North 24 Parganas district

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North 24 Parganas district
উওর ২৪ পরগনা
District of West Bengal
Location of North 24 Parganas district in West Bengal
Location of North 24 Parganas district in West Bengal
Country India
State West Bengal
Administrative division Presidency
Headquarters Barasat
Government
 • Lok Sabha constituencies 1. Bangaon, 2. Barrackpore, 3. Dum Dum, 4. Barasat, 5. Basirhat
 • Assembly seats 1. Bagda, 2. Bangaon Uttar, 3. Bangaon Dakshin, 4. Gaighata, 5. Swarupnagar, .6. Baduria, 7. Habra, 8. Ashoknagar, 9. Amdanga, 10. Bijpur, 11. Naihati, 12. Bhatpara, 13. Jagatdal, 14. Noapara, 15. Barrackpore, 16. Khardaha, 17. Dum Dum Uttar, 18. Panihati, 19. Kamarhati, 20. Baranagar, 21. Dum Dum, 22. Rajarhat New Town, 23. Bidhannagar, 24. Rajarhat Gopalpur, 25. Madhyamgram, 26. Barasat, 27. Deganga, 28. Haroa, 29. Minakhan, 30. Sandeshkhali, 31. Basirhat Dakshin, 32. Basirhat Uttar, 33. Hingalganj
Area
 • Total 4,094 km2 (1,581 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 10,082,852
 • Density 2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Literacy 84.95 percent[1]
 • Sex ratio 949
Major highways NH 12, NH 112
Average annual precipitation 1579 mm
Website Official website

North 24 Parganas (Pron: pɔrɡɔnɔs) or abv. 24 PGS(N) is a district in southern West Bengal, of eastern India. North 24 Parganas extends in the tropical zone from latitude 22º11'6" north to 23º15'2" north and from longitude 88º20' east to 89º5' east. It is bordered to Nadia by north, to Bangladesh (Khulna Division) by north and east, to South 24 Parganas and Kolkata by south and to Kolkata, Howrah and Hoogly by west. Barasat is the district headquarters of North 24 Parganas.North 24 Parganas is West Bengal's most populous district[2] and (following the splitting of the Thane district of Maharashtra in 2014) the most populated district in the whole of India.[2] It is also the tenth-largest district in the State by area.

History

Ancient history

The Baraha-mihir or Khana-mihir mound at Berachampa. It was first excavated in 1956-57 revealing a continuous sequence of cultural remains from 11th century BC pre-Mouryan period to 12th century AD Pala period.[3]

According to Ptolemy's Treatise on geography, written in the 2nd Century A.D., the ancient land of Gangaridi was stretched between the rivers Bhagirathi-Hoogly (lower Ganges) and Padma-Meghna. The modern-day 24 Parganas was the southern and the south-eastern territory of that legendary kingdom.

Archaeological excavation at Berachampa village in Deganga PS proves that though the area was not directly attached to the rule of the Guptas, yet it could not shun their cultural influence. Xuanzang (c. 629-685) visited 30 Buddhist Biharas and 100 Hindu Temples in India and some of these were in the Greater 24 Parganas region.

The district was not a part of Shashanka's unified Bengali empire known as Gauda, but it is assumed that the district which was the south-west frontier territory of ancient Bengal, was comprised in under the rule of Dharmapala (estimated c. 770-810). The Pala rule was not quite strong in this part, as no excavation uncovered any of Buddhist Pala antiquities but many Hindu Sena sculptures.

Middle Ages

In the middle of the 16th century, Portuguese pirates began to invade and plunder many of the waterways and prosperous human settlements in the lower delta region. People left these places out of the fear of being murdered, raped, or captured to be sold as slaves. The Basirhat sub-division of North 24 Parganas suffered most from these torments.

Shrihari (Shridhar), a Kayastha, was an influential officer in the service of Daud Khan Karrani. On the fall of Daud he fled away with the government treasure in his custody. He then set up a kingdom for himself in the marshy land to the extreme south of Khulna district (1574) and assumed the title of Maharaja. Pratapaditya succeeded to the kingship in 1574. The baharistan and the travel diary of Abdul Latif and the contemporary European writers, all testify to the personal ability of Pratapaditya, his political pre-eminence, material resources. His territories covered the greater part of what is now included in the greater Jessore, Khulna and Barisal districts. He established his capital at Dhumghat, a strategic position at the confluence of the Jamuna and Ichhamati before it was shifted to Ishwaripur.

Maharaja Pratapaditya, soon became one of the 12 feudal lords of Bengal who not only declared their sovereignty from the Mughal Empire in the ruling of Jessore, Khulna, Barisal and Greater 24 Parganas, but also fought and resisted the Portuguese in the early years of the 17th Century. When he was finally defeated by the Mughals. Pratapaditya lost both the battles of Salka and Magrahat. His fate was sealed and he was compelled to tender submission to Islam Khan at Dhaka. His kingdom was annexed. Probably he died at Benares on his way to Delhi from Dhaka, as a prisoner.[4] of war to the Mughals.

