New Zealand general election, 1946

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New Zealand general election, 1946
New Zealand
← 1943 26 (Māori) & 27 November (general) 1946 1949 →

All 80 seats in the New Zealand Parliament
41 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout 1,047,205 (93.5%)
  First party Second party
  Peter Fraser.jpg Sidney George Holland (1953).jpg
Leader Peter Fraser Sidney Holland
Party Labour National
Leader since 1940 1940
Leader's seat Wellington Central Christchurch North
Last election 45 seats, 47.6% 34 seats, 42.8%
Seats won 42 38
Seat change Decrease 3 Increase 4
Popular vote 536,994 507,139
Percentage 51.3% 48.4%
Swing Increase 3.7% Increase 5.6%

Prime Minister before election

Peter Fraser
Labour

Elected Prime Minister

Peter Fraser
Labour

The 1946 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament's 28th term. It saw the governing Labour Party re-elected, but by a substantially narrower margin than in the three previous elections. The National Party continued its gradual rise.

Background

The Labour Party had been in government since winning the 1935 elections, and had been re-elected twice. However, the National Party had managed to overcome the internal problems which had once troubled it, and now presented a credible threat to Labour. National's leader, Sidney Holland, was proving more effective than his predecessor, while the Prime Minister, Peter Fraser, was weary and in poor health. The after-effects of World War II, including ongoing shortages, were affecting the government's popularity.

The next census was scheduled for 1946, but the government brought it forward to Tuesday 25 September 1945, so that the results could be used for the 1946 electoral redistribution prior to the planned 1946 election.[1] The 1946 electoral redistribution had to take ten years of population growth and movements into account. The North Island gained a further two electorates from the South Island due to faster population growth. The abolition of the country quota through the Electoral Amendment Act, 1945 reduced the number and increased the size of rural electorates. None of the existing electorates remained unchanged, 26 electorates were abolished, 19 electorates were created for the first time, and six former electorates were re-established.[2]

The election

The date for the main 1946 elections was 27 November, a Wednesday. Elections to the four Māori electorates were held the day before. 1,081,898 people were registered to vote, and there was a turnout of 93.5%. This turnout was the highest ever recorded at this point. The number of seats being contested was 80, a number which had been fixed since 1902.[3]

The outcome of the election was probably affected by the abolition of the country quota the previous year.[citation needed] This had required rural electorates to be smaller than urban electorates, thus increasing the importance of the rural vote. Since National was more popular than Labour in rural areas, the change may have cost National the election.

Election results

Party standings

The 1946 election saw the governing Labour Party retain office by a four-seat margin, winning forty-two seats to the National Party's thirty-eight. In the popular vote — Labour won 51.3% and National won 48.4%. The election was a straight fight between the two main parties (unlike the 1943 election), and only 8 of the 76 European electorates had more than two candidates. The Democratic Soldier Labour Party did not take part, and National absorbed many of the miscellaneous candidates and splinter movements. The European electorates divided equally and the Maori seats decided the issue. [4]

No other parties won any significant share of the vote, and no independents were elected — only 0.3% of voters did not support one of the two major parties. After Harry Atmore of Nelson died, no candidate who was not from the two main parties managed to enter Parliament until the 1966 elections, when the Social Credit Party won its first seat.

Election results
Party Candidates Total votes Percentage Seats won Change
Labour 80 536,994 51.28 42 -3
National 80 507,149 48.43 38 +4
Communist 3 1,181 0.11 0 ±0
Independent 9 2,886 0.18 0 -1
Total 172 1,047,210 80

Votes summary

Popular Vote
Labour
51.28%
National
48.43%
Others
0.29%
Parliament seats
Labour
52.50%
National
47.50%

Initial MPs

The table below shows the results of the 1946 general election:

