Turkish parliamentary election, 2018

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Turkish parliamentary election, 2018

← Nov 2015 24 June 2018

All 600 seats of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey
301 seats needed for a majority
Opinion polls
  Portrait of Binali Yıldırım (cropped).jpg Kılıçdaroğlu (cropped).jpg Sezai Temelli Pervin Buldan.png
Leader Binali Yıldırım* Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu Sezai Temelli
Pervin Buldan
Party AK Party CHP HDP
Alliance People's Alliance Nation Alliance None[a]
Leader since 24 May 2017 22 May 2010 11 February 2018 (both)
Leader's seat İzmir (I) İzmir (II) Vanİstanbul (III)
Last election 317 seats, 49.50% 134 seats, 25.32% 59 seats, 10.76%
Current seats 316 131 48

  Devlet Bahçeli VOA 2015 (cropped).jpg Meral Akşener İYİ Party 1 (cropped).jpg Temel Karamollaoğlu presidential campaign (cropped).jpg
Leader Devlet Bahçeli Meral Akşener Temel Karamollaoğlu
Party MHP İYİ SP
Alliance People's Alliance Nation Alliance Nation Alliance
Leader since 6 July 1997 25 October 2017 30 October 2016
Leader's seat Osmaniye - -
Last election 40 seats, 11.90% New party No seats, 0.68%
Current seats 35 6 0

Turkey MP distribution 2018.png

The Turkish parliamentary election of 2018 is scheduled to occur on 24 June 2018 as part of the 2018 Turkish general election, with a presidential election taking place on the same day. Originally scheduled for 3 November 2019, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called a snap election on 18 April after months of speculation. With the passage of a series of constitutional amendments in the 2017 referendum, the number of MPs will be increased from the previous 550 to 600. These representatives will be elected by the constituents of the 87 electoral districts of Turkey by party-list proportional representation.

The referendum in 2017 triggered Turkey's transition from a parliamentary to an executive presidential system. As such, the Grand National Assembly will not be entitled to appoint the country's prime minister and cabinet after the 2018 elections. While the office of the Prime Minister of Turkey is set to be abolished altogether, cabinet ministers will primarily serve at the pleasure of the President of Turkey, who is to fill the role of both head of state and head of government.[1]

Background

Elections of 2015

After the elections of June 2015 resulted in the ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) losing its majority, the four parties in the Grand National Assembly were faced with the prospect of a coalition government. However, after government formation talks broke down, early elections were called for November 2015. The snap election saw the AKP regain its absolute parliamentary majority with 317 of 550 seats. The remainder went to the Republican People's Party (CHP) on 134 seats, the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) on 59, and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) on 40. The results of the November 2015 elections allowed the AKP to form a single-party government under its leader Ahmet Davutoğlu, but not to change the constitution or call a referendum, which would have required two-thirds or three-fifths majorities, respectively. As such, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was left nominally unable to trigger a switch from a parliamentary to a presidential system, as his AKP had campaigned for ahead of the elections. Additionally, he faced opposition on the matter from Prime Minister Davutoğlu, who allegedly held reservations over a change in form of government. In May 2016, Davutoğlu resigned from both the AKP leadership and the premiership, citing disagreements with Erdoğan as part of the reason. He was replaced in both capacities by Binali Yıldırım.

Coup attempt and state of emergency

On 15 July 2016, sections of the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) launched a coup d'état against the Turkish government, including the ruling AKP government of Prime Minister Binali Yıldırım and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. Military jets were reportedly spotted flying over Ankara just before 23:00 EEST (UTC+3), while both the Fatih Sultan Mehmet and Bosphorus bridges in Istanbul were closed by the armed forces. In a televised address on the TRT station, the coup plotters, who referred to themselves as the Peace at Home Council (Turkish: Yurtta Sulh Konseyi), claimed that "The government ... [had] been dismissed from office".[2] However, the coup attempt ultimately failed, after President Erdoğan addressed the Turkish people through the FaceTime mobile application, urging them to resist the coup plotters.[3] By the morning of 16 July 2016, the situation had reportedly been brought under control, while the Turkish government accused the Gülen movement of having orchestrated the putsch, and vowed to purge state institutions of its members. On 15 July 2016, Erdoğan announced the introduction of a three-month state of emergency. Under Turkish law, states of emergency may only be upheld for three months at a time, though they may be renewed an unlimited number of times by parliamentary vote. The post-coup state of emergency in Turkey has been extended seven times, and is still in place as of April 2018.[4] The elections of June 2018 are likely to take place under the ongoing state of emergency.[5]

April 2017 referendum

Electoral system

The 600 members of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey will be elected by party-list proportional representation in 85 electoral districts, by the D'Hondt method. For the purpose of legislative elections, each of Turkey's 81 provinces serves as a single district, though the provinces of Ankara and Izmir are each divided into two districts, while Istanbul is divided into three.

Since the introduction of Turkey's Constitution of 1982, political parties are required to pass an electoral threshold of 10% of the nationwide popular vote in order to obtain seats in parliament, with all those falling below the threshold disregarded for seat distribution purposes. However, amendments to the Turkish electoral law made in early 2018 effectively legalized the formation of pre-election alliances between two or more parties; if parties in an alliance obtain more than 10% of the vote combined, then each of them may still win seats in parliament. Further, parties must be officially organised in at least half of provinces (41 or more) and in at least a third of districts in those provinces, and must nominate two candidates in 41 or more provinces, in order to be entitled to seats.

Electoral districts

District MPs
Adana 15
Adıyaman 5
Afyonkarahisar 6
Ağrı 4
Aksaray 4
Amasya 3
Ankara 36
Ankara (I) 13
Ankara (II) 11
Ankara (III) 12
Antalya 16
Ardahan 2
Artvin 2
Aydın 8
 
District MPs
Balıkesir 9
Bartın 2
Batman 5
Bayburt 1
Bilecik 2
Bingöl 3
Bitlis 3
Bolu 3
Burdur 3
Bursa 20
Bursa (I) 10
Bursa (II) 10
Çanakkale 4
Çankırı 2
 
District MPs
Çorum 4
Denizli 8
Diyarbakır 12
Düzce 3
Edirne 4
Elazığ 5
Erzincan 2
Erzurum 6
Eskişehir 7
Gaziantep 14
Giresun 4
Gümüşhane 2
Hakkâri 3
Hatay 11
 
District MPs
Iğdır 2
Isparta 4
İstanbul 98
İstanbul (I) 35
İstanbul (II) 28
İstanbul (III) 35
İzmir 28
İzmir (I) 14
İzmir (II) 14
Kahramanmaraş 8
Kars 3
Kastamonu 3
Karabük 3
 
District MPs
Karaman 3
Kayseri 10
Kilis 2
Kırklareli 3
Kırıkkale 3
Kırşehir 2
Kocaeli 13
Konya 15
Kütahya 5
Malatya 6
Manisa 10
Mardin 6
Mersin 13
 
District MPs
Muğla 7
Muş 4
Nevşehir 3
Niğde 3
Ordu 6
Osmaniye 4
Rize 3
Sakarya 7
Samsun 9
Siirt 3
Sinop 2
Sivas 5
Şanlıurfa 14
 
District MPs
Şırnak 4
Tekirdağ 7
Tokat 5
Trabzon 6
Tunceli 2
Uşak 3
Van 8
Yalova 3
Yozgat 4
Zonguldak 5
Total 600

Contesting parties

İYİ Party controversy

The İYİ Party, formed on 25 October 2017, was subject to wide speculation over whether it would be eligible to contest the elections. It was speculated that the AKP and MHP purposefully chose the date of 24 June to prevent İYİ from contesting the election, as it was previously announced by İYİ General Secretary Aytun Çıray that the party would be eligible to contest any election as of 28 June. The claim was later revealed to be a deliberate lie, with Çıray later claiming that the correct date was 10 June (six months after their ordinary congress) and that he purposefully gave a misleading date to fool the AKP.[6] Conflicting rumours were then reported that the AKP had proposed a change in the law that would guarantee that İYİ would stand in order to prevent a loss of support for perceived undemocratic practices, although the proposal was blocked by the MHP.[7] Both parties denied the reports, and blamed the İYİ Party for incompetence in the event that it was found to be eligible to contest the election.[8]

The Supreme Electoral Council (YSK) initially announced that it did not know whether İYİ could participate, as the Court of Cassation was responsible for analysing the eligible parties. On 21 April, the Court announced that İYİ was eligible.[9] However, the YSK refused to ratify the announcement, causing accusations by the opposition that the government was trying to prevent İYİ from running. On 22 April, 15 Republican People's Party (CHP) MPs resigned and joined the İYİ Party at the request of CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu, thereby allowing İYİ to form a parliamentary group and guaranteeing them eligibility to run in the election.[10] The YSK announced that İYİ would be able to run in the elections on 23 April.[11]

Contesting parties

The table below shows the 8 of the 11 eligible parties that submitted candidate lists to the Supreme Electoral Council (YSK) before the 21 May 17:00 deadline, thereby contesting the election. The table shows the parties and alliances in the order they will appear on the ballot paper.

Ballot # Coalition Party Ideology Leader
1 People's Alliance AKP Justice and Development Party
Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi
Social conservatism Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
2 MHP Nationalist Movement Party
Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi
Turkish nationalism Devlet Bahçeli
3 None HÜDAPAR Free Cause Party
Hür Dava Partisi
Pan-Islamism Zekeriya Yapıcıoğlu
Resigned on 21 May 2018[12]
4 VATAN Patriotic Party
Vatan Partisi
Left-wing nationalism Doğu Perinçek
5 HDP Peoples' Democratic Party
Halkların Demokratik Partisi
Minority rights Pervin Buldan
Sezai Temelli
6 Nation Alliance[13][14] CHP Republican People's Party
Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi
Social democracy Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu
7 SP Felicity Party
Saadet Partisi
Islamic democracy Temel Karamollaoğlu
8 İYİ Good Party
İyi Parti
Liberal conservatism Meral Akşener

Eligible parties

The below table shows the remaining 3 of the 11 eligible parties that were eligible to contest the election but decided not to field candidates.

Party Ideology Leader Supporting alliance Course of action
DP Democrat Party
Demokrat Parti
Liberal conservatism Gültekin Uysal Nation Alliance Green tickY Contesting from İYİ Party list
BBP Great Union Party
Büyük Birlik Partisi
Social conservatism Mustafa Destici People's Alliance Green tickY Contesting from AK Party list
BTP Independent Turkey Party
Bağımsız Türkiye Partisi
Conservative nationalism Haydar Baş None
(Sympathetic to the Nation Alliance)[15]
Red XN Boycotting[16]

Endorsements

Several non-governmental organisations and parties not eligible to contest the election announced their support for specific parties or alliances throughout the election campaign.

Other parties

Alliance Endorsement Ideology
People's Alliance Motherland Party (ANAP)[17] Social conservatism
AS Party (ASP)[18] Pro-military
Nation Alliance Democratic Left Party (DSP)[19] Democratic socialism

Campaign

İyi Party

İYİ is using "Türkiye iyi olacak" (Turkish: Turkey will be good) slogan for the elections. They promise to re-open Wikipedia after a year-long ban.[20]

Opinion polls

Turkish polls 2018.png

MPs standing down

According to recent constitutional changes, presidential candidates cannot be MPs. As a result, Muharrem İnce and Selahattin Demirtaş stood down.[21] Also, MPs cannot be ministers in new cabinet.[22] Several ongoing MPs from AK Party is rumoured to be reserved for a ministry, thus not nominated.[23]

Justice and Development Party

İyi Party

Republican People's Party

  • Erdal Aksünger[28]
  • Aytuğ Atıcı[28]
  • Hüseyin Çamak[28]
  • Ceyhun Irgil[28]
  • Bihlun Tamaylıgil[28]
  • Aydın Uslupehlivan[28]

Peoples' Democratic Party

Notes

  1. ^ Supported by the left-wing political parties and groups of the HDK

References

  1. ^ Shaheen, Kareem. "Erdoğan rejoins Turkey's ruling party in wake of referendum on new powers". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April 2018. 
  2. ^ "Asker TRT binasında: İşte 'darbe' bildirisi". Haber 3. Retrieved 19 April 2018. 
  3. ^ "Turkey Coup: How Facetime and social media helped Erdogan foil the plot". VOX. Retrieved 19 April 2018. 
  4. ^ "Turkey seeks to extend state of emergency for 7th time". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 April 2018. 
  5. ^ "Turkey's Erdogan declares elections will be held early, under state of emergency". CBC. Retrieved 19 April 2018. 
  6. ^ "İYİ Parti'den Erdoğan'a: Bu sefer biz kandırdık!". Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  7. ^ "Devlet Bahçeli İYİ Parti'ye taş koydu". Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  8. ^ "AKP'li Elitaş, "İYİ Parti, bir sonraki yapılacak seçime hazırlansın"". Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  9. ^ https://www.cnnturk.com/turkiye/iyi-parti-yargitayin-listesinde-iyi-parti-de-var
  10. ^ "CHP'den İYİ Parti'ye 15 emanet vekil". Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  11. ^ https://www.ntv.com.tr/turkiye/yskiyi-parti-kararioy-birligi-ile-alindi,HqYXDnmm7U-Ms4nzDWW00A
  12. ^ https://www.evrensel.net/haber/353011/huda-par-genel-baskani-zekeriya-yapicioglu-istifa-etti
  13. ^ Güncelleme, Son. "Muhalefetten ittifak adımı (CHP-İYİ Parti-Saadet Partisi ve Demokrat Parti anlaştı)". NTV. Retrieved 2 May 2018. 
  14. ^ "4 parti birleşti! Millet İttifakı geliyor". Haberiniz. Retrieved 2 May 2018. 
  15. ^ http://www.yurtgazetesi.com.tr/gundem/millet-ittifaki-na-bir-parti-daha-katiliyor-h91853.html
  16. ^ http://www.haberturk.com/tv/gundem/haber/1977497-bagimsiz-turkiye-partisi-btp-secime-girmeme-karari-aldi
  17. ^ https://www.dirilispostasi.com/2018-cumhurbaskanligi-ve-genel-secimi/anaptan-cumhur-ittifakina-destek-karari-5afd45d08ca780440d15e982
  18. ^ http://www.mynet.com/haber/secim/as-parti-den-cumhur-ittifaki-na-destek-4130744-1
  19. ^ http://www.yenicaggazetesi.com.tr/dspden-millet-ittifakina-destek-192747h.htm
  20. ^ "İYİ Parti'den seçim vaadi: Wikipedia açılacak" (in Turkish). Retrieved 4 May 2018. 
  21. ^ "'Cumhurbaşkanı adayı milletvekili adayı olamayacak'". Retrieved 25 May 2018. 
  22. ^ "Turkey's constitution: 18 current and proposed changes". Turkey's constitution: 18 current and proposed changes (in Turkish). Retrieved 25 May 2018. ...ministers are appointed by the president from among the ones who are eligible to be deputies...Members of the Grand National Assembly cease to be members in case they are appointed as vice presidents or ministers. 
  23. ^ "Vekil adayı olamayanlar için bakanlık umudu". yeniakit (in Turkish). Retrieved 25 May 2018. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Oldu, Az Önce (20 April 2018). "AK Parti'de 4'ü bakan olmak üzeri 22 milletvekili 3 dönem kuralına takılıyor". Az Önce Oldu. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  25. ^ "Ahmet Davutoğlu: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan hepimizin adayıdır". Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  26. ^ "İsmail Kahraman aday olmadı!". yeniakit. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
  27. ^ http://www.haber7.com/siyaset/haber/2630994-aday-gosterilmeyen-halacoglundan-tepki
  28. ^ a b c d e f "6 names were not nominated in the CHP! - Milligazete". 13 May 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  29. ^ "Jailed 'Kurdish Obama' says he won't run for Turkish elections - France 24". 10 January 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018. 
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