After his death, Bhavanand Majumdar, who had been in the service of Pratapaditya, was given the throne by Raja Man Singh, and he later became the founder of the Nadiya Raj family.[5] Laksmikanta Gangopadhyay better known as Laksmikanta Roy Choudhury, the well known Brahmin scholar who was the son of great saint Kamdev Brahmachari and also a close associate of Raja Basanta Ray, was given tax free jaigir of eight parganas, including the areas in and around Kalikatah as Gurudakshina by Raja Man Singh in 1608.[6][7]

Jashoreshwari Kali Temple (built by Pratapaditya), Chanda Bhairab Mandir at Ishwaripur (built during the Sena period), Five domed Tenga Mosque at Banshipur (Mughal period), two big and four small domed Hammankhana (constructed by Pratapaditya) at Bangshipur, Govinda Dev Temple at Gopalpur (built by Basanta Roy, uncle of Maharaja Pratapaditya in 1593), Jahajghata Port (Khanpur), Kalighat Temple (owned by Laksmikanta Roy Choudhury) bear archaeological evidences of the Bhuiyan and Majumdar kings.

British Raj

The territory of Greater 24 Parganas were under the Satgaon (ancient Saptagram, now in Hoogly district) administration during the Mughal era and later it was included in Hoogly chakla (district under post-Mughal Nawabi rule) during the rule of Murshid Quli Khan. In 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, Nawab Mir Jafar conferred the Zamindari of 24 parganas and janglimahals (small administrative units) upon the British East India Company. These were Amirpur, Akbarpur, Balia, Birati, Azimabad, Basandhari, Baridhati, Bagjola, Kalikata, Garh, Hatiagarh, Islampur, Dakshin Sagar, Kharijuri, Khaspur, Ikhtiarpur, Magura, Medanmalla, Maida, Manpur, Barasat, Madhyamgram, Muragachha, Pechakuli, Paikan, Rajarhat, Shahpur, Shahnagar, Satal, New Barrackpore [Aharampur] and Uttar Pargana. Since then, this entire territory is known as Twentyfour Parganas.

In 1751, the Company assigned John Zephaniah Holwell as zemindar of the District.[8] In 1759, after the Bengali War of 1756-57, the Company assigned it to Lord Clive as a personal Jaghir (zamindari) and after his death it again came under the direct authority of the Company.

In 1793, during the rule of Lord Cornwallis, entire Sunderbans were in Twentyfour Parganas. In 1802, some parganas on the western banks of river Hoogly were included into it. These parganas were in Nadia earlier. In 1814, a separate collectorate was established in Twenty-four Parganas. In 1817, Falta and Baranagar and in 1820, some potions of Nadia’s Balanda and Anwarpur were encompassed to it. In 1824, portions of Barasat, Khulna and Bakhargunge (now in Bangladesh) were also included to it. In 1824, the district headquarters was shifted from Kolkata to Baruipur, but in 1828, it was removed to Alipore. In 1834, the district was split into two districts – Alipore and Barasat, but later these were united again.

In 1905, some portion of this district around the Sunderbans was detached and linked to Khulna and Barishal. These parts remained in Bangladesh territories where Jessore’s Bangaon was joined to Twentyfour Pargana after the 1947 partition.

After Independence

In 1983, an administrative reform committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Ashok Mitra suggested to split the district into two and as per the recommendation of the committee in 1986, 1 March two districts – North 24 Parganas (24 PGS N) and South 24 Parganas (24 PGS S) were created. The North 24 Parganas which was included to the Presidency Division has been formed with 5 sub-divisions of the Greater 24 Parganas namely Barasat (Headquarters), Barrackpore, Basirhat, Bangaon and Bidhannagar (a satellite township of Kolkata, popularly known as Salt Lake).

Geography

The district lies within the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. The river Ganges flows along the western border of the district. There are many other rivers, which include the Ichhamati, Jamuna, and Bidyadhari.

Location

Latitude: 23°15'North - 22°11' North
Longitude: 89°5'East - 88°20' East

Land

The type of soil varies widely from alluvial to clay loam.

Groundwater arsenic contamination

North 24 Parganas is one of the nine severely arsenic affected district in West Bengal. On the basis of updated survey conducted by School of Environmental Studies (SOES), Jadavpur University, out of total 22 administrative blocks in 22, 21 and 16 blocks arsenic above the 10 μg/L (WHO Recommended value of arsenic in drinking water), 50 μg/L (Indian standard value of arsenic in drinking water) and 300 μg/L (the concentration predicting overt arsenical skin lesions) was noted respectively.

