North Halmahera languages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
North Halmahera
Halmahera, North Halmaheran
Geographic
distribution
Maluku Islands
Linguistic classification West Papuan
  • North Halmahera
Glottolog nort2923[1]

The North Halmahera languages are the Papuan languages of Halmahera and neighboring islands in Indonesia. The best known North Halmaheran language is Ternate (50 000 native speakers), which is a regional lingua franca and which, along with Tidore, were the languages of the rival medieval Ternate and Tidore kingdoms of the spice trade.

Classification

The classification used here is that of Voorhoeve 1988.[2]

 Core Halmaheran 

TernateTidore

Sahu: Sahu, Waioli, Gamkonora

Galela–Tobelo (Northeast Halmaheran): Tobelo, GalelaLoloda, Modole, Pagu, Tabaru

West Makian

West Makian is divergent, perhaps due to Austronesian influence. It was once classified as an Austronesian language.

There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the Galela–Tobelo languages, and Voorhoeve 1988 considered them dialects of a language he called Northeast Halmaheran, though most speakers consider them to be distinct languages. Ethnologue adds Kao, which it classifies as Sahu but notes may be a marginal dialect of Pagu.

References

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North Halmahera". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Voorhoeve, C.L. 1988. The languages of the northern Halmaheran stock. Papers in New Guinea Linguistics, no. 26., 181-209. (Pacific Linguistics A-76). Canberra: Australian National University.
Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=North_Halmahera_languages&oldid=852195699"
This content was retrieved from Wikipedia : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Halmahera_languages
This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "North Halmahera languages"; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA