New Zealand electorates

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An electorate is a geographical constituency used for electing members to the New Zealand Parliament. In informal discussion, electorates are often called seats. The most formal description, electoral district, is used in legislation.[1] The size of electorates is determined on a population basis such that all electorates have approximately the same population.

Before 1996, all members of Parliament were directly chosen for office by the voters of an electorate. In 2014 under the MMP electoral system, 71 of the usually 120 seats in Parliament were filled by electorate members, with the remainder being filled from party lists in order to achieve proportional representation (there were 69 electorates in 2005, and 70 electorates in the 2008 and 2011 elections). The 71 electorates are made up from 64 general and seven Māori electorates.

Distribution

Originally, electorates were drawn up based on political and social links, with little consideration for differences in population. The New Zealand House of Representatives was originally modelled on the electoral procedures used for the British House of Commons, where there were both single-member electorates (electorates returning just one MP) and multi-member electorates (electorates returning more than one MP).[2] Each electorate was allocated a different number of MPs (up to three) in order to balance population differences. All electorates used a plurality voting system.[2] From 1881, a special country quota meant that rural seats were allowed to contain fewer people than urban seats, preserving the inequality and over-representing farmers.[3] For the 1905 election the multi-member electorates were abolished. The quota system persisted until 1945.[2]

Today, electorate boundaries are determined by the Representation Commission.[4] The Commission consists of:

  • Four government officials—the Government Statistician, the Surveyor-General, the Chief Electoral Officer, and the Chairperson of the Local Government Commission.
  • A representative of the governing party or coalition, and a representative of the opposition bloc.
  • A chairperson (often a judge) nominated by the other members, with the exception of Chairperson of the Local Government Commission.[4]

Boundaries are reviewed after each New Zealand census, which normally occurs every five years.[1] The South Island is guaranteed to have 16 general seats, and dividing the number of persons in the South Island's general electoral population by 16 determines the South Island Quota which is then used to calculate the number of Māori electorates and North Island electorates. The number of māori electorates are determined by the Māori Electoral Option where Māori voters can opt to be in either a māori electorate or a general electorate. The percentage of Māori voters opting for the māori roll determines the percentage of the whole Māori population (of persons claiming Māori ancestry at the previous census) which is then divided by the South Island Quota to calculate the number of māori seats. South Island Māori opting for the general roll are included in the population on which the South Island Quota is established. The North Island population (including Māori opting for the general roll) being divided into electorates of approximately the same population as the South Island ones.[5] Electorates may vary by no more than 5% of the average population size.[1] This has caused the number of list seats in Parliament to decline as the population is experiencing "northern drift" (i.e. the population of the North Island, especially around Auckland, is growing faster than that of the South Island) due to both internal migration and immigration.[6]

Because of the increasing North Island population, the North Island was awarded an additional electoral seat beginning in the 2008 general election.[7] Another North Island seat was created for the 2014 general election.[8] Each time, the need for an extra seat was determined from the results of the most recent census, with the seat coming out of the total number of list seats. The total number of list seats has thus declined from 51 to 49 since 2007.

Although the New Zealand Parliament is intended to have 120 members, recent iterations have exceeded this quantity. Due to some parties winning more electorate seats than their proportion of the party vote suggests, overhang seats have awarded. In 2005 and 2011, 121 members were elected; 122 members were elected in 2008.[9]

Naming

The Representation Commission determines the names of each electorate following the most recent census.[4] An electorate may be named after a geographic region, landmark (e.g. a mountain) or main population centre. The Commission adopts compass point names when there is not a more suitable name. The compass point reference usually follows the name of the main population centre, e.g. Hamilton East.

Special electorates

Over the years, there have been two types of "special" electorates created for particular communities. The first were special goldminers' electorates, created for participants in the Otago Goldrush — goldminers did not usually meet the residency and property requirements in the electorate they were prospecting in, but were numerous enough to warrant political representation. Two goldminers' electorates existed, the first began in 1863 and both ended in 1870.

