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List of Nobel laureates

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Nobel laureates receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2017) 9 million SEK (roughly US$1.0 million, €0.87 million).
Nobel laureates of 2012 Alvin E. Roth, Brian Kobilka, Robert J. Lefkowitz, David J. Wineland, and Serge Haroche during the ceremony

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided by the Nobel Foundation, yearly.[2]

Prize

Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. In 2017, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 9,000,000 SEK.[4] The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize.[6] The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II.[7]

Laureates

Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals (including 844 men, 48 women) and 24 organizations.[8] Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time.

Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other.[9] UNHCR has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize twice. Also the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to John Bardeen twice, and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: Marie Curie (Physics and Chemistry) and Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 892 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.[10] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911.[9]

List of laureates

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics
1901 Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant;
Frédéric Passy
1902 Hendrik Lorentz;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun;
Charles Albert Gobat
1903 Henri Becquerel;
Pierre Curie;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer
1904 Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International
1905 Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner
1906 J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Louis Renault
1908 Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Fredrik Bajer
1909 Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau
1911 Wilhelm Wien Marie Skłodowska-Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser;
Alfred Hermann Fried
1912 Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine
1914 Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány None None
1915 William Henry Bragg;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter None Romain Rolland None
1916 None None None Verner von Heidenstam None
1917 Charles Glover Barkla None None Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Max Planck Fritz Haber None None None
1919 Johannes Stark None Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson
1920 Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois
1921 Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy None Anatole France Hjalmar Branting;
Christian Lous Lange
1922 Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats None
1924 Manne Siegbahn None Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont None
1925 James Franck;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy None George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain;
Charles G. Dawes
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand;
Gustav Stresemann
1927 Arthur Compton;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson;
Ludwig Quidde
1928 Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset None
1929 Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg
1930 C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom
1931 None Carl Bosch;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams;
Nicholas Murray Butler
1932 Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy None
1933 Erwin Schrödinger;
Paul Dirac
None Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell
1934 None Harold Urey George Whipple;
George Minot;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson
1935 James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann None Carl von Ossietzky
1936 Victor Francis Hess;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O'Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Clinton Davisson;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938 Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn[A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk[A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää None
1940 None None None None None
1941 None None None None None
1942 None None None None None
1943 Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam;
Edward Adelbert Doisy
None None
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming;
Ernst Boris Chain;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull
1946 Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner;
John Howard Northrop;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch;
John Mott
1947 Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Gerty Cori;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948 Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot None[B]
1949 Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr
1950 C. F. Powell Otto Diels;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench;
Edward Calvin Kendall;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche
1951 John Cockcroft;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux
1952 Felix Bloch;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer
1953 Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall
1954 Max Born;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders;
Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Willis Lamb;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness None
1956 John Bardeen;
Walter Houser Brattain;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand;
Werner Forssmann;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez None
1957 Chen Ning Yang;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson
1958 Pavel Cherenkov;
Ilya Frank;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle;
Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak[C] Dominique Pire
1959 Emilio G. Segrè;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker
1960 Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli
1961 Robert Hofstadter;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld
1962 Lev Landau Max Perutz;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick;
James D. Watson;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling
1963 Eugene Wigner;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964 Charles Hard Townes;
Nikolay Basov;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre[D] Martin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Julian Schwinger;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob;
André Michel Lwoff;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Nelly Sachs
None
1967 Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit;
Haldan Keffer Hartline;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias None
1968 Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley;
Har Gobind Khorana;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin
1969 Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück;
Alfred Hershey;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch;
Jan Tinbergen
1970 Hannes Alfvén;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod;
Ulf von Euler;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson
1971 Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets
1972 John Bardeen;
Leon Cooper;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen;
Stanford Moore;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll None John Hicks;
Kenneth Arrow
1973 Leo Esaki;
Ivar Giaever;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch;
Konrad Lorenz;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger;
Le Duc Tho[E]
Wassily Leontief
1974 Martin Ryle;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude;
Christian de Duve;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal;
Friedrich Hayek
1975 Aage Bohr;
Ben Roy Mottelson;
James Rainwater
John Cornforth;
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore;
Renato Dulbecco;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich;
Tjalling Koopmans
1976 Burton Richter;
Samuel C. C. Ting
William Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg;
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams;
Mairead Maguire
Milton Friedman
1977 Philip Warren Anderson;
Nevill Francis Mott;
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin;
Andrew Schally;
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin;
James Meade
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa;
Arno Allan Penzias;
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter D. Mitchell Werner Arber;
Daniel Nathans;
Hamilton O. Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar Sadat;
Menachem Begin
Herbert A. Simon
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow;
Abdus Salam;
Steven Weinberg
Herbert C. Brown;
Georg Wittig
Allan McLeod Cormack;
Godfrey Hounsfield
Odysseas Elytis Mother Teresa Theodore Schultz;
Arthur Lewis
1980 James Cronin;
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg;
Walter Gilbert;
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf;
Jean Dausset;
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein
1981 Nicolaas Bloembergen;
Arthur Leonard Schawlow;
Kai Siegbahn
Kenichi Fukui;
Roald Hoffmann
Roger Wolcott Sperry;
David H. Hubel;
Torsten Wiesel
Elias Canetti United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James Tobin
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson Aaron Klug Sune Bergström;
Bengt I. Samuelsson;
John Vane
Gabriel García Márquez Alva Myrdal;
Alfonso García Robles
George Stigler
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar;
William Alfred Fowler
Henry Taube Barbara McClintock William Golding Lech Wałęsa Gérard Debreu
1984 Carlo Rubbia;
Simon van der Meer
Robert Bruce Merrifield Niels Kaj Jerne;
Georges J. F. Köhler;
César Milstein
Jaroslav Seifert Desmond Tutu Richard Stone
1985 Klaus von Klitzing Herbert A. Hauptman;
Jerome Karle
Michael Stuart Brown;
Joseph L. Goldstein
Claude Simon International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco Modigliani
1986 Ernst Ruska;
Gerd Binnig;
Heinrich Rohrer
Dudley R. Herschbach;
Yuan T. Lee;
John Polanyi
Stanley Cohen;
Rita Levi-Montalcini
Wole Soyinka Elie Wiesel James M. Buchanan
1987 Johannes Georg Bednorz;
Karl Alexander Müller
Donald J. Cram;
Jean-Marie Lehn;
Charles J. Pedersen
Susumu Tonegawa Joseph Brodsky Óscar Arias Robert Solow
1988 Leon M. Lederman;
Melvin Schwartz;
Jack Steinberger
Johann Deisenhofer;
Robert Huber;
Hartmut Michel
James W. Black;
Gertrude B. Elion;
George H. Hitchings
Naguib Mahfouz United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces Maurice Allais
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.;
Hans Georg Dehmelt;
Wolfgang Paul
Sidney Altman;
Thomas Cech
J. Michael Bishop;
Harold E. Varmus
Camilo José Cela Tenzin Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama) Trygve Haavelmo
1990 Jerome Isaac Friedman;
Henry Way Kendall;
Richard E. Taylor
Elias James Corey Joseph Murray;
E. Donnall Thomas
Octavio Paz Mikhail Gorbachev Harry Markowitz;
Merton Miller;
William F. Sharpe
1991 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes Richard R. Ernst Erwin Neher;