The maximum arsenic contamination level found in this district is 2830μg/L in the Baduria block.[citation needed]

Climate

The climate is tropical, like the rest of the Gangetic West Bengal. It is also characterised by the Monsoon, which lasts from early June to mid September. The weather remains dry during the winter (mid November to mid February) and humid during summer.[citation needed]

  • Annual Rainfall 1,579mm (average)
  • Temperature 41 °C in May (Max) and 10 °C in January (Min)
  • Relative Humidity Between 50% in March & 90% in July

Economy

People are mainly engaged in farming, fishing and other agricultural activities. The average size of agricultural landholdings is about 3.2 Bighas. North 24 Parganas is one of the less economically backward districts of West Bengal, but there is chronic poverty in the southern half of the District ( the Sundarbans area )

Omega and Infinity Benchmark, office buildings in Salt Lake, Kolkata
The Bengal Intelligent Park in Sector V.
The Cognizant Technology Solutions office in Sector V.

The Information Technology hub of Kolkata is at this district, which is the centre of some of the notable IT/ITES Indian and multinational companies. Around 5.8 Lakh (by 2017) people are Employed in the Salt Lake City with major of its corporate offices in Sector V and Sector III.

Divisions

Administrative subdivisions

The district comprises five subdivisions: Barrackpore, Barasat Sadar, Basirhat, Bangaon and Bidhannagar.

Barasat is the district headquarters. There are 35 police stations, 22 development blocks, 27 municipalities, 200 gram panchayats and 1599 villages in this district.[9][10]

Other than municipality area, each subdivision contains community development blocks which in turn are divided into rural areas and census towns. In total there are 48 urban units: 27 municipalities and 20 census towns and 1 cantonment board.[10][11]

Barrackpore subdivision

Barasat Sadar subdivision

Bangaon subdivision

Basirhat subdivision

Bidhannagar subdivision

This subdivision consists of the [9] Bidhannagar Municipal Corporation

Assembly constituencies

As per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district is divided into 33 assembly constituencies:[13] [14]

Sl. No. Assembly Name Reservation Constituency no.
1 Bagdah SC 94
2 Bangaon Uttar SC 95
3 Bangaon Dakshin SC 96
4 Gaighata SC 97
5 Swarupnagar SC 98
6 Baduria N/A 99
7 Habra N/A 100
8 Ashoknagar N/A 101
9 Amdanga N/A 102
10 Bijpur N/A 103
11 Naihati N/A 104
12 Bhatpara N/A 105
13 Jagatdal N/A 106
14 Noapara N/A 107
15 Barrackpore N/A 108
16 Khardah N/A 109
17 Dum Dum Uttar N/A 110
18 Panihati N/A 111
19 Kamarhati N/A 112
20 Baranagar N/A 113
21 Dum Dum N/A 114
22 Rajarhat-New Town SC 115
23 Bidhannagar N/A 116
24 Rajarhat-Gopalpur N/A 117
25 Madhyamgram N/A 118
26 Barasat N/A 119
27 Deganga N/A 120
28 Haroa (SC) SC 121
29 Minakhan SC 122
30 Sandeshkhali ST 123
31 Basirhat Uttar N/A 124
32 Basirhat Dakshin N/A 125
33 Hingalganj SC 126

Education

University

College

School

Culture

This district is rich of culture. Many famous places like Dakshineswar Kali Temple, Baranagar Math are situated in this district. Many places of this district are famous for festivals - Barasat and Madhyamgram are for Kali puja, Bangaon, Baranagar, Basirhat are for Durga puja, Berachampa is for Basanti puja etc.

Transport

Railways

Kolkata Suburban EMU Train

The electrified suburban rail network of the ER is extensive and penetrates far and deep into the neighbouring districts of Kolkata, South 24 Parganas, Nadia, Howrah, Hooghly etc.

The Circular Rail encircles the entire city of Kolkata, and also provides an offshoot to connect the airport.

Airport

Cityside view of the new Integrated Terminal of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport

The Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport (IATA code:CCU) at Dum Dum (previously known as Dum Dum airport) is the only airport in the city Kolkata, which is in North 24 Parganas, operating both domestic and international flights. It is a gateway to North-East India, Bangkok, and Bangladesh. The number of people using the airport has consistently increased over the last few years.