Much more durable have been the Māori electorates, created in 1868 to give separate representation to Māori citizens. Although originally intended to be temporary, they came to function as reserved positions for Māori, ensuring that there would always be a Māori voice in Parliament. Until 1996 the number of Māori electorates was fixed at four, significantly under-representing Māori in Parliament. In 1975 the definition of who could opt to register on either the general or the māori roll was expanded to include all persons of Māori descent.[10] Previously all persons of more than 50% Māori ancestry were on the māori roll while persons of less than 50% Māori ancestry were required to enrol on the then European roll. Only persons presumed to have equal Māori and European ancestry (so-called half-castes) had a choice of roll.[11] Since the introduction of MMP, the number of seats can change with the number of Māori voters who choose to go on the Māori roll rather than the general roll.

Electorates in the 51st Parliament

New Zealand electorates used since 2014, showing 2014 election results

This table shows the electorates as they are represented, as of 28 March 2015, during the 51st New Zealand Parliament.

General electorates

Electorate Region(s) MP Party
Auckland Central Auckland (Central) Kaye, NikkiNikki Kaye National
Bay of Plenty Bay of Plenty Muller, ToddTodd Muller National
Botany Auckland (South) Ross, Jami-LeeJami-Lee Ross National
Christchurch Central Canterbury Wagner, NickyNicky Wagner National
Christchurch East Canterbury Williams, PotoPoto Williams Labour
Clutha-Southland Southland; Otago Barclay, ToddTodd Barclay National
Coromandel Waikato Simpson, ScottScott Simpson National
Dunedin North Otago Clark, DavidDavid Clark Labour
Dunedin South Otago Curran, ClareClare Curran Labour
East Coast Gisborne; Bay of Plenty Tolley, AnneAnne Tolley National
East Coast Bays Auckland (North) McCully, MurrayMurray McCully National
Epsom Auckland (Central) Seymour, DavidDavid Seymour ACT
Hamilton East Waikato Bennett, DavidDavid Bennett National
Hamilton West Waikato Tim Macindoe National
Helensville Auckland (West) Key, JohnJohn Key National
Hunua Auckland (South) Bayly, AndrewAndrew Bayly National
Hutt South Wellington Mallard, TrevorTrevor Mallard Labour
Ilam Canterbury Brownlee, GerryGerry Brownlee National
Invercargill Southland Dowie, SarahSarah Dowie National
Kaikōura Marlborough; Canterbury Smith, StuartStuart Smith National
Kelston Auckland (West) Sepuloni, CarmelCarmel Sepuloni Labour
Mana Wellington Faafoi, KrisKris Faafoi Labour
Mangere Auckland (South) Sio, WilliamWilliam Sio Labour
Manukau East Auckland (South) Salesa, JennyJenny Salesa Labour
Manurewa Auckland (South) Wall, LouisaLouisa Wall Labour
Maungakiekie Auckland (Central) Lotu-Iiga, SamSam Lotu-Iiga National
Mt Albert Auckland (Central) Ardern, JacindaJacinda Ardern Labour
Mt Roskill Auckland (Central) Wood, MichaelMichael Wood Labour
Napier Hawke's Bay Nash, StuartStuart Nash Labour
Nelson Nelson; Tasman Smith, NickNick Smith National
New Lynn Auckland (West) Cunliffe, DavidDavid Cunliffe Labour
New Plymouth Taranaki Young, JonathanJonathan Young National
North Shore Auckland (North) Barry, MaggieMaggie Barry National
Northcote Auckland (North) Jonathan Coleman National
Northland Northland Peters, WinstonWinston Peters NZ First
Ōhariu Wellington Dunne, PeterPeter Dunne United Future
Ōtaki Wellington; Manawatu-Wanganui Guy, NathanNathan Guy National
Pakuranga Auckland (South) Williamson, MauriceMaurice Williamson National
Palmerston North Manawatu-Wanganui Lees-Galloway, IainIain Lees-Galloway Labour
Papakura Auckland (South) Judith Collins National
Port Hills Canterbury Dyson, RuthRuth Dyson Labour
Rangitata Canterbury Goodhew, JoJo Goodhew National
Rangitīkei Manawatu-Wanganui McKelvie, IanIan McKelvie National
Rimutaka Wellington Hipkins, ChrisChris Hipkins Labour
Rodney Auckland (North) Mitchell, MarkMark Mitchell National
Rongotai Wellington King, AnnetteAnnette King Labour
Rotorua Bay of Plenty McClay, ToddTodd McClay National
Selwyn Canterbury Adams, AmyAmy Adams National
Tāmaki Auckland (Central) O'Connor, SimonSimon O'Connor National
Taranaki-King Country Taranaki; Waikato Kuriger, BarbaraBarbara Kuriger National
Taupō Waikato Upston, LouiseLouise Upston National
Tauranga Bay of Plenty Bridges, SimonSimon Bridges National
Te Atatu Auckland (West) Twyford, PhilPhil Twyford Labour
Tukituki Hawke's Bay Foss, CraigCraig Foss National
Upper Harbour Auckland (North) Bennett, PaulaPaula Bennett National
Waikato Waikato Tisch, LindsayLindsay Tisch National
Waimakariri Canterbury Doocey, MattMatt Doocey National
Wairarapa Wellington; Manawatu-Wanganui Scott, AlastairAlastair Scott National
Waitaki Otago; Canterbury Dean, JacquiJacqui Dean National
Wellington Central Wellington Robertson, GrantGrant Robertson Labour
West Coast-Tasman West Coast; Tasman O'Connor, DamienDamien O'Connor Labour
Whanganui Manawatu-Wanganui; Taranaki Borrows, ChesterChester Borrows National
Whangarei Northland Reti, ShaneShane Reti National
Wigram Canterbury Woods, MeganMegan Woods Labour