Key

 Labour    National    Independent  

[v · t · e] Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1946[5]
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Arch Hill New electorate Bill Parry[6] 6,585 E J Clark
Ashburton New electorate Richard Geoffrey Gerard 1,453 Mabel Newlands
Auckland Central Bill Parry[6] Bill Anderton[7] 3,478 Leon Götz[8]
Avon Dan Sullivan 5,180 R A McDowell
Awarua George Richard Herron 2,588 G G M Mitchell
Bay of Plenty Bill Sullivan[9] 1,634 Ray Boord[10][5]
Brooklyn New electorate Peter Fraser[11] 3,935 S Hardy
Buller Paddy Webb Jerry Skinner 2,912 P E McDonald
Central Otago William Bodkin 2,909 C Capell
Christchurch Central New electorate Robert Macfarlane 4,420 A J Wills
Clutha James Roy 2,140 J P Thompson
Dunedin Central Peter Neilson Philip Connolly 2,000 Thomas Kay Stuart Sidey[12][5]
Eden Bill Anderton[7] Wilfred Fortune[13] 1,281 Warren Freer[14][5]
Egmont Ernest Corbett[15] 3,398 C R Parker
Fendalton New electorate Sidney Holland 3,004 A G Williams
Franklin Jack Massey 4,023 A D J Gunn
Gisborne David William Coleman 2,015 Harry Barker[16]
Grey Lynn Fred Hackett 5,910 H S Barry
Hamilton Hilda Ross 327 J Granville
Hastings New electorate Edward Luttrell Cullen 483 Eric Pryor[17]
Hauraki Andrew Sutherland 2,891 J W Neate
Hawke's Bay Edward Luttrell Cullen Cyril Harker 2,014 H E Beattie
Hobson New electorate Sidney Walter Smith 3,580 H K Hatrick
Hurunui William Gillespie 1,440 John Mathison
Hutt Walter Nash 2,587 J E F Vogel
Invercargill William Denham Ralph Hanan 224 William Denham
Island Bay New electorate Robert McKeen 3,958 H E Childs
Karori New electorate Charles Bowden 2,042 P C McGavin
Lyttelton Terry McCombs 1,543 Edward Bickmore Ellison Taylor[18]
Manawatu Matthew Oram 2,467 Phil Holloway
Marlborough Edwin Meachen Tom Shand 179 Edwin Meachen
Marsden Alfred Murdoch 2,149 John Stewart
Miramar New electorate Bob Semple 2,482 Leonard Theodor Jacobsen[19]
Mornington New electorate Walter Arthur Hudson 4,681 L D McIver
Mount Albert New electorate Arthur Shapton Richards 1,857 F A Hosking
Mount Victoria New electorate Jack Marshall 911 Eugene Casey
Napier Tommy Armstrong 1,845 A J Price
Nelson vacant[nb 1] Edgar Neale 585 C H Goodman
New Plymouth Ernest Aderman 405 G Nimmo
North Dunedin Robert Walls 1,630 Norman Jones[20]
North Shore New electorate Martyn Finlay 249 Henry Thorne Morton[21]
Oamaru Arnold Nordmeyer 232 T R Beatty[22]
Onehunga Arthur Osborne 3,424 W K King
Onslow New electorate Harry Ernest Combs 1,578 P P Lynch
Otahuhu Charles Robert Petrie 220 C A Murdoch
Otaki Leonard Lowry James Joseph Maher 44 Jim Thorn
Pahiatua Keith Holyoake 3,697 O E Niederer
Palmerston North Joe Hodgens Ormond Wilson 928 Augustus Edward Mansford
Parnell New electorate Duncan Rae 206 Frederick Schramm
Patea William Sheat 870 Richard John O'Dea
Petone New electorate Michael Moohan 4,019 G London
Piako New electorate William Goosman 5,101 Ben Waters
Ponsonby New electorate Ritchie Macdonald 3,431 Peter E Dempsey[23]
Raglan Hallyburton Johnstone Alan Baxter 13 Hallyburton Johnstone
Rangitikei Edward Gordon 2,307 J D Capstick
Remuera Ronald Algie 4,410 J Freeman
Riccarton Jack Watts Angus McLagan 3,875 V W Wilson
Rodney New electorate Clifton Webb 2,850 A B Dixon
Roskill Arthur Shapton Richards Frank Langstone 155 Roy McElroy[24]
St Albans New electorate Jack Watts 86 Morgan Williams[25]
St Kilda New electorate Fred Jones 1,248 L J T Ireland
Selwyn New electorate John McAlpine 472 E A Sharp
Sydenham New electorate Mabel Howard 6,746 R Hunter
Tamaki New electorate Tom Skinner 231 J G C Wales
Tauranga Frederick Doidge 2,704 D A Hill
Timaru Clyde Carr 520 Jack Acland[26]
Waikato William Goosman Geoffrey Sim 4,385 J Dwyer
Waimarino Frank Langstone Paddy Kearins 681 N R Hill
Waimate New electorate David Campbell Kidd 789 W R Davison
Wairarapa Ben Roberts Garnet Hercules Mackley 235 G A Hansen
Waitakere New electorate Rex Mason 2,797 A M Laing
Waitomo Walter Broadfoot 3,951 A G Goldsmith
Wallace Adam Hamilton Tom Macdonald 3,716 D J Munro
Wanganui Joseph Cotterill 1,934 E W Merewether
Wellington Central Peter Fraser Charles Henry Chapman 1,680 Agnes Louisa Weston[nb 2]
Westland James O'Brien 4,716 E Frank Chivers[29][30]
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Tiaki Omana 1,517 Āpirana Ngata
Northern Maori Tapihana Paraire Paikea 2,555 James Henare[31]
Southern Maori Eruera Tirikatene 581 Vernon Ohaia Mason Thomas
Western Maori Matiu Ratana 6,491 Hoeroa Marumaru[32]

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Harry Atmore, the previous holder of the Nelson electorate, died on 20 August 1946
  2. ^ Claude Weston died suddenly on 10 November 1946 and was replaced by his wife[27][28]

Notes

  1. ^ "Politics brought the 1946 Census forward to 1945". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 91–96.
  3. ^ "General elections 1853-2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  4. ^ Lipson 2011, p. 220-21.
  5. ^ a b c d "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Wilson 1985, p. 225.
  7. ^ a b Wilson 1985, p. 180.
  8. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 315.
  9. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 237.
  10. ^ Norton 1988, p. 200.
  11. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 198.
  12. ^ Norton 1988, p. 212.
  13. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 197.
  14. ^ Norton 1988, p. 220.
  15. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 190.
  16. ^ Milton-Tee, Ann. "Harry Heaton Barker". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  17. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 382.
  18. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 387.
  19. ^ "Public Notices". The Evening Post. CXXXVI (136). 6 December 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Gustafson 1986, pp. 323f.
  21. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 334.
  22. ^ "The New Parliament". The New Zealand Herald. 80 (24699). 27 September 1943. p. 3. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  23. ^ Gustafson 1986, pp. 360f.
  24. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 375.
  25. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 245.
  26. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 179.
  27. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 389.
  28. ^ "Claude Horace Weston". Auckland War Memorial Museum. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  29. ^ "General Election". Auckland Star. LXXIV (203). 27 August 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  30. ^ "Chivers, E Frank, DSM, MID". Torpedo Bay Navy Museum. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 
  31. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 367.
  32. ^ Gustafson 1986, p. 377.

References

  • Gustafson, Barry (1986). The First 50 Years : A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. 
  • Lipson, Leslie (2011) [1948]. The Politics of Equality: New Zealand’s Adventures in Democracy. Wellington: Victoria University Press. ISBN 978-0-86473-646-8. 
  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 
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