. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates: a village liberated, dozens of ISIS killed". Hawar News Agency. 6 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  196. ^ "نحو 10 قتلى خلال تقدم قوات سوريا الديمقراطية في ريف الرقة الشمالي الشرقي" (in Arabic). SOHR. 6 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  197. ^ J.O. (7 February 2017). "Mishrafa village liberated after violent clashes". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  198. ^ D.H. (7 February 2017). "Strong clashes in Makmen and Khanez fronts". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  199. ^ "ملخص الرقة اليومي 7-2-2017" (in Arabic). Step News Agency. 7 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  200. ^ "Clashes continue in Raqqa countryside between SDF and IS". SOHR. 7 February 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017. 
  201. ^ J.O. (9 February 2017). "ISIS attacks foiled on northeast of al-Tabqa Dam". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  202. ^ J.O. (9 February 2017). "Al-Raqqa is encircled from 3 axes by Wrath of Euphrates". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  203. ^ "SDF forces make new gains north of Raqqa as ISIS retreats: spokeswoman". Zaman al-Wasl. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  204. ^ D.H. (8 February 2017). "Wrath of Euphrates is 11km away from al-Raqqa". Hawar News Agency. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  205. ^ "Raqqa campaign: Sninh village liberated". Hawar News Agency. 9 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  206. ^ ""قسد" تسيطر على قرية جديدة شرق الرقة" (in Arabic). ARA News. 9 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  207. ^ "قوات سوريا الديمقراطية تتقدم ضمن المرحلة الثالثة من عملية "غضب الفرات"" (in Arabic). Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  208. ^ Mulihan and Badraniye villages liberation
  209. ^ "Raqqa campaign: Khaniz and Makman fronts meet". Hawar News Agency. 11 February 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  210. ^ "Airstrikes targets Raqqa countryside with attempts to reduce the advancement distance towards Raqqa city". SOHR. 12 February 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017. 
  211. ^ "Violent attacks by the "Islamic State" organization at the Euphrates banks in the northern countryside of al-Tabaqa result in its advance at the expense of Syria Democratic Forces". SOHR. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  212. ^ Leith Fadel (13 February 2017). "ISIS launches massive counter-offensive in western Raqqa". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  213. ^ "ISIS attacks US-backed forces, regains village west of Raqqah - Reports". South Front. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017. 
  214. ^ "The "Islamic State" organization carries out a counter attack northeast Al-Raqqah city to keep forces of "Euphrates Wrath" away of its stronghold in Syria". SOHR. 13 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017. 
  215. ^ "The "Islamic State" organization attacks sites of the Syria Democratic Forces in the countryside of Al-Hasakah and fighting continues in the countryside of Al-Raqqah". SOHR. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  216. ^ "165 SDF fighters join the Raqqa campaign". ANHA. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  217. ^ "Second step of Operation Wrath of Euphrates launched in third phase". ANHA. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  218. ^ "Kurdish forces overrun two ISIS-held villages north of Deir Ezzor". Al-Masdar News. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  219. ^ "Joyce village liberated, a bomb-laden vehicle destroyed". ANHA. 18 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
  220. ^ "Operation Wrath of Euphates fighters liberate Şiwêhan village". ANHA. 18 February 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2017. 
  221. ^ Tomson, Chris (2017-02-18). "Kurdish forces liberate prison on the outskirts of Raqqa city". AMN - Al-Masdar News | المصدر نيوز. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 
  222. ^ Tomson, Chris (2017-02-18). "US Airforce propels the Syrian Democratic Forces to capture three villages from ISIS". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 
  223. ^ "US-backed forces seize 5 more villages from ISIS". South Front. 2017-02-19. Retrieved 2017-02-19. 
  224. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates:2 villages were liberated, 20 km advanced forward". ANHA. 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  225. ^ "Makman-al-Raqqa road was cut and a new village liberated.". ANHA. 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  226. ^ "Operation Wrath of Euphrates: Fighters liberate base station". ANHA. 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  227. ^ "Operation Wrath of Euphates: Terfawî village liberated". ANHA. 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  228. ^ "Bîr Adman village liberated". ANHA. 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  229. ^ "Operation Wrath of Euphrates: Quwaytar village liberated". ANHA. 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  230. ^ "Abu Wahi village liberated in Raqqa campaign". ANHA. 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  231. ^ "Heavy clashes in Big Siwêdiya village". ANHA. 2017-02-20. Retrieved 2017-02-20. 
  232. ^ "Kurdish forces reach Euphrates River east of Raqqa amid massive ISIS collapse". Al-Masdar News. 2017-02-21. Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  233. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates progresses, the two wings would meet". ANHA. 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  234. ^ "Wrath of Euphrates: two other villages liberated". ANHA. 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  235. ^ "YPJ commander: Our forces cut the road to Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor". ANHA. 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  236. ^ "US-backed alliance enters Deir Az Zor province". Al-Jazeera. 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2017-02-22. 
  237. ^ "Three more villages liberated in the Raqqa campaign". ANHA. 2017-02-23. Retrieved 2017-02-23. 
  238. ^ "Operation Wrath of Euphrates: four villages liberated". ANHA. 2017-02-24. Retrieved 2017-02-24. 
  239. ^ "SDF fighters liberate 3 more villages in Wrath of Euphrates". ANHA. 2017-02-24. Retrieved 2017-02-24. 
  240. ^ "The Syria Democratic Forces advance in the outskirts of Deir Ezzor province to close the road between them and the stronghold of the "Islamic State" organization in Al-Raqqah". SOHR. 2017-02-24. Retrieved 2017-02-24. 
  241. ^ "The 4th axis advances 28 Km, 3 villages were liberated". ANHA. 2017-02-25. Retrieved 2017-02-25. 
  242. ^ "Local civilian council to run post-ISIS Raqqa: Kurdish official". ARA news. 14 November 2016. 
  243. ^ "US facilitating joint talks with Turkey, Syrian Kurdish forces to ease tension". Hurriyet Daily News. 9 December 2016. 

Bibliography

External links

  • Interactive Syria and Iraq map with current Raqqa situation
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Raqqa_offensive_(2016–present)&oldid=767424720"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northern_Raqqa_offensive_(November_2016–present)
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Raqqa offensive (2016–present)"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA