Newfoundland Station

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Newfoundland Station
Active 1729–1825
Country United Kingdom
Branch Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
Type Fleet
Part of Royal Navy
Garrison/HQ Plymouth, Portsmouth, St. John's.

The Newfoundland Station [1] was a formation or command of, first, the Kingdom of Great Britain and, then, of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy. Its official headquarters varied between Portsmouth or Plymouth[2] in England where a squadron of ships would set sail annually each year to protect convoys and the British fishing fleet operating in waters off the Newfoundland coast and would remain for period of approximately six months based at St. John's Harbour. In 1818 the station became a permanent posting headquartered at St John's. It existed from 1729 to 1825.

History

The Commodore-Governor was both a British Government and a Royal Navy official who was commander-in-chief[3] of the annual fishing convoy which left England each spring, sometimes from Portsmouth and other times from Plymouth, to fish off Newfoundland: the fleet were tasked with protecting the fishing convoys from harm. They were also responsible for administrative and judicial functions, including assisting the fishing admirals in Britain in maintaining admiralty law and order and compiling the annual report on the fish stocks for the British government. From 1729 to 1775 the officer appointed was usually of Commodore rank; however the station's increasing importance after that date led to appointments of more senior flag officers.[4]

The squadron stayed in Newfoundland for approximately 4 to 6 months annually. How long they remained depended on the orders the received from the Admiralty, according to the ships' condition. The fleet usually arrived off Newfoundland in July and August, generally returning to England, via the Lisbon Station, towards the end of October. A number of circumstances usually precipitated its return: bypassing the horrendous weather conditions prevalent in the Atlantic at that time of year and escorting the British fishing fleet. In spite of these problems, the naval administration continued to grow throughout the 18th century. By 1818, the colony had a sufficiently large permanent population to warrant having a full-time resident governor. The station's responsibilities were merged into the North America Station in 1825 when a full-time civilian governor was appointed.[5]

Commanders

Commanders included:[4]

References

  1. ^ Bannister, Jerry (2003). The rule of the admirals : law, custom, and naval government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. Toronto: Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780802086136. 
  2. ^ Malcomson, Thomas (2016). Order and Disorder in the British Navy, 1793-1815: Control, Resistance, Flogging and Hanging. Boydell & Brewer. p. 11. ISBN 9781783271191. 
  3. ^ Bannister, Jerry (2003). The rule of the admirals : law, custom, and naval government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. Toronto: Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 64. ISBN 9780802086136. 
  4. ^ a b Haydn, Joseph (13 Jun 2008). The Book of Dignities: Containing Lists of the Official Personages of the British Empire ... from the Earliest Periods to the Present Time ... Together with the Sovereigns and Rulers of Europe, from the Foundation of Their Respective States; the Peerage of England and Great Britain Original 1851 Digitized by the University of Michigan. Longmans, Brown, Green, and Longmans. p. 279. 
  5. ^ "Naval Governors, 1729-1824". Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 26 November 2016. 
  6. ^ Bannister, Jerry (2003). The rule of the admirals : law, custom, and naval government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. Toronto: Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 64. ISBN 9780802086136. 
  7. ^ Bannister, Jerry (2003). The rule of the admirals : law, custom, and naval government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. Toronto: Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 64. ISBN 9780802086136. 
  8. ^ Bannister, Jerry (2003). The rule of the admirals : law, custom, and naval government in Newfoundland, 1699-1832. Toronto: Published for the Osgoode Society for Canadian Legal History by University of Toronto Press. p. 64. ISBN 9780802086136. 
  9. ^ Marshall, John (2010). Royal Naval Biography: Or, Memoirs of the Services of All the Flag-Officers, Superannuated Rear-Admirals, Retired-Captains, Post-Captains, and Commanders. Cambridge University Press. p. 545. ISBN 9781108022675. 
  10. ^ "Biography: GOWER, Sir ERASMUS, naval officer and governor of Newfoundland". Dictionary of Canadian Biography,Volume V (1801-1820) , 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016. 

Sources

  • Miller, Nathan. Broadsides: The Age of Fighting Sail, 1775-1815 . New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2000.
  • Rodger, N.A.M. The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815. New York and London: W.W. Norton and Company, 2004.

External links

  • http://morethannelson.com/Royal Navy Stations
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