Nitroxyl

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Nitroxyl
Ball and stick model of nitroxyl
Names
IUPAC name
Azanone
Systematic IUPAC name
Oxidanimine[citation needed]
Other names
Hydrogen oxonitrate(I)

Nitronous oxide

Nitrosyl hydride
Identifiers
  • 14332-28-6
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
ChEMBL
  • ChEMBL1200689 ☑Y
ChemSpider
  • 920 ☑Y
MeSH Nitroxyl
PubChem CID
  • 945
Properties
HNO
Molar mass 31.01 g·mol−1
log P 0.74
Structure
Digonal
Dihedral
Thermochemistry
33.88 J K−1 mol−1
220.91 J K−1 mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

Nitroxyl (common name) or azanone (IUPAC name)[1] is the chemical compound HNO. It is well known in the gas phase.[2][3] NO It is the reduced form of nitric oxide (NO) and is isoelectronic with dioxygen. Nitroxyl can be formed as a reaction intermediate.

Generation

Nitroxyl is produced from the reagents "Angeli's salt" (Na2N2O3) and "Piloty's acid" (PhSO2NHOH).[4] Other notable studies on the production of HNO exploit cycloadducts of acyl nitroso species, which are known to decompose via hydrolysis to HNO and acyl acid. Upon photolysis these compounds release the acyl nitroso species which then further decompose.[5] HNO is generated via organic oxidation of cyclohexanone oxime with lead tetraacetate to form 1-nitrosocyclohexyl acetate:[6]

Nitrosocyclohexyl acetate

This compound can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions in a phosphate buffer to HNO, acetic acid, and cyclohexanone.

Dichloramine reacts with hydroxyl ion, which can be present in water or comes from water, to yield nitroxyl radical and the chloride ion.[7]

Reactions

Nitroxyl is a weak acid, with pKa of 11, the conjugate base being the triplet state of NO. When producing the singlet state, the pKa is closer to 23.[8][9]

Nitroxyl rapidly decomposes by a bimolecular pathway to nitrous oxide (k(298K) = 8 x 106 M1s1):[8]

2 HNO → N2O + H2O

The reaction proceeds via dimerization to hyponitrous acid, H2N2O2, which subsequently undergoes dehydration. Therefore, HNO is generally prepared in situ as described above.

Nitroxyl is very reactive towards nucleophiles, including thiols. The initial adduct rearranges to a sulfinamide:[9]

HNO + RSH → RS(O)NH2

Detection

In biological samples, nitroxyl can be detected using fluorescent sensors, many of which are based on the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) with concomitant increase in fluorescence.[10]

Medicinal chemistry

Nitroxyl donors, known as nitroso compounds, show potential in the treatment of heart failure and ongoing research is focused on finding new molecules for this task.

See also

Nitroxyl radical - Also called aminoxyl radicals are chemical species containing the R2N–O• functional group

References

  1. ^ Doctorovich, F.; Bikiel, D.; Pellegrino, J.; Suárez, S. A.; Larsen, A.; Martí, M. A. (2011). "Nitroxyl (azanone) trapping by metalloporphyrins". Coordination Chemistry Reviews. 255 (23–24): 2764–2784. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2011.04.012. 
  2. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-08-037941-9. 
  3. ^ Wiberg, Egon; Holleman, Arnold Frederick (2001). Inorganic Chemistry. Elsevier. ISBN 0-12-352651-5. 
  4. ^ Nagasawa, H. T.; Kawle, S. P.; Elberling, J. A.; DeMaster, E. G.; Fukuto, J. M. J. "Prodrugs of Nitroxyl as Potential Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors vis-a-vis Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxants". Med. Chem. 38: 1865–1871. doi:10.1021/jm00011a005. 
  5. ^ Cohen, A. D.; Zeng, B.-B.; King, S. B.; Toscano, J. P. (2003). "Direct observation of an acyl nitroso species in solution by time-resolved IR spectrocopy". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125: 1444–1445. doi:10.1021/ja028978e. PMID 12568581. 
  6. ^ Sha, Xin; Isbell, T. Scott; Patel, Rakesh P.; Day, Cynthia S.; King, S. Bruce (2006). "Hydrolysis of Acyloxy Nitroso Compounds Yields Nitroxyl (HNO)". J. Am. Chem. Soc. (Article). 128 (30): 9687–9692. doi:10.1021/ja062365a. 
  7. ^ White, George Clifford (1986). The handbook of chlorination (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p. 169. ISBN 0-442-29285-6. 
  8. ^ a b Shafirovich, V.; Lymar, S. V. (2002). "Nitroxyl and its anion in aqueous solutions: Spin states, protic equilibria, and reactivities toward oxygen and nitric oxide". U.S. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 99, 7340. doi:10.1073/pnas.112202099. PMC 124232Freely accessible. 
  9. ^ a b Bianco, C. L.; Toscano, J. P.; Bartberger, M. D.; Fukuto, J. M. (2017). "The chemical biology of HNO signaling". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 617: 129–136. doi:10.1016/j.abb.2016.08.014. 
  10. ^ Rivera-Fuentes, Pablo; Lippard, Stephen J. (2015). "Metal-Based Optical Probes for Live Cell Imaging of Nitroxyl (HNO)". Acc. Chem. Res. (Article). 38 (11): 2427–2434. doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00388. 
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