Bert Sakmann
Nadine Gordimer Aung San Suu Kyi Ronald Coase
1992 Georges Charpak Rudolph A. Marcus Edmond H. Fischer;
Edwin G. Krebs
Derek Walcott Rigoberta Menchú Gary Becker
1993 Russell Alan Hulse;
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.
Kary Mullis;
Michael Smith
Richard J. Roberts;
Phillip Allen Sharp
Toni Morrison Nelson Mandela;
F. W. de Klerk
Robert Fogel;
Douglass North
1994 Bertram Brockhouse;
Clifford Shull
George Andrew Olah Alfred G. Gilman;
Martin Rodbell
Kenzaburō Ōe Yasser Arafat;
Shimon Peres;
Yitzhak Rabin
John Harsanyi;
John Forbes Nash, Jr.;
Reinhard Selten
1995 Martin Lewis Perl;
Frederick Reines
Paul J. Crutzen;
Mario J. Molina;
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. Lewis;
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard;
Eric F. Wieschaus
Seamus Heaney Joseph Rotblat;
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr.
1996 David Lee;
Douglas Osheroff;
Robert Coleman Richardson
Robert F. Curl Jr.;
Harry Kroto;
Richard Smalley
Peter C. Doherty;
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
Wisława Szymborska Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo;
José Ramos-Horta
James Mirrlees;
William Vickrey
1997 Steven Chu;
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji;
William Daniel Phillips
Paul D. Boyer;
John E. Walker;
Jens Christian Skou
Stanley B. Prusiner Dario Fo International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams
Robert C. Merton;
Myron Scholes
1998 Robert B. Laughlin;
Horst Ludwig Störmer;
Daniel C. Tsui
Walter Kohn;
John Pople
Robert F. Furchgott;
Louis Ignarro;
Ferid Murad
José Saramago John Hume;
David Trimble
Amartya Sen
1999 Gerard 't Hooft;
Martinus J. G. Veltman
Ahmed Zewail Günter Blobel Günter Grass Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell
2000 Zhores Alferov;
Herbert Kroemer;
Jack Kilby
Alan J. Heeger;
Alan MacDiarmid;
Hideki Shirakawa
Arvid Carlsson;
Paul Greengard;
Eric Kandel
Gao Xingjian Kim Dae-jung James Heckman;
Daniel McFadden
2001 Eric Allin Cornell;
Wolfgang Ketterle;
Carl Wieman
William Standish Knowles;
Ryōji Noyori;
Karl Barry Sharpless
Leland H. Hartwell;
Tim Hunt;
Paul Nurse
V. S. Naipaul United Nations;
Kofi Annan
George Akerlof;
Michael Spence;
Joseph Stiglitz
2002 Raymond Davis, Jr.;
Masatoshi Koshiba;
Riccardo Giacconi
John Fenn;
Koichi Tanaka;
Kurt Wüthrich
Sydney Brenner;
H. Robert Horvitz;
John Sulston
Imre Kertész Jimmy Carter Daniel Kahneman;
Vernon L. Smith
2003 Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov;
Vitaly Ginzburg;
Anthony James Leggett
Peter Agre;
Roderick MacKinnon
Paul Lauterbur;
Peter Mansfield
J. M. Coetzee Shirin Ebadi Robert F. Engle;
Clive Granger
2004 David Gross;
Hugh David Politzer;
Frank Wilczek
Aaron Ciechanover;
Avram Hershko;
Irwin Rose
Richard Axel;
Linda B. Buck
Elfriede Jelinek Wangari Maathai Finn E. Kydland;
Edward C. Prescott
2005 Roy J. Glauber;
John L. Hall;
Theodor W. Hänsch
Yves Chauvin;
Robert H. Grubbs;
Richard R. Schrock
Barry Marshall;
Robin Warren
Harold Pinter International Atomic Energy Agency;
Mohamed ElBaradei
Robert Aumann;
Thomas Schelling
2006 John C. Mather;
George Smoot
Roger D. Kornberg Andrew Fire;
Craig Mello
Orhan Pamuk Muhammad Yunus;
Grameen Bank
Edmund Phelps
2007 Albert Fert;
Peter Grünberg
Gerhard Ertl Mario Capecchi;
Martin Evans;
Oliver Smithies
Doris Lessing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;
Al Gore
Leonid Hurwicz;
Eric Maskin;
Roger Myerson
2008 Yoichiro Nambu;
Makoto Kobayashi;
Toshihide Maskawa
Osamu Shimomura;
Martin Chalfie;
Roger Y. Tsien
Harald zur Hausen;
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi;
Luc Montagnier
J. M. G. Le Clézio Martti Ahtisaari Paul Krugman
2009 Charles K. Kao;
Willard S. Boyle;
George E. Smith
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan;
Thomas A. Steitz;
Ada Yonath
Elizabeth Blackburn;
Carol W. Greider;
Jack W. Szostak
Herta Müller Barack Obama Elinor Ostrom;
Oliver E. Williamson
2010 Andre Geim;
Konstantin Novoselov
Richard F. Heck;
Ei-ichi Negishi;
Akira Suzuki
Robert G. Edwards Mario Vargas Llosa Liu Xiaobo[F] Peter A. Diamond;
Dale T. Mortensen;
Christopher A. Pissarides
2011 Saul Perlmutter;
Adam G. Riess;
Brian Schmidt
Dan Shechtman Bruce Beutler;
Jules A. Hoffmann;
Ralph M. Steinman
Tomas Tranströmer Ellen Johnson Sirleaf;
Leymah Gbowee;
Tawakel Karman
Thomas J. Sargent;
Christopher A. Sims
2012 Serge Haroche;
David J. Wineland
Brian K. Kobilka;
Robert J. Lefkowitz
John B. Gurdon;
Shinya Yamanaka
Mo Yan European Union Alvin E. Roth;
Lloyd S. Shapley
2013 François Englert;
Peter W. Higgs
Martin Karplus;
Michael Levitt;
Arieh Warshel
James E. Rothman;
Randy W. Schekman;
Thomas C. Südhof
Alice Munro Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Eugene F. Fama;
Lars Peter Hansen;
Robert J. Shiller
2014 Isamu Akasaki;
Hiroshi Amano;
Shuji Nakamura
Eric Betzig;
Stefan Hell;
William Moerner
John O'Keefe;
May-Britt Moser;
Edvard Moser
Patrick Modiano Kailash Satyarthi;
Malala Yousafzai
Jean Tirole
2015 Takaaki Kajita;
Arthur B. McDonald
Tomas Lindahl;
Paul L. Modrich;
Aziz Sancar
William C. Campbell;
Satoshi Ōmura;
Tu Youyou
Svetlana Alexievich Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet Angus Deaton
2016[11] David J. Thouless;
Duncan Haldane;
John M. Kosterlitz
Jean-Pierre Sauvage;
Fraser Stoddart;
Ben Feringa
Yoshinori Ohsumi Bob Dylan Juan Manuel Santos Oliver Hart;
Bengt R. Holmström
2017 Rainer Weiss;
Barry Barish;
Kip Thorne
Jacques Dubochet;
Joachim Frank;
Richard Henderson
Jeffrey C. Hall;
Michael Rosbash;
Michael W. Young
Kazuo Ishiguro International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Richard Thaler
Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics

Notes

  • A In 1938 and 1939, the government of Germany did not allow three German Nobel nominees to accept their Nobel Prizes. The three were Richard Kuhn, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1938; Adolf Butenandt, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1939; and Gerhard Domagk, Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine in 1939. They were later awarded the Nobel Prize diploma and medal, but not the money.[9]
  • B In 1948, the Nobel Prize in Peace was not awarded. The Nobel Foundation's website suggests that it would have been awarded to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, however, due to his assassination earlier that year, it was left unassigned in his honor.[12]
  • C In 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak, under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union, was forced to decline the Nobel Prize in Literature.[9]
  • D In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre refused to accept the Nobel Prize in Literature, as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past.[9]
  • E In 1973, Lê Ðức Thọ declined the Nobel Peace Prize. His reason was that he felt he did not deserve it because although he helped negotiate the Paris Peace Accords (a cease-fire in the Vietnam War), there had been no actual peace agreement.[7][9]
  • F In 2010, Liu Xiaobo was unable to receive the Nobel Peace Prize as he was sentenced to 11 years of imprisonment by the Chinese authorities.[13]

See also

References

General
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Physics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Medicine". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Literature". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  • "All Nobel Peace Prize Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  • "All Laureates in Economics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
Specific
  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  2. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2018-06-23. 
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  6. ^ "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  7. ^ a b Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize 1901-2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  8. ^ "All Nobel Prizes". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 14 March 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Nobel Prize Facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-11. 
  10. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-11. 
  11. ^ "2016 Nobel Prizes - Prize Announcement Dates". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2016. 
  12. ^ Tønnesson, Øyvind (December 1, 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved January 3, 2010. Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize had he been alive one more year. 
  13. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 - Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 

External links

  • Official website of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
  • Official website of the Nobel Foundation
  • Downloadable Database of Nobel Laureates

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