# Nontotient

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In number theory, a nontotient is a positive integer n which is not a totient number: it is not in the range of Euler's totient function φ, that is, the equation φ(x) = n has no solution x. In other words, n is a nontotient if there is no integer x that has exactly n coprimes below it. All odd numbers are nontotients, except 1, since it has the solutions x = 1 and x = 2. The first few even nontotients are

14, 26, 34, 38, 50, 62, 68, 74, 76, 86, 90, 94, 98, 114, 118, 122, 124, 134, 142, 146, 152, 154, 158, 170, 174, 182, 186, 188, 194, 202, 206, 214, 218, 230, 234, 236, 242, 244, 246, 248, 254, 258, 266, 274, 278, 284, 286, 290, 298, ... (sequence A005277 in the OEIS)

Least k such that the totient of k is n are (0 if no such k exists)

1, 3, 0, 5, 0, 7, 0, 15, 0, 11, 0, 13, 0, 0, 0, 17, 0, 19, 0, 25, 0, 23, 0, 35, 0, 0, 0, 29, 0, 31, 0, 51, 0, 0, 0, 37, 0, 0, 0, 41, 0, 43, 0, 69, 0, 47, 0, 65, 0, 0, 0, 53, 0, 81, 0, 87, 0, 59, 0, 61, 0, 0, 0, 85, 0, 67, 0, 0, 0, 71, 0, 73, ... (sequence A049283 in the OEIS)

Greatest k such that the totient of k is n are (0 if no such k exists)

2, 6, 0, 12, 0, 18, 0, 30, 0, 22, 0, 42, 0, 0, 0, 60, 0, 54, 0, 66, 0, 46, 0, 90, 0, 0, 0, 58, 0, 62, 0, 120, 0, 0, 0, 126, 0, 0, 0, 150, 0, 98, 0, 138, 0, 94, 0, 210, 0, 0, 0, 106, 0, 162, 0, 174, 0, 118, 0, 198, 0, 0, 0, 240, 0, 134, 0, 0, 0, 142, 0, 270, ... (sequence A057635 in the OEIS)

Number of ks such that φ(k) = n are (start with n = 0)

0, 2, 3, 0, 4, 0, 4, 0, 5, 0, 2, 0, 6, 0, 0, 0, 6, 0, 4, 0, 5, 0, 2, 0, 10, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 2, 0, 7, 0, 0, 0, 8, 0, 0, 0, 9, 0, 4, 0, 3, 0, 2, 0, 11, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0, 2, 0, 9, 0, 0, 0, 8, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 17, ... (sequence A014197 in the OEIS)

According to Carmichael's conjecture there are no 1's in this sequence.

An even nontotient may be one more than a prime number, but never one less, since all numbers below a prime number are, by definition, coprime to it. To put it algebraically, for p prime: φ(p) = p − 1. Also, a pronic number n(n − 1) is certainly not a nontotient if n is prime since φ(p2) = p(p − 1).

If a natural number n is a totient, it can be shown that n*2k is a totient for all natural number k.

There are infinitely many even nontotient numbers: indeed, there are infinitely many distinct primes p (such as 78557 and 271129, see Sierpinski number) such that all numbers of the form 2ap are nontotient, and every odd number has an even multiple which is a nontotient.

 n numbers k such that φ(k) = n n numbers k such that φ(k) = n n numbers k such that φ(k) = n n numbers k such that φ(k) = n 1 1, 2 37 73 109 2 3, 4, 6 38 74 110 121, 242 3 39 75 111 4 5, 8, 10, 12 40 41, 55, 75, 82, 88, 100, 110, 132, 150 76 112 113, 145, 226, 232, 290, 348 5 41 77 113 6 7, 9, 14, 18 42 43, 49, 86, 98 78 79, 158 114 7 43 79 115 8 15, 16, 20, 24, 30 44 69, 92, 138 80 123, 164, 165, 176, 200, 220, 246, 264, 300, 330 116 177, 236, 354 9 45 81 117 10 11, 22 46 47, 94 82 83, 166 118 11 47 83 119 12 13, 21, 26, 28, 36, 42 48 65, 104, 105, 112, 130, 140, 144, 156, 168, 180, 210 84 129, 147, 172, 196, 258, 294 120 143, 155, 175, 183, 225, 231, 244, 248, 286, 308, 310, 350, 366, 372, 396, 450, 462 13 49 85 121 14 50 86 122 15 51 87 123 16 17, 32, 34, 40, 48, 60 52 53, 106 88 89, 115, 178, 184, 230, 276 124 17 53 89 125 18 19, 27, 38, 54 54 81, 162 90 126 127, 254 19 55 91 127 20 25, 33, 44, 50, 66 56 87, 116, 174 92 141, 188, 282 128 255, 256, 272, 320, 340, 384, 408, 480, 510 21 57 93 129 22 23, 46 58 59, 118 94 130 131, 262 23 59 95 131 24 35, 39, 45, 52, 56, 70, 72, 78, 84, 90 60 61, 77, 93, 99, 122, 124, 154, 186, 198 96 97, 119, 153, 194, 195, 208, 224, 238, 260, 280, 288, 306, 312, 336, 360, 390, 420 132 161, 201, 207, 268, 322, 402, 414 25 61 97 133 26 62 98 134 27 63 99 135 28 29, 58 64 85, 128, 136, 160, 170, 192, 204, 240 100 101, 125, 202, 250 136 137, 274 29 65 101 137 30 31, 62 66 67, 134 102 103, 206 138 139, 278 31 67 103 139 32 51, 64, 68, 80, 96, 102, 120 68 104 159, 212, 318 140 213, 284, 426 33 69 105 141 34 70 71, 142 106 107, 214 142 35 71 107 143 36 37, 57, 63, 74, 76, 108, 114, 126 72 73, 91, 95, 111, 117, 135, 146, 148, 152, 182, 190, 216, 222, 228, 234, 252, 270 108 109, 133, 171, 189, 218, 266, 324, 342, 378 144 185, 219, 273, 285, 292, 296, 304, 315, 364, 370, 380, 432, 438, 444, 456, 468, 504, 540, 546, 570, 630

## References

• Guy, Richard K. (2004). Unsolved Problems in Number Theory. Problem Books in Mathematics. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag. p. 139. ISBN 0-387-20860-7. Zbl 1058.11001.
• L. Havelock, A Few Observations on Totient and Cototient Valence from PlanetMath
• Sándor, Jozsef; Crstici, Borislav (2004). Handbook of number theory II. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. p. 230. ISBN 1-4020-2546-7. Zbl 1079.11001.
• Zhang, Mingzhi (1993). "On nontotients". Journal of Number Theory. 43 (2): 168–172. doi:10.1006/jnth.1993.1014. ISSN 0022-314X. Zbl 0772.11001.
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