Roadways

The road network is fairly well developed. Sparsed across by state-highways, it provides a convenient means of transport. NH 12 connects the district with northern and southern region of the state and its sub road NH 112 connect the district headquarter Barasat with the border town Bangaon and Petrapole, the largest land port of India.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census North 24 Parganas district has a population of 10,082,852,[2][20] roughly equal to the nation of Bolivia[21] or the US state of Michigan.[22] This gave it a ranking of 2nd in India (out of a total of 640) and 1st in its state.[2] However, in 2014 the Thane district (in Maharashtra), which had been ranked 1st in India in 2011, was divided into two, thus promoting North 24 Parganas District to 1st in India. The district has a population density of 2,463 inhabitants per square kilometre (6,380/sq mi) .[2] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 12.86%.[2] North Twenty Four Parganas has a sex ratio of 949 females for every 1000 males,[2] and a literacy rate of 84.95%.[2]

2001 Census data

  • Population Density: 2959 per square km
  • Sex ratio: 982 females per 1000 males
  • Growth Rate (1991-2000) : 24.64% (Approximately 2.5% per annum)
  • Literacy rate (excluding 0-6 age group), in percentage: 87.66 (highest in West Bengal).[23]
    • Male:93.14; Female:81.81
Religion in North 24 Parganas
Hindu
75.23%
Muslim
24.22%
Christian
0.23%
Sikh
0.12%
Source: Census Report of 2001, Government Of India

Flora and fauna

In 1984 North 24 Parganas district became home to Sundarbans National Park, which has an area of 1,330 km2 (513.5 sq mi).[24] It shares the park with South 24 Parganas district. It is also home to the Bibhutibhushan Wildlife Sanctuary, which was established in 1985 and has an area of 0.6 km2 (0.2 sq mi).[24]

Health facilities

  • District Hospitals: 10 with 2500 beds
  • Sub Divisional Hospitals: 14 with 1870 beds
  • State General Hospitals: 18 with 1870 beds
  • ESI Hospital: 01 with 200 beds
  • Rural Hospitals: 07 with 228 beds
  • Block Primary Health Centers: 15

Notable people

References

  1. ^ "Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 : West Bengal". Census of India. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  3. ^ Ganguly, Biswarup (24 February 2012). "English: Khana-Mihir Mound (bn:Khana-mihirer Dhipi, hi. Khana-mihir ka tila) also known as (bn:Barahamihirer Dhipi) forms part of huge fortified township named Chandraketugarh. It was first excavated by the Asutosh Museum of Calcutta University in 1956-57 revealing a continuous sequence of cultural remins from 11th century BC pre-mouryan period of 12th century AD Pala period. The most remarcable discovery of the excavation is a polygonal brick temple facing north. This temple has projections on three sides and it is connected with a square vestibule. This temple which was earlier thought to be of Gupta period in fact belongs to Pala period which is presumed by its plan adchitecture and decorative designs. The excavation has also unearthed Buddha image, votive stupas, terracotta plaques depicting Buddha and Jataka stories. Coins, terracotta sealing and different types of beads of early historical and historical periods". Retrieved 29 March 2018 – via Wikimedia Commons.
  4. ^ Muazzam Hussain Khan (Banglapedia)
  5. ^ Bhattacharya, Jogendra Nath (1896). Hindu Castes and Sects. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co.
  6. ^ Bangiya Sabarna Katha Kalishetra Kalikatah by Bhabani Roy Choudhury, Manna Publication. ISBN 81-87648-36-8
  7. ^ "The Family History". www.devarshi.faithweb.com. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  8. ^ McCabe, Joseph (1920) "Holwell, John Zephaniah" A biographical dictionary of modern rationalists Watts & Co., London, pp. 356-357, p. 357 OCLC 262462698
  9. ^ a b c "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 25 February 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  10. ^ a b "District at a glance". Official website of the North 24 Parganas district. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  11. ^ "Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Density and General Sex Ratio by Residence and Sex, West Bengal/ District/ Sub District, 1991 and 2001". West Bengal. Directorate of census operations. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  12. ^ "Page on Barrackpore subdivision". Official website of North 24 Parganas district. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2008.
  13. ^ "Press Note, Delimitation Commission" (PDF). Assembly Constituencies in West Bengal. Delimitation Commission. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  14. ^ "list of MPs & MLAs of N 24 PGS".
  15. ^ "Assembly under Bongaon Lok Sabha".
  16. ^ "Assembly under Barasat Lok Sabha".
  17. ^ "Assembly under Dum Dum".
  18. ^ "Assembly under Barrackpore".
  19. ^ "Assembly under Basirhat".
  20. ^ Yeshwantrao, Nitin (1 April 2011). "Population explosion across Thane district worries officials". The Times of India. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  21. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Bolivia 10,118,683 July 2011 est.
  22. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Michigan 9,883,640
  23. ^ "District wise Literacy rate in West Bengal 2001 – 2011 census". www.updateox.com. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  24. ^ a b Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: West Bengal". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.

Bibliography

  • Issues Related to Over Utilization of Ground Water, Special Reference to District-North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India; IJSR Archive Volume 4 Issue 3 March 2015: International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR)

External links

  • Official website
  • Map of North 24 Parganas
  • Another map of North 24 Parganas
  • Census 2001 data

Coordinates: 22°08′N 88°30′E / 22.13°N 88.50°E / 22.13; 88.50

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