Māori electorates

Electorate Region(s) MP Party
Hauraki-Waikato Waikato; Auckland Mahuta, NanaiaNanaia Mahuta Labour
Ikaroa-Rawhiti Hawke's Bay; Gisborne; Manawatu-Wanganui; Wellington Whaitiri, MekaMeka Whaitiri Labour
Tamaki Makaurau Auckland Henare, PeeniPeeni Henare Labour
Te Tai Hauauru Taranaki; Waikato; Manawatu-Wanganui; Wellington Rurawhe, AdrianAdrian Rurawhe Labour
Te Tai Tokerau Northland; Auckland Davis, KelvinKelvin Davis Labour
Te Tai Tonga South Island; Wellington Tirikatene, RinoRino Tirikatene Labour
Waiariki Bay of Plenty; Waikato Flavell, Te UruroaTe Ururoa Flavell Māori

Abolished electorates

General electorates

Māori electorates

Goldminers' electorates

References

  1. ^ a b c "Electoral Act 1993 No 87 (as at 01 July 2016), Public Act Contents". www.legislation.govt.nz. New Zealand Legislation. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c Roberts, Nigel S. (20 June 2012). "Electoral systems - Turning votes into seats". Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  3. ^ Atkinson, Neill (2003). Adventures in democracy: a history of the vote in New Zealand. Dunedin: University of Otago Press. p. 76. 
  4. ^ a b c "Representation Commission". elections.org.nz. Electoral Commission (New Zealand). Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  5. ^ "Calculating future Māori and General Electorates". Electoral Commission (New Zealand). 1 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  6. ^ "Proportion of electorate seats to list seats" (PDF). elections.org.nz. Electoral Commission. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  7. ^ "Report of the Representation Commission, 2007" (PDF). elections.org.nz. Representation Commission. 2007. p. 4. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  8. ^ "2014 Electorate Boundaries - Key Changes". elections.org.nz. Electoral Commission. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  9. ^ "Overhang" (PDF). elections.org.nz. Electoral Commission. Retrieved 9 February 2017. 
  10. ^ "Electoral Amendment Act 1975". Retrieved 10 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "Electoral Act, 1956". Retrieved 10 March 2014. 

External links

  • Electorate profiles, produced by the Parliamentary Library, New Zealand Parliament
  • Map of electorates with boundaries, produced by the Elections NZ website, run by the Electoral Commission, the Electoral Enrolment Centre, the Representation Commission, and the Justice Sector.
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